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tT. E. PAGE, C.H., LiTT.D. 
tE. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. tW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, M.A. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a. f.r hist.soc. 













First Printed 1916 
Reprinted 1928, 1947, 1952 


The text used is (\vith a few uu important modifi- 
cations) that of Kiihn (Vol. II), as edited by Georg 
Helmreich ; Teubner, Leipzig, 1893. The numbers 
of the pages of Kiihn's edition are printed at the side 
of the Greek text, a parallel mark ( || ) in the line 
indicating the exact point of division betΛveen 
Kiihn's pages. 

Words in the English text which are enclosed in 
square brackets are supplementary or explanatory ; 
practically all explanations, however, are relegated to 
the footnotes or introduction. In the footnotes, also, 
attention is drawn to Avords which are of particular 
philological interest from the point of view of modern 

I have made the translation directly from the 
Greek ; whei*e passages of special difficulty occurred, 
I have been able to compare my own version with 
Linacre's Latin translation (1523) and the French 
rendering of Charles Daremberg (1854-56) ; in this 
respect I am also peculiarly fortunate in having had 
the help of Mr. A. W. Pickard Cambridge of Balliol 
College, Oxford, who most kindly went througli the 



proofs and made many valuable suggestions from the 
point of view of exact scholarship. 

My best thanks are due to the Editors for their 
courtesy and for the kindly interest they have taken 
in the work. I have also gratefully to acknowledge 
the receipt of much assistance and encouragement 
from Sir William Osier, Regius Professor of Medi- 
cine at Oxford, and from Dr. J. D. Comrie, first 
lecturer on the History of Medicine at Edinburgh 
University. Professor D'Arcy W. Thompson of Uni- 
versity College, Dundee, and Sir W. T. Tiiiselton- 
Dyer, late director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at 
Kew, have very kindly helped me to identify several 
animals and plants mentioned by Galen. 

I cannot conclude without expressing a word of 
gratitude to my former biological teachers. Professors 
Patrick Geddes and J. Arthur Thomson. The 
experience reared on the foundation of their teaching 
has gone far to help me in interpreting the great 
medical biologist of Greece. 

I should be glad to think that the present work 
might help, however little;, to hasten the coming 
reunion between the "humanities" and modern bio- 
logical science ; their present separation I believe to 
be against the best interest of both. 

A. J. B. 

22nd Stationary Hospital, Aldershot. 
March, 1916. 









BOOK II 115 

BOOK in 221 



If the work of Hippocrates be taken as repre- Hippocr«tee 
renting the foundation upon wliieh the edifice of 
historical Greek medicine was reared, then the work 
of Galen, who lived some six hundred years later, 
may be looked upon as the summit or apex of the 
same edifice. Galen's merit is to have crystallised 
or brought to a focus all the best work of the Greek 
medical schools which had preceded his own time. 
It is essentially in the form of Galenism that Greek 
medicine was transmitted to after ages. 

The ancient Greeks referred the origins of medicine The Begin- 
to a god Asklepios (called in Latin Aesculapius), M^fTc-aie 
thereby testifying to their appreciation of the truly "* ^**e<»• 
divine function of the healing art. The emblem of 
Aesculapius, familiar in medical symbolism at the 
present day, was a staff with a serpent coiled round 
it, the animal typifying Avisdom in general, and more 
particularly the wisdom of the medicine-man, with 
his semi -miraculous powers over life and death. 

•' Be ye IhereJ'ore nnse as serpents and kaniiless as doves." 



TheAscie- The temples of Aesculapius were scattered over 
Health- the ancient Hellenic world. To them the sick and 
emp es. filing resortcd in crowds. The treatment, Avhich was 
in the hands of an hereditary priesthood, combined 
the best of the methods carried on at our present-day 
health-i'esorts, our hydropathics, sanatoriums, and 
nursing-homes. Fresh air, water-cures, massage, 
gymnastics, psychotherapy, and natural methods in 
general were chiefly relied on. 

Hippocrates Hippocrates, the " Father of Medicine " (5th to 4th 
UiiitVot the centuries, b.c.) was associated with the Asclepieura 
Organism, ^f q^^^ ^^ island off the soutli-west coast of Asia 
Minor, near Rhodes. He apparently revitalized the 
work of the health-temples, Avhich had before liis 
time been showing a certain decline in vigour, coupled 
with a corresponding excessive tendency towards 
sophistry and priestcraft. 

Celsus says : " Hippoci-ates Cons primus quidem ex 
omnibus viemoria dignis ah studio snpieJiliae disciplijiam 
hanc separavit." He means that Hippocrates first gave 
the physician an independent standing, separating 
hinr frojn the cosmological speculator. Hippocrates 
confined the medical man to medicine. He did with 
medical thought what Socrates did Avith thought in 
general — he ''brought it down from heaven to earth." 
His watchword was " Back to Nature ! " 

At the same time, Avhile assigning the physician 
his post, Hippocrates would not let him regard that 
post as sacrosanct. He set his face against any 


tendency to mystery-mongering, to exclusiveness, to 
sacerdotalism. He was, in fact, opposed to the spirit 
of trade-unionism in medicine. His concern was rather 
with the physician's duties than his " rights." 

At the dawn of recorded medical history Hippo- 
crates stands for the fundamental and primary 
importance of seeing clearly — that is of clinical obser- 
vation. And Λvhat he observed was that the human 
organism, when exposed to certain abnormal con- 
ditions — certain stresses — tends to behave in a certain 
Avay : that in other words, each " disease " tends to 
run a certain definite course. To him a disease was 
essentially a process, one and indivisible, and thus 
his practical problem was essentially one of prognosis — 
"what will be the natural course of this disease, if 
left to itself.'' " Here he found himself to no small 
extent in opposition with the teaching of the neigh- 
bouring medical school of Cnidus, where a more 
static view-point laid special emphasis upon the 
minutiae of diagnosis. 

Observation taught Hippocrates to place un- 
bounded faith in the recuperative powers of the 
living organism — in what we sometimes call nowa- 
days the vis medicalrix Naturae. His observation 
was that even with a very considerable '' ab- 
noi'mality" of environmental stress the organism, 
in the large majority of cases, manages eventually 
by its own inherent powers to adjust itself to the 
new conditions. " Merely give Nature a chance," 
said the father of medicine in effect, "and most 



diseases will cure themselves." And accordingly 
his treatment was mainly directed towards " giving 
Nature a chance." 

His keen sense of the solidarity (or rather, of 
the constant interplay) between the organism and 
its environment (the "conditions" to which it is 
exposed) is instanced in his book, " Airs, Waters, 
and Places." As we recognise, in our popular 
everyday psychology, that " it takes two to make 
a quarrel," so Hippocrates recognised that iii 
pathology, it takes two (organism and environment) 
to make a disease. 

As an outstanding example of his power of 
clinical observation we may recall the fades Hip- 
pocralica, an accurate study of the countenance of 
a dying man. 

His ideals for the profession are embodied in 
the " Hippocratic oath." 

Impressed by this view of the organism as a 
unity, the Hippocratic school tended in some 
degree to overlook the importance of its con- 
stituent parts. The balance was re-adjusted later 
on by the labours of the anatomical school of 
Alexandria, which, under the aegis of the en- 
lightened Ptolemies, arose in the 3rd century 
B.C. Two prominent exponents of anatomy be- 
longing to this school were Herophilus and Erasi- 
stratus, the latter of whom we shall frequently meet 
with in the following pages {v. p. 95 et seq.). 


After the death of the Master, the Hippocratic The 

11 11 Λ1 -111 Erapirlcs. 

school tended, as so otlen liappens \vith the best 
of cultural movements, to show signs itself of 
diminishing vibility: the letter began to obscure 
and hamper the spirit. The comparatively small 
element of theory Avhich existed in the Hip- 
pocratic physiology was made the groundwork of a 
someΛvhat over-elaborated " system." Against this 
tendency on the part of the " Dogmatic '' or 
"Rationalist" school there arose, also at Alexandria, 
the sect of the Empiricists. " It is not," they 
said, "the cause but the cure of diseases that 
concerns us ; not how we digest, but what is 

Horace said " Graecia capta ferum victorem Greek 
cepit." Political domination, the occupation of in Rome 
territory by armies, does not necessarily mean real 
conquest. Horace's statement applied to medicine 
as to other branches of culture. 

The introducer of Greek medicine into Rome 
was Asclepiades (1st century b.c). A man of 
forceful personality, and equipped with a fully 
developed philosophic system of health and disease 
which commended itself to the Roman savants of 
the day, he soon attained to the pinnacle of pro- 
fessional success in the Latin capital : he is indeed 
to all time the type of the fashionable (and some- 
what " faddy ") West-end physician. His system 
Avas a purely mechanistic one, being based upon 



the atomic doctrine of Leucippus and Democritus, 
which had been completed by Epicurus and recently 
introduced to the Roman public in Lucretius's great 
poem " De Rentm Natura," The disbelief of Ascle- 
piades in the self-maintaining powers of the living 
organism are exposed and refuted at considerable 
length by Galen in the volume before us. 

The Out of the teaching of Asclepiades that physio- 

Methodists. 1 . 1 J J .1 .. , . 

logical processes depend upon the particular way in 

which the ultimate indivisible molecules come 
together (cv τ^ ττοία. συνάδω των πρώτων ίκύνων σω- 
μάτων των άπαθων) there was developed by his pupil^ 
Themison of Laodicea^ a system of medicine cha- 
racterised by the mofet engaging simplicity both of 
diagnosis and treatment. This so-called " Methodic " 
system was intended to strike a balance between 
the excessive leaning to apriorism sho\vn by the 
Rationalist (Hippocratic) school and the opposite 
tendency of the Empiricists. "A pathological 
theory we must have," said the Methodists in 
effect, "but let it be simple." They held that the 
molecular groups constituting the tissues were 
traversed by minute channels (πόροι, " pores ") ; 
all diseases belonged to one or other of two 
classes ; if the channels Avere constricted the 
disease was one of stasis (στεγιωσι?), and if they 
were dilated the disease was one of flux (βυσις). 
Flux and stasis were indicated respectively by 
increase and diminution of the natural secretions : 


treatment Λνβε of opposites by opposites — of stasis 
by methods causing dilatation of the channels, and 

Wild as it may seem, this pathological theory of 
the Methodists contained an element of truth ; in 
various guises it has cropped up once and again at 
different epochs of medical history ; even to-day 
there are pathologists who tend to describe certain 
classes of disease in terms of vaso-constriction and 
vaso-dilatation. The vice of the Methodist teaching 
was that it looked on a disease too much as some- 
thing fixed and finite, an independent entity, to be 
considered entirely apart from its particular setting. 
The Methodists illustrate for us the tyranny of no/we*. 
In its defects as in its virtues this school has 
analogues at the present day ; we are all acquainted 
with the medical man to whom a name (such, let us 
say, as "tuberculosis," "gout," or "intestinal auto- 
intoxication") stands for an entity, one and indi- 
visible, to be treated by a definite and unvarying 

To such an individual the old German saying 
" Jedermann hat am Ende ein Bischen Tuber kulose" 
is simply — incomprehensible. 

All the medical schools which I have mentioned Galen. 
>vere still holding their ground in the 2nd century 
A.D., with more or less popular acceptance, when the 
great Galen made his entry into the world of 
Graeco-Roman medicine. 



Claudius Galenus was born at Pergamos in Asia 
Minor in the year 131 a.d. His father was one 
Nicon, a well-to-do architect of that city. " I 
had the great good fortune/' says Galen,i ''to 
have as a father a highly amiable, just, good, and 
benevolent man. My mother, on the other hand, 
possessed a very bad temper ; she used sometimes to 
bite her serving-maids, and she Avas perpetually 
shouting at my father and quarrelling with him — 
worse than Xanthippe with Socrates. When, there- 
fore, I compared the excellence of my father's 
disposition with the disgraceful passions of my 
mother, I resolved to embrace and love the former 
qualities, and to avoid and hate the latter." 

Nicon called his son Ταληνόζ, which means quiet, 
peaceable, and although the physician eventually 
turned out to be a man of elevated character, it is 
possible that his somewhat excessive leaning towards 
controversy (exemplified in the following pages) may 
have resulted from the fact that he was never quite 
able to throw off the worst side of the maternal 

His father, a man well schooled in mathematics 
and philosophy, saw to it that his son should not 
lack a liberal education. Pergamos itself was an 
ancient centre of civilisation, containing, among 
other culture-institutions, a library only second in 
importance to that of Alexandria itself; it also 
contained an Asclepieura. 

1 On the Aftciious of the Mind, p. 41 (Kulm'e ed.). 


Galen's training was essentially e clect ic: he studied 
all the chief philosophical systems of the time — 
Platonic, Ar istoteli an, Stoic, and Epicurean — and 
then, at tl u» ago ~Q £_seveii tfi^»»^ntered on~a]caurafi.of 
meSRal studies ; these he pursueeTTncIer the best 
teachers at his own city, and afterAvards, during a 
period of JVanderJakre, at Smyrna, Alexandria, and 
other leading medical centres. 

Returning to Pergamos, he received his first 
professional appointment — that of surgeon to the 
gladiators. After four years here he was draAvn by 
ambition to Rome, being at that time about thirty- 
one years of age. At Rome the young Pergamene 
attained a brilliant reputation both as a practitioner 
and as a public demonstrator of anatomy ; among 
his patients he finally numbered even the Emperor 
Marcus Aurelius himself. "^ 

Medical practice in Rome at this time was at a low 
ebb, and Galen took no pains to conceal his contempt 
for the ignorance, charlatanism, and venality of his 
fellow-practitioners. Eventually, in spite of his social 
popularity, he raised up such odium against himself 
in medical circles, that he was forced to flee the city. 
This he did hurriedly and secretly in the year 168 a.d., 
when thirty-six years of age. He betook himself to 
his old home at Pergamos, where he settled down 
once more to a literary life. 

His respite was short, however, for within a year 
he was summoned back to Italy by imperial man- 
date. Marcus Aurelius was about to uuderiake an 



expedition against the Germans, who at that time 
were threatening the northern frontiers of the 
Empire, and he was anxious that his consulting 
physician should accompany him to the front. 
" Patriotism " in this sense, however, seems to have 
had no charms for the Pergamene, and he pleaded 
vigorously to he excused. Eventually, the Emperor 
gave him permissten to remain at home, entrusting 
to his care the young prince Commodus. 

Thereafter we know little of Galen's history, 
beyond the fact that he now entered upon a period 
of great literary activity. Probably he died about 
the end of the century. 

Subsequent Galen wrotc extensively, not only on. anatomy, 

History of τ • • i t 7 i 

laioii's physiology, and medicme m treneral, but also on 
l«gi^; hislogicul [jl'uclivities, as will be shoAvn later, 
are Avell exemplified in his medical writings. A 

*^ considerable number of undoubtedly genuine works 

of his have come down to us. The full importance 
of his contributions to medicine does not appear 
to have been recognized till some time after his 
death, but eventually, as already pointed out, the 
terms Galenism and Greek medicine became prac- 
tically synonymous. 

A few words may be devoted to the subsequent 
history of his wi-itings. 

Uyzauaue Dui'ing and after the final break-up of the Roman 
Medicme. £j^pi^.g came times of confusion and of social re- 


construction, which left little opportunity for scientific 
thought and research. The Byzantine Empire, from 
the 4th century onwards, was the scene of much in- 
ternal turmoil, in which the militant activities of the 
now State-established Christian church played a not 
inconsiderable part. The Byzantine medical scholars 
were at best compilers, and a typical compiler was 
Oribasius, body-physician to the Emperor Julian 
(4th century, AD.) ; his exceUent Sy7iopsis was written 
in order to make the huge mass of the Galenic 
writings available for the ordinary practitioner. 

Greek medicine spread, with general Greek culture, Arabian 
throughout Syria, and from thence Λν33 carried by 
the Nestorians, a persecuted heretical sect, into 
Persia ; here it became implanted, and hence 
c%'entually spread to the Mohammedan world. 
Several of the Prophet's successors (such as the 
Caliphs Harun-al-Rashid and Abdul-Rahman III) 
were great patrons of Greek learning, and especially 
of medicine. The Arabian scholars imbibed Aris- 
totle and Galen with avidity. A partial assimilation, 
however, was the farthest stage to which they could 
attain ; with the exception of pharmacology, the 
Arabians made practically no independent additions 
to medicine. They were essentially systematizers and 
commentators. " Averrois che il gran comento feo " ^ 

* " Averrhoes who made the great Commentary " (Dante). 
It was Averrhoes (Ebn Roslid) who, in the 12th century, 
introduced Aristotle to the Mohamniedan world, and the 
"Commentary" referred to was on Aristotle. 



may stand as the type par excellence of the Moslem 

Aviceiina (Ebn Sina), (10th to 11th century) 
is the foremost name in Arabian medicine : his 
"Book of tlie Canon in Medicine," >vhen trans- 
lated into Latin, even overshadowed the authority 
of Galen himself for some four centuries. Of this 
>vork the medical historian Max Neuburger says : 
" Avicenna, according to his lights, imparted to 
contemporary medical science the appearance of 
almost mathematical accuracy, Avhilst the art of 
therapeutics, although empiricism did not wholly 
lack recognition, was deduced as a logical se- 
quence from theoretical (Galenic and Aristotelian) 

introdiio- Having arrived at such a condition in the hands 

Arabian of the Mohammedans, Galenism was now destined 

to^hTwest to pass oncc more to the West. From the 11th cen- 

Schoiastio ^^Π onwards Latin translations of this "Arabian" 

Period. Medicine (being Greek medicine in oriental trap 

pings) began to make their way into Europe ; here 

they helped to undermine the authority of the one 

medical school of native growth which the West 

produced during the Middle Ages — namely the 

School of Salerno. 

Blending with the Scholastic philosophy at the 
universities of Naples and Montpellier, the teachings 
of Aristotle and Galen now assumed a position of 
supreme authority : from their word, in matters 



scientific and medical, there was no appeal. In 
reference to this period the Per^amene was referred 
to in later times as the "Medical Pope of the Middle 

It was of course the logical side of Galeni.em 
which chiefly commended it to the mediaeval School- 
men, as to the essentially speculative Moslems. .^ 

The year 1453, when Constantinople fell into the The 
hands of the Turks, is often taken as marking the ^-°****'"^*• 
commencement of the Renascence. Among the 
many factors which tended to stimulate and awaken 
men's minds during these spacious times was the re- 
discovery of the Greek classics, Avhich vrere brought 
to Europe by, among others, tlie scholars who fled 
from Byzantium. The Arabo Scholastic versions of 
Aristotle and Galen were now confronted by their 
Greek originals. A passion for Greek learning was 
aroused. The freshness and truth of these old 
writings helped to awaken men to a renewed sense 
of their own dignity and worth, and to brace them 
in their ΟΛνη struggle for self-expression. 

Prominent in this " Humanist " movement was the 
English physician, Thomas Linacre (c. 1460-1524) 
who, having gained in Italj an extraordinary zeal for 
the New Learning, devoted the rest of his life, after 
returning to England, to the promotion of the 
litierae humaniores, and especially to making Galen 
accessible to readers of Latin. Thus the " Oe 
Saluralibus Faadtatibm " appeared in London in 



1523, and was preceded and followed by several 
other translations, all marked by minute accuracy 
and elegant Latinity. 

Two new parties now arose in the medical world — 
the so-called " Greeks " and the more conservative 
*' Arabists." 

Paracelsus. But the swing of the pendulum did not cease 
with the creation of the liberal " Greek " party ; the 
dazzling vision of freedom was to drive some to a yet 
more anarchical position. Paracelsus, who flourished 
in the first half of the 16th century, may be taken 
as typifying this extremist tendency. His one cry 
was, " Let us away with all authority whatsoever, 
and get back to Nature ! " At his first lecture as 
professor at the medical school of Basle he sym- 
bolically burned the works of Galen and of his chief 
Arabian exponent, Avicenna. 

The But the final collapse of authority in medicine 


Anatomists, could not be brought about by mere negativism. 
It was the constructive work of the Renascence 
anatomists, pai-ticularly those of the Italian school, 
which finally brought Galenism to the ground. 

Vesalius (1514-64), the modern " Father of Ana- 
tomy," for dissecting human bodies, was fiercely 
assailed by the hosts of orthodoxy, including that 
stout Galenist, his old teacher Jacques Dubois 
(Jacobus Sylvius). Vesalius held on his way, ΙιοΛν- 
ever, proving, inter alia, that Galen had been wrong 


in saying that the interventricular septum ot the 
heart was permeable (cf. present volume, p. 321). 

Michael Servetus (1509-53) suggested that the 
blood, in order to get from the right to the left 
side of the heart, might have to pass through the 
lungs. For his heterodox opinions he was burned at 
the stake. 

Another 16th-century anatomist, Andrea Cesalpino, 
is considered by the Italians to have been a discoverer 
of the circulation of the blood before Harvey ; he 
certainly had a more or less clear idea of the circula- 
tion, but, as in the case of the " organic evolutionists 
before Darwin," he failed to prove his point by 
conclusive demonstration. 

William Harvev,the great Englishman who founded WiUiam 

"ill! Harvey 

modern experimental physiology and was tlie first to (i578-i657> 
establish not only the fact of the circulation but also 
the physical laws governing it, is commonly reckoned 
the Father of Modem Medicine. He owed his in- 
terest in the movements of tiie blood to Fabricio 
of Acquapendente, his tutor at Padua, who drew his 
attention to the valves in the veins, thus suggesting 
the idea of a circular as opposed to a to-and-fro 

r- motion. Harvey's great generalisation, based upon a 
long series of experiments in vivo, was considered to 
have given the coup de grace to the Galenic physiology, 

I and hence threw temporary discredit upon the whole 
system of medicine associated therewith. 

Modern medicine, based upon a painstaking 


research into the details of physiological function, 
had begun. 

Gaimi^ While we cannot sufficiently commend the results 

of the long modern period of research-work to which 
the labours of the Renascence anatomists from Vesa- 
lius to Harvey form a fitting prelude, we yet by no 
means allow that G aJenJ s_general medical outlook 
was so entirely invalidated as many imagin e by t he" 
^CQiiclwetvt! demons Ll'a Lid II Of his anatomical errors. It 
is time for uslnow to turrTto Galen'again after three 
hundred years of virtual neglect : it may be that he 
will help us to see something fundamentally impor- 
tant for medical practice Λvhich is beyond the power 
even of our microscopes and X-rays to reveal. While 
the value of his Avork undoubtedly lies mainly in its 
enabling us to envisage one of the greatest of the 
early steps attained by man in medical knowledge, 
it also has a very definite intrinsic value of its own. 

Galen's No attempt can be made here to determine how 

Precursurs! mucli of Galen's work is, in the true sense of the 
word, original, and how much is drawn from the 
labours of his predecessors. In any case, there is no 
doubt that he was much more than a mere compiler 
and systematizer of other men's work : he was great 
enough to be able not merely to collect, to digest, 
and to assimilate all the best of the work done before 
his time, but, adding to this the' outcome of his own 
observations, experiments, and reflections, to present 


the whole in an articulated "sj'stem" showing that 
perfect balance of parts which is the essential cri- 
terion of a work of art. Constantly, however, in his 
writings we shall come across traces of the influence 
of, among others, Plato, Aristotle, and ^vriters of the 
Stoic school. 

Although Galen is an eclectic in the best sense of influence of 

I .1 • . Λ • Λ t Hippocrates 

the term, there is one name to which he pays a very on Galen, 
special tribute — that of his illustrious forerunner 
Hippocrates. Him on quite a number of occasions 
he actually calls "divine " (cf. p. 293). 

" Hipjwcrates," he says, "was the first known to 
us of all who have been both physicians and philoso- 
phers, in that he tvas the first to recognise what nature 
dues." Here is struck the keynote of the teach- 
ing of both Hippocrates and Galen ; this is shown 
in the volume before us, which deals with "the 
natural faculties" — that is with the faculties of this 
same " Nature " or vital principle referred to in the 

If Galen be looked on as a crystallisation of Greek "^The 
medicine, then this book may be looked on as a Facume*.• 
crystallisation of Galen. Within its comparatively 
short compass we meet with instances illustrating 
perhaps most of the sides of this many-sided writer. 
The " Natural Faculties " therefore forms an excel- 
lent prelude to the study of his larger and more 
specialised works. 


Qaien'e What, now, is this ** Nature " or biological principle 

logy." upon which Galen, like Hippocrates, bases the whole 

of his medical teaching, and which, we may add, 
is constantly overlooked — if indeed ever properly 
apprehended— by many physiologists of the present 
day ? By using this term Galen meant simply that, 
Avhen we deal with a living thing, we are dealing 
primarily with a u nity, Avhich, qua living, is not 
further diviisime ; all its parts canjaiiL y be unders tood 
and dealt with as be ing m relation to this pr iiicipile of 
uttifejr — Galbli was thus led to criticise Avith consider- 
ai5TS^severity many of the medical and surgical 
specialists of his time, who acted on the assumption 
(implicit if not explicit) that the whole was merely 
the sum of its parts, and that if, in an ailing organism, 
these parts were treated each in and for itself, the 
health of the whole organism could in this way be 
eventually restored. 

Galen expressed this idea of the unity of the 
organism by saying that it was governed by a Physis 
or Nature (J] φύσις ηττερ διοικεί το ^ωοι/), with whose 
" faculties " or powers it was the province of φυσι- 
ολογία (physi-ology. Nature-lore) to deal. It was be- 
cause Hippocrates had a clear sense of this princij)le 
that Galen called him master. "Greatest," say the 
Moslems, " is Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet." 
"Greatest," said Galen, "is the Physis, and Hippo- 
crates is its prophet." Never did Mohammed more 
zealously maintain the unity of the Godhead than 
Hippocrates and Galen the unity of the organism. 


But we shall not have read far before we discover Geiene 
that the term Physiology, as used by Galen, stands ^^"^ 
not merely for what we understand by it nowadays, ""^^ 
but also for a large part of Physics as weU. This is 
one of the chief sources of confusion in his writings. 
Having grasped, for example, the uniqueness of the 
process of specijic selection (όλκη toS ouccioi;), by which ~ 
the tissues nourish themselves, he proceeds to apply 
this principle in explanation of entirely different 
classes of phenomena ; thus he mixes it up with the 
physical phenomenon of the attraction of the lode- 
stone for iron, of dry grain for moisture, etc. It is 
noteworthy, however, in these latter instances, that 
he does not venture to follow out his comparison to 
its logical conclusion ; he certainly stops short of 
hinting that the lodestone (like a living organ or 
tissue) assimilales the metal which it has attracted ! 

Setting aside, ho\vever, these occasional half- 
hearted attempts to apply his principle of a φύσι? in 
regions >vhere it has no natural standing, we shall 
find that in the field of biology Galen moves with an 
assurance bred of first-hand experience. 

Against his attempt to " biologize " physics may The 
s_ be set the converse attempt of the mechanical ph^elouiu. 
Atomist school. Thus in Asclepiades he found a 
doughty defender of the view that physiology was 
"merely" physics. Galen's ire being roused, he is 
not content with driving the enemy out of the 
biological camp, but must needs attempt also to 



dislodge him from that oi physics, in which he hai- 
every right to be. 

The In defence of the universal validity of his principle, 

' Galen also tends to excessive disparagement of moi 
phological factors ; Λvitness his objection to the view 
of the anatomist Erasistratus that the calibre of 
vessels played a part in determining the secretion 
of fluids (p. 123), that digestion was caused by the 
mechanical action of the stomach walls (p. 243), and 
dropsy by induration of the liver (p. 171). 

caiaracter- While combating the atomic explanation of physical 
Living processes, Galen of course realised that there were 
rganism. j^^j^y ^f tjiese Avhich could only be explained ac- 
cording to what we should now call "mechanical 
laws." For example, non-living things could be 
subjected to φορά (passive motion), they answered 
to the laws of gravity (rats των νλων οίακιζόμΐνα 
powaU, p. 126). Furthermore, Galen did not fail 
to see that living things also were not entirely 
exempted from the operation of these laws ; they 
too may be at least partly subject to gravity (/oc. 
cit.) ; a hollow organ exerts, by virtue of its cavity, 
an attraction similar to that of dilating bellows, 
as well as, by virtue of the living tissue of its walls, 
a specifically "vital" or selective kind of attraction 
(p. 325). 

As a type of characteristically vital action we 
may take nulnlion, in which occurs a phenomenon 


wliich Galen calls active motion {Βραστικη κίνησ-ι^ί) 
or, more technically, alteration (άλλοί'ωσι?). This 
active type of motion cannot be adequately stated 
in terms of the passive movements (groupings and 
re-groupings) of its constituent parts according to 
certain empirical " laAvs." Alteration involves self- 
movement, a self-determination of the organism or 
organic part. Galen does not attempt to explain 
this fundamental characteristic of alteration any 
further; he contents himself Avith referring his 
opponents to Aristotle's Avork on the "Complete 
Vlteration of Substance " (p. 9). 

The most important characteristic of the Physis . 
or Nature is its T£;(nj — its artistic creativeness. In / 
other words, the living organism is a creative artist. [ 
This feature may be observed typically in its primary 
functions of growth and nutrition ; these are de- 
pendent on the characteristic faculties or powers, 
by virtue of Avhich each part dra\vs to itself what 
is proper or appropriate to it (το οίκϋον) and rejects 
what is foreign (το αλλότριον), thereafter appro- 
priating or assimilating the attracted material ; this 
assimilation is an example of the alteration (or quali- 
tative change) already alluded to; thus the food eaten 
is " altered " into the various tissues of the body, each 
of these having been provided by "Nature" wiux its 
own specific faculties of attraction and repulsion. 

Any of the operations of the living part may be Tiie Three 
looked on in three ways, either (a) as a Ζνναμι<:, ^^^^ 



faculty, potentiality ; (6) as an eVe'/jyeia, which is this 
8νι/αμι<; in operation ; or (c) as an tpyov, the product 
or effect of the eVepycta.^ 

* What appear to tne to be certain resomblances between 
the Galenical and the modern vitalistic views of Henri 
Bergson may perhaps be alluded to here. Galen's vital 
principle, ή τΐχνικτ] φύσα ("creative growth"), presents 
analogies with V Evolution craatricc : both manifest their 
activity in producing qualitative change (aXXoiwais, change- 
mtnt) : in both, the creative change cannot be analysed into 
a series of static states, but is one and continuous. In Galen, 
however, it comes to an end Avith the development of the 
individual, whereas in Bergson it continues indefinitely as 
the evolution of life. The three aspects of organic life may 
be tabulated thus : — 


Work to be done. 
Future aspect. 

Bergson's " teleo- 
logical " aspect. 


Work being done. 

Present aspect. 


The έΐαη vital. 

A changing which 
cannot be uuder- 
etood as a sum 
of static parts ; 
β constant be- 
coming, never 
stopping — at 
least till the ?p- 
yov is reached. 

Bergson's " philo- 
sophical "aspect. 


Work done, finished. 
Past aspect. 
Δ "thing." 

look of 

" out- 

Galen recognized " creativeness" (τίχντ)) in the develoj> 
ment of the individual and its parts (ontogeny) and in the 
maintenance of these, but he failed to appreciate the creative 
evolution of species (phylogenj'), which is, of course, part of 
the same process. To the teleologist the possibilities (δκ- 
νίμίΐ$) of the Physis are limited, to Bergson they are un- 


Like his master Hippocrates, Galen attached Galen's 
fundamental importance to clinical observation — * 
to the evidence of the senses as the indispensable 
groundwork of all medical knowledge. He had 
also, however, a forte for rapid generalisation from 
observations, and his logical proclivities disposed him 

Milled. Galen and Bergson agree in attaching most practical 
importance to the middle category— that of Function. 

While it must be conceded that Galen, following Aristotle, 
had never seriously questioned the fixity of species, the 
following quotation from his work On Habits (chap. ii. ) will 
show that he must have at least had occasional glimmerings 
of our modem point of view on the matter. Referring to 
(uximilaJion, he says: " Just as everything we eat or drink 
becomes altered in quality, so of course also does the altering 
factor itself become altered. ... A clear proof of the as- 
similation of things which are being nourished to that which 
is nourishing them is the change which occurs in plants and 
seeds ; this often goes so far that what is highly noxious in 
one soil becomes, when transplanted into another soil, rot 
merely harmless, but actually useful. This has been largely 
put to the test by those who compose memoirs on farming 
and on plants, as also by zoological authors who have 
written on the changes which occur according to the 
countries in which animals live. Since, therefore, not only 
is the nourishment altered by the creature nourished, but 
the latter itself also undergoes some slight alteration, this 
slight alteration must necessarily become considerable in the 
course of time, and thus properties resulting from prolonged 
habit must come to be on a par with natural properties." 

<3alen fails to see the possibility that the "natural" pro- 
perties themselves originated in this way, as activities which 
gradually became habitual — that is to say, that the effeets of 
n«r<tire may become a "second nature," and so eventually 
nature itself. 

The whole passage, however, may be commended to modem 
biologists — particularly, might one say, to those bacterio- 
logists who have not yet realised how extraordinarily rela- 
tive is the term "specificity" when applied to the subject- 
matter of their science. 


particularly to deductive reasoning. Examples of an 
almost Euclidean method of argument may be found 
in the Natural Faculties (e.g. Book III. chap. i.). While 
this method undoubtedly gave him much help in 
his search for truth, it also not unfrequently led him 
astray. This is evidenced by his attempt, already 
noted, to apply the biological principle of the φύσις 
in physics. Characteristic examples of attempts to 
force facts to fit premises will be found in Book II. 
chap, ix., where our author demonstrates that yellow 
bile is " virtually " dry, and also, by a process of 
exclusion, assigns to the spleen the function of clear- 
ing aΛvay black bile. Strangest of all is his attempt 
to prove that the same principle of specific attraction 
by which the ultimate tissues nourish themselves 
(and the lodestone attracts iron !) accounts for the 
reception of food into the stomach, of urine into 
the kidneys, of bile into the gall-bladder, and of 
semen into the uterus. 

These instances are given, however, without pre- 
judice to the system of generalisation and deduction 
which, in Galen's hands, often proved exceedingly 
fruitful. He is said to have tried "to unite pro- 
fessional and scientific medicine Avith a philosophic 
link." He objected, however, to such extreme 
attempts at simplification of medical science as that 
of the Methodists, to whom diseases were isolated 
entities, \vithout any relationships in time or space 
(y. p. XV. supra). 

He based much of his pathological reasoning upon 


tlie "humoral theory " of Hippocrates, according to 
which certain diseases were caused by one or more 
of the four humours (blood, ph'irni, black and yellow 
bile) being in excess — that is, by various dyscrasiae. 
Our modern conception of " hormone " action shoΛvs 
certain resemblances with this tiieory. 

Besides observation and reasoning, Galen took his 
stand on experiment ; he was one of the first of 
experimental physiologists, as is illustrated in the 
present book by his researches into the function of 
the kidneys (p. 59 et seq.). He also conducted a 
long series of experiments into the physiology of the 
spinal cord, to determine what parts controlled 
movement and Avhat sensibility. 

As a practitioner he modelled his work largely on 
the broad and simple lines laid down by Hippocrates. 
He had also at his disposal all the acquisitions of 
biological science dating from the time of Aristotle 
five hundred years earlier, and reinforced by the 
discoveries in anatomy made by the Alexandrian 
school. To these he added a large series of re- 
searches of his own. 

Galen never confined himself to what one might 
call the academic or strictly orthodox sources of 
information ; he roamed the world over for ans>vers 
to his queries. For example, we find him on his 
journeys between Pergamos and Rome twice visiting 
the island of Lemnos in order to procure some of 
the ierra sigillala, a kind of earth which had a 
reputation for healing the bites of serpents and 



other wounds. At other times he visited the 
copper-mines of Cyprus in search for copper, and 
Palestine for the resin called Balm of Gilead. 

By inclination and training Galen was the reverse 
of a "party-man." In the Nnlurnl FacuUies (p. 55) 
he speaks of the bane of sectarian partizanship, 
"harder to heal than any itch." He pours scorn 
upon the ignorant " Erasistrateans " and " Asclepia- 
deans," who attempted to hide their own incom- 
petence under the shield of some great man's name 
(c/ p. 141). 

Of the two chief objects of his censure in the 
Natural Faculties, Galen deals perhaps less rigorously 
with Erasistratus than with Asclepiades. Erasistratus 
did at least recognize the existence of a vital principle 
in the organism, albeit, with his eye on the structures 
which the scalpel displayed he tended frequently to 
forget it. The researches of the anatomical school 
of Alexandria had been naturally of the greatest 
service to surgery, but in medicine they sometimes 
had a tendency to check progress by diverting 
attention from the whole to the part. 

The Another novel conception frequently occurring in 

ar'spirft. Galen's writings is that of thG^PneuyiaJi.e. the breath, 
spiritus). This word is used in two senses, as meaning 
(1) the inspired air, which was drawn into the left 
side of the heart and thence carried all over the 
body by the arteries ; this has not a few analogies 
with oxygen, particularly as its action in the tissues 


is attended with the appearance of the so-called 
" innate-4re at/' (2\ A vital p rmcmle. eOnt-'elved a s 
being made up of matter in the most subtle 
imaginable state [i.e. air). This vital principle be- 
came resolved into three kinds : (a) ττνΐνμα φνσικόν 
or spiritus natiiralis, carried by the veins, and pre- 
siding over the subconscious vegetative life ; this 
•'natural spirit" is therefore practically equivalent 
to the φΰσις or "nature" itself, {b) The ττνει/χα 
ζωτικόν or spmtus vitalis ; here particularly is a source 
of error, since the air already alluded to as being 
carried by the arteries tends to be confused vrith this 
principle of " individuality " or relative autonomy in 
the circulatory (including, perhaps, the vasomotor) 
system, (c) The -πνΐΛίμα ^νχικόν or spiritus animalis \ 
(anima = ψυ;(τ^), carried by longitudinal canals in the 
nerves ; this corresponds to the ^νχη. 

This view of a "vital principle" as necessarily 
consisting of matter in a finely divided, fluid, or 
'•' etheric " state is not unknown even in our day. 
Belief in the fundamental importance of the Pneuma 
formed the basis of the teaching of another vitalist 
school in ancient Greece, that of the Pneumatists. 

It is unnecessary to detail here the various ways ^e*cj*c°ti. 
in which Galen's physiological _y iewsdif fer frpn; tj ipse ^*""Λ'' '^^ 
of the Moderns, as most of these are noticed in foot- 
notes to the text of the present translation. I^is 
ignorance of the circulation of the blood does np„t_. 
lessen the force of his general physiological conclu- 



sions to tlie extent that might be anticipated. In 
his opinion, the great bulk of th e blood travelled 
with a to-and-fro motion in the veins, while a little 
ot' It, mixed with Inspired air, moved in the same 
way along the ar teries ; whereas we now icnow that 
al 1 tliii bloutl goes outward by the arteri es and retu r η s 
by the veins ; in either case blood is carried to the 
tissues by blood-vessels, and Galen's ideas of tissue- 
nutrition were wonderfully sound. The ingenious 
method by which (in ignorance of the pulmonary 
circulation) he makes blood pass from the right to 
the left ventricle, may be read in the pii sent work 
(p. 321). As will be seen, he was conversant with 
the "anastomoses " between the ultimate branches ot 
arteries and veins, although he imagined that they 
were not used under " norm al " conditions. 

Galen's Galen was not only a man of great intellectual 

gifts, but one also of strong moral fibre. In 
his short treatise " That the best Physician is also a 
Philosopher " he outlines his professional ideals. It 
is necessary for the efficient healer to be versed in 
the three branches of "philosophy," viz.: (a) logic, 
the science of how to think ; (b) physics, the science 
of what is — i.e. of " Nature " in the widest sense ; 
(c) ethics, the science of what to do. The amount of 
toil which he who wishes to be a physician must 
undergo — firstly, in mastering the work of his pre- 
decessors and afterwards in studying disease at first 
hand — makes it absolutely necessary that he should 


possess perfect self-controiy that he should scorn 
money and the weak pleasures of the senses, and 
should live laborious days. 

Readers of the following pages will notice that 
Galen uses what we should call distinctly im- 
moderate language towards those who ventured to 
differ from the views of his master Hippocrates 
(which were also his own). The employment of such 
language was one of the few weaknesses of his age 
which he did not transcend. Possibly also his mother's 
choleric temper may have predisposed him to it. 

The fact, too, that his vivisection experiments (e.g. 
pp. 50, 273) were carried out apparently without any 
kind of anaesthetisation being even thought of is 
abhorrent to the feelings of to-day, but must be ex- 
cused also on the ground that callousness towards 
animals was then customary, men having probably 
never thought much about the subject. 

Galen is a master of language, using a highly Gaien'e 
polished variety of Attic prose with a precision Λvhich ^^^ ^ * 
can be only very imperfectly reproduced in another 
tongue. Every word he uses has an exact and 
definite meaning attached to it. Translation is 
particularly difficult when a Λvord stands for a 
physiological conception Λvhich is not now held ; 
instances are the words anadosis, prosthesis, and 
prospkysis, indicating certain steps in the process 
by Avhich nutriment is conveyed from the alimentary 
canal to the tissues. 


Readers will be surprised to find how many words 
are used by Galen which they would have thought 
had been expressly coined to fit modern conceptions ; 
thus our author employs not merely such terms 
as physiology, phthisis, atrophy, anastomosis, but also 
haematopoietic, anaesthesia, and even aseptic I It is 
only fair, however, to remark that these terms, 
particularly the last, were not used by Galen in 
quite their modern significance. 

Summary. To resume, then : What contribution can Galen 
bring to the art of healing at the present day ? It 
was not, surely, for nothing that the great Pergamene 
gave laws to the medical world for over a thousand 
years 1 

Let us draw attention once more to : 

(1) The high ideal which he set before the 

(2) His insistence on immediate contact with 
nature as the primary condition for arriving at an 
understanding of disease ; on the need for due 
consideration of previous authorities ; on the need 
also for reflection — for employment of the mind's 
eye (17 λο-γικη θίωρία) as an aid to the physical eye. 

(3) His essentially broad outlook, which often 
helped him in the comprehension of a phenomenon 
through his knowledge of an analogous phenomenon 
in another ^"^^Ί of nature. 



(4) His keen appreciation of the u nity of th e 
organis m, and of the inter-dependpncp; nf iti paris ; 
liis realisation tha t the vital pheaome na (physiological 
and pathological) in a l iving organism can only be 
understood when considered in rf^latinn ta thp _ 
aivironmenl of that organism or pa.rt>.. -This is the 
foundation for the war that Galen waged a outrance 
on the Methodists, to Λvhom diseases were things 
without relation to anything. This dispute is, un- 
fortunately, not touched upon in the present volume. 
What Galen combated was the tendency, familiar 
enough in our own day, to reduce medicine to the 
science of finding a label for each patient, and then 
treating not the patient, but the label. (This 
tendency, we may remark in parenthesis, is one 
which is obviously well suited for the standardisi?ig 
purposes of a State medical service, and is therefore 
one which all who have the weal of the profession 
at heart must most jealously watch in the difficult 
days that lie ahead.) 

(5) His realisation of the inappropriateness and 
inadequacy of physical formulae in explaining physio- 
logical activities. Galen's disputes with Asclepiades 
over TOL ττρώτα «κίΓνα σώματα τα άτταθη, over the άναρμα 
στοιχεία και λτ/ρώδεις όγκοι, is but another aspect of 
his quarrel with the Methodists regarding their 
pathological " units," whose primary characteristic 
was just this same άττάθΐυι (impassiveness to environ- 
ment, " unimpr*issionability "). We have of course 


our Physiiitric or latromechanical school at the 
present day, to whom sucli processes as absorption 
from the alimentary canal, the respiratory inter- 
change of gases, and the action of the renal 
epithelium are susceptible of a purely physical 

(6) His quarrel Λνϋΐι the Anatomists, which was 
in essence the same as that with the Atomists, and 
which arose from his clear realisation that that 
primary and indispensable desideratum, a view of the 
whole, could never be obtained by a mere summation 
of partial views ; hence, also, his sense of the 
dangers which would beset the medical art if it were 
allowed to fall into the hands of a mere crowd of 
competing specialists without any organising head to 
guide them. 

^ In terms of filtration, diffusion, and osmosis. 




niblioth6que Nationale. Paris. No. 2267. 
Library of St. Mark. Venice. No. 275. 


Arabic translations by Honain in the Escurial Library, and 
in tbe Library at Leyden. Hebrew translation in the 
Library at Bonn. Latin translations in the Library of 
Gouville άώΛ Caius College (MSS. ), No. 947 ; also by 
Linacie in editions published, London, 1523 ; Paris, 
1528 ; Leyden, 1540, 1548, and 1550 ; also byC. G. Kuhn, 
Leipzig, 1821. 

Commentaries and Appreciations 

Nic. de Anglia in Bib. Nat. Paris (MSS.), No. 7015; J. 
Rochon, ibidem, No. 7025 ; J. Segarra, 1528 ; J. Sylvius, 
1550, 1560 ; L. Joubert, 1599 ; M. Sebitz, 1644, 1•!45 ; 
J. B. Pacuvius, 1554; J. C G. Ackerinann, 1821, in 
the introduction to Kiihn's translation, ρ Ixxx ; Ilberg 
in articles on "Die Schriftstellerei des Klaudios 
Galenos," in Bhein. Mus., Nos 44, 47, 51, and 52 
(years 1889, 1892, 1896 and 1897) ; I. von Mueller in 
Quvestionts Criticae dt Galeni lihri.i, Erlangen, 1871 ; 
Steinschneider in Virchow's Archiv, No. cxxiv. for 
1891 ; Wenrich in De auctwum graecorum versionibus 
et cornnieurariis ayriacis, arabicis, armiacis, persisque, 
Leipzig, 1842. 





Distinction between the effecta of {a) the organism's psyche 
or soul (6) its phy-fis or nature. The author proposes to 
confine himself to a consideration of the latter — the 
vegetative — aspect of life. 

Chapter II 

Definition of terms. Different kinds of motion. Alteration 
or qualitative change. Refutation of the Sophists' objec- 
tion that such change is only apparent, not real. The 
four fundamental qualities of Hippocrates (later Aris- 
totle). Distinction between faculty, activity (function), 
and effect (work or product). 

Chapter ΙΠ 

It is by virtue of the /o?ir qualities that each part functions. 
Some authorities subordinate the dry and the mo ist 
principles to the hot and the cold. ^nsCOlle inconsistent 
here. ^ ^-..^ ^^ 

Chapter IV 

We must suppose that there are faculties corresponding in 
number to the visible effects (or products) with which we 
are familiar. 

Chapter V 

Genesis, growth, and nutrition. Genesis (embryogeny) sub- 
divided into histogenesis and organogenesis. Growth is 
a tridimensional expansion of the solid parts formed 
during genesis. Nitritioo. 



Chapter VI 

I'he process of genesis (embryogeny) from inseininatiou 
onwards. Each of the simple, elementary, homogeneous 
parts (tissues) is produced by a special blend of the four 
primary alterative faculties (such secondary alterative 
faculties being o4opoietic, nenropoiehc. etc.). A special 
function and tise also corresponds to each of these special 
tissues. The bringing of these tissues together into 
organs and the disposal of these organs is performed by 
another faculty called diaplastic, moulding, or forma- 

Chapter VII 

We now pass from genesis to growth. Growth essentially a 
post-natal process ; it involves two factors, expansion 
and nutrition, explained by analogy of a familiar child's 

Chapter VIII 

Chapter IX 

These three primary faculties (genesis, growth, nutrition) 
have various others subservient to them. 

Chapter X 

Nutrition not a simple process. (1) Need of subsidiary 
organs for the various stages of alteration, e.g., of bread 
into blood, of that into bone, etc. (2) Need also of 
organs for excreting tiie nonutilizable portions of the 
food, e.g., much vegetable matter is superfluous. (3) Need 
of organs of a third kind, for distributing the pabulum 
through the body. 

Chapter XI 

Nutrition analysed into the stages of application {prostheais), 
adhesion {proxphysis), and assimilation. The stages 
illustrated by certain pathological conditions. Different 
shades of meaning of the term nutriment. 


Chaptkr XII 

The two chief medico-philosophical schools — Atomist and 
Vitalist. Hippocrates an adherent of the latter school — 
his doctrine of an original principle or "nature" in 
every living thing (doctrine of the unity of the 

Chapter XIII 

Failure of Asclepiades to understand the functions of kidneys 
and ureters. His hypothesis of vaporization of imbibed 
fluids is here refuted. A demonstration of urinary secre- 
tion in the living animal ; the forethought and artistic 
skill of Nature vindicated. Refutation also of Ascle- 
piades's disbelief in the special selective action of purga- 
tive drugs. 

Chapter XIV 

While Asclepiades denies in toto the obvious fact of specific 
attraction, Epicurus grants the fact, although his 
attempt to explain it by the atomic hypothesis breaks 
down. Refutation of the Epicurean theory of magnetic 
attraction. Instances of specific attraction of thorns 
and animal poisons by medicaments, of moisture by 
com, etc. 

Chapter XV 

It now being gianted that the urine is secreted by the 
kidneys, the rationale of this secretion is enquired into. 
The kidneys are not mechanical filters, but are by virtue 

•, of their nature possessed of a specific faculty of attrac- 

1 tion. 

Chapter XVI 

Erasistratus, again, by his favourite principle of horror vaciu 
could never explain tlie secretion of urine by the kidneys. 
While, however, he acknowledged that the kidneys do 
secrete urine, he makes no attempt to explain this ; he 
ignores, but does not attempt to refute, the Hippocratic 
doctrine of specific attraction. " Servile " position taken 
up by Asclepiades and Erasistratus in regard to this 
function of urinary secretion. 



Chapter XVII 

Three otlier attempts (b3' adlierents of the Erai»istratean 
school and by Lycus of Macedonia) to explain how the 
I kidne^^s come to separate out urine from the blood. All 
I these ignore the obvious principle of attraction. 


Chapter I 

Γη order to explain dispersal of food from alimentary canal 
via the veins {aiiadoKis) there is no need to invoice with 
Erasislratus, the horror vacui, since here again the prin- 
ciple of specific attraction is operative ; moreover, blood 
1 is also driven forward by the compressing action of the 
1 stomach and the contractions of the veins. Possibility, 
'however, of Erasistratus's factor playing a certain minor 

Chatter II 

The Erasistratean idea that bile becomes separated out from 
f| the blood in the liver because, being the tli inner fluid, it 
U alone can enter the narrow stomata of the bile-ducts, 
ij ; while the thicker blood can only enter the wider mouths 
f of the hepatic venules. 

Chapter III 

The morphological factors suggested by Erasistratus are 
i quite inadequate to explain biological happenings. 
' Erasistratus inconsistent with his own statements. The 
immanence of the physin or nature ; her shaping is not 
merely external like that of a statuary, but involves the 
entire substance. In genesis (embryogeny) the semen is 
the active, and the menstrual blood the passive, princi- 
ple. Attractive, alterative, and formative faculties of 
the semen. Embryogeny is naturally followed by 
growth ; these two functions distinguished. 



Chapter FV 

Unjustified claim by Erasistrateans that their founder had 
associations with the Peripatetic (Aristotelian) school. 
The characteristic physiological teiiets of that school 
(which weie all anticipated by Hippocrates) in no way 
agree with those of Erasistratus, save that both recognize 
the purposefulness of Nature ; in practice, however, 
Erasistratus assumed numerous exceptions to this prin- 
ciple. Difficulty of understanding why he rejected the 
biological principle of attraction in favour of anatomical 

Chaptkr V 

A further difficulty raised by Erasistratus's statement 
regarding secretion of bile in the liver. 

Jhapteb VI 

The same holds with nutrition. Even if we grant that veins 
may obtain their nutrient blood by virtue of the horror 
vacui (chap, i ), how could this explain the nutrition of 
nerves? Erasistratus's hypothesis of minute elementary 
nerves and vessels within the ordinary visible nerves 
simply throws the difficulty further back And is 
Erasistratus's minute "simple" nerve susceptible of 
further analysis, as tlie Atonysts would assume ? If so, 
this is opposed to the conception of a constructive and 
artistic Nature which Krasistratus himself shares with 
Hippoctates and the writer. And if his minute nerve is 
really elementary and not further divisible, then it 
cannot, according to his own showing, contain a cavity ; 
therefore the horror vacui does not apply to it. And 
how could this principle apply to the restoration to its 
original bulk of a part which had become thhi through 
disease, where more matter must become attaclied than 
runs awa\' ? A quotation from Erasistratus shows that he 
did actcuowledge an "attraction," although not exactly 
in the Hippocratic sense. 



Chapteu VII 

In the last resort, tlie ultimate living elements (Erasistratus's 
aimjile vessels) must draw in their food by virtue of an 
inherent attrai:tive faculty like that which the lodestone 
exerts on iron. Thus the process of anadosis, from 
beginning to end, can be explained without assuming a 
horror vacui 

Chapter VIII 

lirasistratus's disregard for the humours. In respect• to 
excessive formation of bile, however, prevention is better 
than cure ; accordingly wo must consider its pathology. 
Does blood pre exist in the food, or does it come into 
existence in the body ? Erasistratus's purely anatomical 
explanation of dropsy. He entirely avoids the question 
of the four qualities (e.g. the iinportance of innate heat) 
in the generation of the humours, etc. Yet the problem 
of blood-production is no less important than that of 
gastric digestion. Proof that bile does not pre-exist in the 
food. The four fundamental qualities of Hippocrates and 
Aristotle. How the humours are formed from food taken 
into the veins : when heat is in proportionate amount, 
blood results : when in excess, bile ; when deficient, 
phlegm. Various conditions determining cold or warm 
temperaments. The four primary diseases result each 
from excess of one of the four qualities. Erasistratus 
unwillingly acknowledges this when he ascribes the 
indigestion occurring in fever to impaired function of the 
stomach. For what causes this fanctio laesa ? Proof 
that it is the fever (excess of innate heat). 

If, then, heat plays so important a part in abnormal 
functioning, so must it also in normal (i.e. causes of 
eucrasia involved in those of dyscrasia, of physiology in 
those of pathology). A like argument explains the 
(jenesix of the hnmoura. Addition of warnith to things 
already warm makes them bitter ; thus honey turns to 
bile in peojjle who are already warm ; where warmth 
deficient, as in old people, it turns to useful blood._ Tliis 
is a proof that bile does not preexist, as such, in the 



Chapter IX 

The Junctions of organs also depend on the way m which the 
four qualities are mixed — e.g. the contracting function of 
the stomach. Treatment onl}• possiole when we know 
the caiisen of errors of function. The Erasistrateana 
practically' Empiricists in this respect. On an apprecia- 
tion of the meaning of a dyacrasia follows naturally the 
Hippocratic principle of treating opposites l-y opposites 
{e.g. cooling the overheated stomach, warming it wlien 
chilled, etc.). Useless in treatment to know merely the 
function of each organ ; we must know the bodily 
condition which iipsets this function. Blood is warm and 
moist. Yellow bile is warm and (virtually, though not 
apparently) dry. Phlegm is cold and moist. The fourth 
possible combination ^cold and dry) is represented by 
hlack bile. For the clearing out of this humour from the 
blood. Nature has provided the spleen — an organ which, 
accoiding to Erasistratus, ful61s no purpose. Proof of 
the importance of the spleen is the jaundice, toxaemia, 
etc., occurring when it is diseased Erasistratuss failure 
to mention the views of leading authorities on tiiis organ 
shows the hopelessness of his position. The Hippocratic 
view has now been demonstrated deductively and in- 
ductively. The classical view as to the generation 
of the humours. Normal and pathological forms of 
yellow and black bile. Part played by the innate 
heat in their production. Other kinds of bile are 
merely transition-stages between these extreme types. 
Abnormal forms removed by liver and spleen re- 
spectively. Phlegm, however, does not need a special 
excretory organ, as it can undergo entire metabolism in 
the body. 

Need for studying the works of the Ancients care- 
fully, iu order to reach a proper understanding of this 




Cmaptkk I 

A recapitulation of certain points previously demonstrated. 
Kvery part of tlie animal has an attractive and an 
alterative (assimilative) faculty ; it attracts the nutrient 
juice which is proper to it. Assimilation is preceded 
by adhesion (prosphj/sts) and that again, by application 
(prosthesis). Application the goal of attraction. It 
would not, however, be followed by adhesion and 
assimilation if each part did not also possess a faculty 
for retaining in position the nutriment which has been 
applied. A priori necessity for this retentive, faculty. 

Chapter II 

The same faculty to be proved a posteriori. Its corresponding 
function [i.e. ihe activation of this faculty or potentiality) 
well seen in the large hollow organs, notably the uterus 
and stomach. 

Chapter III 

Exercise of the retentive faculty particularly well seen in tlie 
uterus. Its object is to allow the embryo to attain full 
development ; this being completed, a new faculty — the 
expulsive — hitherto quiescent, comes into play. Char- 
acteristic signs and symptoms of pregnancy. Tight grip 
of uterus on growing embryo, and accurate closure of os 
uteri during operation of the retentive faculty. 
Dilatation of os and expulsive activities of uterus at full 
term, or when foetus dies. Prolapse from undue exercise 
of this faculty, ϋόίβ of the midwife. Accessory muscles 
in parturition. 

Chapter TV 

Same two faculties seen in stomach. Gnrrjltngs or horhorygmi 
show that this organ is weak and is not gripping its 
contents tightly enough. Undue delay of food in a weak 



Btomach proved not to l>e due to narrowness of pylorus : 
length of stay depends on whether di<i<-xlion (another 
instance of the characteristically vital process of cdtera- 
tion) has taken place or not. Erasistratus wrong in 
attributing digestion merely to the mechanical action of 
the stomach walls. When digestion completed, then 
pylorus opens and allows contents to pass downwards, 
just as o» uteri when development of embyro completed. 


If attraction and elimination always proceeded pari passu, 
the content of llnse hollow organs (including gall-bleidder 
and urinary bladder would never vary in amount. A 
reteiilire faculty', therefore, also logically needed. Its 
existence demonstrated. Expulsion determined by quali- 
tative and quantitative changes of coutents. "Diarrhoea " 
of stomach. Vomiting, 

Chapter VI 

Every organic part has an appetite and aversion for the qaali- 
ties which are appropriate and foreign to it re.speclively. 
Attraction neces>arily leads to a certain benefit received. 
This again necessitates rttentioru 

Chapter VII 

Interaction between two bodies ; the stronger masters the 
weaker ; a deleterious drug masters the forces of the 
body, whereas food is mastered by them ; this mastery 
is an alteration, and the amount of alteration varies with 
the different organs ; thus a partial alteration is effected 
in mouth by saliva, but much greater in stomach, where 
not only gastric juice, but also bile, pneuma, innate heat 
(i.e. oxidation ?), and other powerful factors are brought 
to bear on it ; need of considerable alteration in stomach 



as a transition stage between food and blood; appear- 
ance of faeces in intestine another proof of great altera- 
tion effected in stomach. Asclepiades's denial of real 
qualitative change in stomach rebutted. Erasistratus's 
denial that digestion in any way resembles a boilimj 
process comes from his taking words too literally. 

Chapter VIII 

Erasistratus denies the stomach exerts any pull in the 
act of swallowing. That he is wrong, however, is proved 
by the anatomical structure ot the stomach — its inner 
coat with longitudinal fibres obviously acts as a vis a 
fronf '.attraction), whilst its outer coat exercises through 
the contraction of its circular fibres a vie a (ergo (pro- 
pulsion) ; the latter also comes into play in vomiting. 
The stomach uses the oesophagus as a kind of hand, to 
draw in its food Avith. The functions of the two coats 
proved also by vivisection. JSwallowing cannot be 
attributed merely to the force of gravity. 

Chapter IX 

These four faculties which subserve nutrition are 
apparent in many different parts of the body. 

Chapter X 

Need for elaborating the statements of the ancient physi- 
cians. Superiority of Ancients to Moderns. This state 
of affairs can only be rectified by a really efficient 
education of youth. The chief requisites of such an 

Chapter XI 

For the sake of the few λυΙιο really wish truth, the argument 
will be continued. A third kind of fibre— the ohdque— 
subserves retention ; the way in which this fibre it 
disposed in different coats. 



Chapter XII 

The factor which brings the expulsive faculty into action is 
essentially a condition of the organ or its contents which 
is the reverse of that which determined attraction. 
Analogy between abortion and normal parturition. 
Whatever produces discomfort must be expelled. That 
discomfort also determines expulsion of contents from 
gall-bladder is not so evident as in the case of stomach, 
uterus, urinary bladder, etc., but can be logically demon- 

Chapter XUI 

Expulsion takeg place through the same channel as attraction 
{e.g., in stomach, gall-bladder, uterus). Similarly the 
delivery (anadoxii) of nutriment to the liver from the 
food-canal via the mesenteric veins may have its direction 
reversed. Continuous give-and-take between dififerent 
parts of the body ; superior strength of certain parts is 
natural, of others acquired. When liver contains abund- 
ant food and stomach depleted, latter may draw on 
former ; this occurs when animal can get nothing to eat, 
and so prevents starvation. Similarly, when one part 
becomes over-distended, it tends to deposit its excess in 
some weaker part near it ; this passes it on to some still 
weaker part, which cannot get rid of it ; hence depotnts 
of various kinds. Further instances of reversal of the 
normal direction of anadosis from the food canal through 
the veins. Such reversal of functions would in any case 
be expected α priori. In the vomiting of intestinal 
obstruction, matter may be carried backwards all the 
way from the intestine to the mouth ; not surprising, 
therefore, that, under certain circumstances, food- 
material might be driven right back from the skin- 
surface to the alimentary canal {e.g. in excessive chilling 
of surface) ; not much needed to determine this reversal 
of direction. Action of purgative drugs upon terminals 
of veins ; one part draws from another until whole body 
participates ; similarly in intestinal obstruction, each 
part passes on the irritating substance to ite weaker 



neighbour. Reversal of direction of flow occurs not 
merely on occasion bub also constantly (as in arteries, 
lungs, heart, etc.). The various stages of normal nutri- 
tion described. Why the stomach sometimes draws 
back the nutriment it had passed on to portal veins and 
liver. A similar ebb and flow in relation to the spleen. 
Comparison of the parts of the body to a lot of animals 
at a feast. The valves of the heart are a provision of 
Nature to prevent this otherwise inevitable regurgita- 
tion, though even they are not quite efficient. 

Chapter XIV 

The superficial arteries, when they dilate, draw in air from 
the atmosphere, and the deeper ones a fine, vaporous 
blood from the veins and heart. Lighter matter such as 
air will always be drawn in in preference to heavier ; 
this is why tlie arteries in the food-canal draw in prac- 
tically none of the nutrient matter contained in it. 

Chapter XV 

The two kinds of attraction — the mechanical attraction of 
dilating bellows and tlie " ph3'sical " (vital) attraction 
by living tissue of nutrient matter which is specifically 
allied or appropriate to it. The former kind — that 
resulting from horror vacui — acts primarily on light 
matter, whereas vital attraction has no essential concern 
with such mechanical factors. A hollow organ exercises, 
by virtue of its cavity, the former kind of attraction, and 
by virtue of the living tissue of its walls, the second kind. 
Application of this to question of contents of arteries ; 
anastomoses of arteries and veins. Foramina in inter- 
ventricular septum of heart, allowing some blood to pass 
from right to left ventricle. Large size of aorta probably 
due to fact that it not merely carries the pneunia 
received from the lungs, but also some of the blood 
which percolates through septum from right ventricle. 
Thus arteries carry not merely pneuma, but also some 
light vaporous blood, which certain parts need more 



than the ordinary thick blood of the veins. The organic 
parts must have their blood-eupply sufficiently near to 
allow them to absorb it ; comparison with an irrigation 
system in a garden. Details of the process of nutrition 
in the ultimate specific tissues ; some are nourished from 
the blood directly ; in others a series of intermediate 
stages must precede complete assimilation ; for example, 
marrow is an intermediate stage betv^een blood and 

From the generalisations arrived at in the present work 
we can deduce the explanation of all kinds of particular 
phenomena ; an instance is given, showing the oo-opera- 
tion of various factors previously discussed. 






Κ. π. *Ε'π€ίΒη το μίν αίσθάνβσθαί re και κινεΐσθαι 
Ρ• 1 κατά ττροαίρεσιν ΐ8ια των ζωών εστί, το δ' 
αύξάνεσθαί τ€ καΧ τρβφεσθαι κοινά, και τοις 
φντοΐς, €Ϊη αν τα μίν ιτρότερα της ψνχ^ης, τα 8e 
hevTepa της φύσεως epya. el δε τις και τοις 
φντοΐς ^Ι^νχης μ€τα8ί8ωσι καϊ διαιρούμενος αύτας 
ονομάζει φντικην μεν ταύτην, αίσθητικην δε την 
ετεραν, \eyei μεν ούδ' ούτος άΧΚα, τη Χέζει δ' 
ου ττάνυ τη σννηθει κξγ^ρηται. άλλ' ημείς <γε 
με^ίστην Χεξεως άρετην σαφηνειαν elvai ττε- 
2 ττεισμεΐΌΐ καϊ ταύτην ει8ότες \\ ύπ' ού8ενος όντως 
ώς ντΓΟ των άσννηθων ονομάτων 8ιαφθειρομενην, 
ως τοις ττοΧλοΐς εθος, όντως όνομάζοντες ίιττο μεν 
'ψ'νχτϊς θ' άμα καϊ φύσεως τά ζωα 8ιοικεΙσθαί 
φαμεν, ύττο 8ε φύσεως μόνης τα φυτά καϊ το j 
ανξάνεσθαί τ€ καϊ τρεφεσθαι φύσεως ερ'γα φαμεν, 
ου ψυχής. 

1 That is, " On the Natural Powers," the powers of the 
Physis or Nature. By that Galen practically means what 
we should call the ph^'siological or biological powers, the 
characteristic faculties of the living organism ; his Physis 
is the subconscious vital p'isciple of the aoiraal or plant. 





Since feeling and voluntary motion are peculiar to 
animals, whilst growth and nutrition are common to 
plants as \vell, we may look on the former as effects ^ 
of the soul^ and the latter as effects of the nalure.* 
And if there be anyone who allows a share in soul 
to plants as well, and separates the two kinds of 
soul, naming the kind in question vegetative, and the 
other sensory, this person is not saying anything else, 
although his language is somewhat unusual. We, 
however, for our part, are convinced that the chief 
merit of language is clearness, and we know that 
nothing detracts so much from this as do unfamiliar 
terms ; accordingly we employ those terms Λvhich 
the bulk of people are accustomed to use, and we 
say that animals are governed at once by their soul 
and by their nature, and plants by their nature 
alone, and that growth and nutrition are the effects 
of nature, not of soul. 

Like Aristotle, however, he also ascribes quasi-vital pro- 
perties to inanimate things, cf. Introduction, p. xxviL 

2 Ergon, here rendered an eject, is literally a work or deed ; 
strictly spe&king, it is something don•'., completed, as distin- 
guished from energeia, which is the actual doing, the activity 
which produces this ergon, cf. p. 13, and Introduction, p. xxx. 

' Gk.jL-sycAe, Lat. anima. * (Jk.. physis, Lat. natura. 




Και ζητησομζν κατά roube τον \6yov, υττο 
τίνων 'yL'yveraL δυνάμεων αυτά 8η ταύτα καΐ el 
Βή τι αΧΧο φνσβως epyov εστίν. 

*Αλλά ττρότερόν <y€ Βίέλεσθαί τ€ 'χρη και 
μηννσαι σαφώς εκαστον των ονομάτων, οίς χρη- 
σόμεθα κατά TovSe τον Xoyov, καΐ εφ' ο τι φβρο- 
μβν Ίτρα^μα, <γ6νήσ€ται Be τοϋτ ευθυ<ί ερ^ων 
φυσικών ΒιΒασκαΧία συν rat? τών ονομάτων 

"Οταν ουν τι σώμα κατά μηΒεν έξαΧλάττηται 
τών Ίτρούτταργόντων, ησυχάζειν αύτο φαμεν el 
δ' έξίσταιτό τττ], κατ εκείνο κινεΐσθαι. και τοίνυν 
εττεί 7Γθ\υειΒώς εξισταται, ΤΓθ\ν€ΐΒώ<ϊ καϊ κινη- 
θήσεται. καϊ <yap el Χευκον ύττάρχον μεΧαίνοιτο 
καΐ εΐ μέΧαν Χευκαίνοιτο, κινείται κατά χρόαν, 
3 καϊ €1 yXvKi) τέως υπάρχον αύθις \\ αύστηρον η 
εμτταΧιν εζ αυστηρού ^γΧυκύ jivoiTO, καϊ τοΰτ αν 
κινεΐσθαι XeyoiTO κατά τον χυμόν. άμφω Βε 
ταΰτά τε καϊ τα ττροειρημενα κατά την ττοιότητα 
κινεΐσθαι Χεχθησεται καϊ ου μόνον γβ τα κατά 
την χρόαν η τον χυμον εξαΧΧαττόμενα κινεΐσθαι 
φαμεν, άλλα καϊ το θερμότερον εκ ψυχρότερου 
^ενόμενον ή ψυχρότερον εκ θερμότερου κινεΐσθαι 
καϊ τούτο Χε^ομεν, ώσττερ ηε καϊ εϊ τι ξηρον εξ 



Thus we shall enquire, in the course of this 
.eatise, from whAt facnlfies these effects themselves, 
as well as any other effects of nature Avhich therr 
may be, take their origin. 

First, however, Λve must distinguish and explain 
clearly the various terms which we are going to use 
in this treatise, and to Λvhat things we apply them ; 
and this will prove to be not merely an explanation of 
terms but at the same time a demonstration of the 
effects of nature. 

When, therefore, such and such a body undergoes 
no change from its existing state, we say that it is 
at rest ; but, if it departs from this in any respect 
we then say that in this respect it undergoes motion.^ 
Accordingly, Avhen it departs in various ways from 
its pre-existing state, it Λνίΐΐ be said to undergo 
various kinds of motion. Thus, if that Avhich is 
white becomes black, or Avhat is black becomes 
white, it undergoes motion in respect to colour ; or 
if what was previously sweet now becomes bitter, or, 
converselv, from being bitter now becomes SΛveet, it 
will be said to undergo motion in respect to flavour ; 
to both of these instances, as well as to those 
previously mentioned, we shall apply the term 
(jualil alive motion. And further, it is not only things 
which are altered in regard to colour and flavour 
which, we say, undergo motion ; Avhen a warm thing 
becomes cold, and a cold warm, here too we speak 
of its undergoing motion ; similarly also when any- 

* Motion (kinesis^ is Aristotle's general term for what we 
wonlil rather call chanf/e. It inclurles various kinds of change, 
as well as movement proper, cf. Introduction, p. xxix. 


vypoxj η vypbv εκ ξηρον yiyvoiTO. κοινον δέ κατά 
τούτων άττάντων όνομα φέρομεν την ά\\οίωσιν. 

"Εν τι τοΰτο yeva κινήσεων;, βτερον he yevo^ 
€7ri τοί9 τά? 'χωρα^ άμβίβουσι σώμασι και τόττον 
€Κ τόττον μ€ταΧλάττ€ΐν \€yoμevoiς, όνομα δε καΐ 
τούτω φορά. 

Ανται μίν ονν αϊ δύο κινησ€ΐ<; άττλαι και 
ττρωται, σύνθετοι δ' έξ αυτών ανξησί<ϊ τ€ καΐ 
φθίσις, όταν εξ ελαττοι^ό? τι μείζον r) εκ μείζονος; 
εΚαττον yevητaι φνΧάττον το οίκεΐον εΙΒος. ετεραι 
8ε δύο κινησεΐ'ζ yiveat^ καΐ φθορά, yiveai<i μεν η 
εί<; ούσιαν άyωyr|, φθορά δ' η εναντία. 

Πασαίς he ταΐς κίνήσεσι κοινον εξάΧλαξις 
4 του \\ Ίτρούττάργ^οντο^ϊ, ωσττερ ουν καΐ ταΐ<; ησυγίαι^ 
η φυΧακη των •προντΓαρ)/όντων. αλλ' οτι μεν 
έξαΧΧάττεται καϊ ττροζ την όψιν καϊ ττρος την 
yεvσιv καϊ προς την άφην αίμα yιyvόμeva τα 
σιτία, συγχωρουσιν οτι δε καΐ κατ άΧήθειαν, 
ούκετι τοΰθ^ 6μo\oyoΰσιv οι σοφισται. οι μεν 
yap τίνες αυτών άπαντα τα τοιαύτα τών ημέτερων 
αισθήσεων άττάτας τινας καϊ 7Γapayωyάς νομί- 
ξουσιν άΧλοτ άΧλως ττασγουσών, της υποκεί- 
μενης ουσίας μηhεv τούτων, οίς επονομάζεται, 
δεχόμενης' οι he τίνες είναι μεν εν αύτη βούΧονται 
τας ποιότητας, άμεταβΧητους hε καϊ άτρέπτους 

* "Conveyance," "transport," "transit"; purely mechani- 
cal or passive motion, as distinguished from alteration (quali- 
tative change). 

2 "Waxing and waning," the latter literally phthisis, a 
wasting or "decline;" cf. Scotch divining, Dutch verdwijnen. 
^ Becoming and perishing : Latin, generatio ct corruptio. 

* "Ad substantiam productio seu ad formam processus " 



thing moist becomes dry, or dry moist. Now, the 
common term which we apply to all these cases is 
alleralion. • 

This is one kind of motion. But there is another * 
kind which occurs in bodies which change their 
position, or as we say, pass from one place to another ; 
the name of this is trarviference} ^ „-. 

These two kinds of motion, then, are simple and yf ^ 

primary, while compounded from them we have grorvt/i | Λ y^*' 
and decay, "^ as when a small tiling becomes bigger, - ' ν 
or a big thing smaller, each retaining at the same 
time its particular form. And two other kinds of 
motion are genesis and destruction,^ genesis being a 
coming into existence,•* and destruction being the 

Now, common to all kinds of motion is change from 
the pre-existing state, \\\\\\e common to all conditions 
of rest is retention of the pre-existing state. The 
Sophists, however, while allo>ving that bread in turn- 
ing into blood becomes changed as regards sight, taste, 
and touch, will not agree that this change occurs in 
reality. Thus some of them hold that all such 
phenomena are tricks and illusions of our senses; 
the senses, they say, are affected now in one way, 
now in another, whereas the underljang substance 
does not admit of any of these changes to which the 
names are given. Others (such as Anaxagoras)^ will 
have it that the qualities do exist in it, but that they 

• " Preformationist " doctrine of Anaxagoras To him the 
apparent alteration in qualities took place when a number of 
minute pre-existing bodies, all beating the same quality, 
came together in sufficient numbers to impress that quality 
on the sense». The factor which uniteil the minute quality- 
bearers was Nous. " In the beginning," sa\s Anaxagoras, 
" all things existed together — then came Nous and brought 
them into order." 



βξ αΐωνο'ζ €ΐς αΙωνα καϊ τά? φαινομίνα^ ταύτας 
αλλοίωσε/? ttj Βιακρίσβι Τ6 καϊ συ^κρίσβί yij- 
Ρ€σθαί φασιν ώς ^Ava^aySpaf. 

Et 8η τούτου<; βκτραττΰμενος βζέλέγχ^οιμι, μείζον 
αν μοι το Trdpepyov τον epyov yevoiTO. el μβν 
yap ουκ ΐσασιν, οσα Tre/Jt της καθ^ 6\ην την 
ούσιαν άΧλοιώαεως ^ΑριστοτβΧει re καϊ μ€τ 
αυτόν ΧρυσίΤΓΤτω yeypaTTTai, τταρακαΧβσαι ■χρη 
τυΐς €Κζίνων αυτούς όμιλήσαι ypάμμaσιv• el Be 
ytyvώσκovτ€ς eVei^' βκόντβς τα χβίρω ττρο των 
5 βεΧτιόνων \\ αίροΰνται, μάταια Βηττον καϊ τα 
ήμ€Τ€ρα νομιοΰσιν. οτί Be καϊ ΊτΓττοκράτης 
όντως eyίyvωσκev Άρίστοτελου? ίτι ττρότερος ων, 
iv €Τ€ροις ημΐν άτΓοΒέΒεικταΰ. πρώτος yap ούτος 
αττάντων ων ϊσμεν ιατρών Τ6 καΐ φιλοσόφων αττο- 
BeiKvueiv εττεχείρησβ τέτταρας elvai τας ττάσας 
Βραστικας εις άλλτ^λας ποιότητας, ύφ* ων yiyveTai 
Τ6 και φθείρεται 7Γάνθ\ οσα yεvεσίv τε καϊ φθοραν 
εττιΒε'χεται. καϊ μεντοι καϊ το κεράννυσθαι Βι 
αΧληλων αύτας οΧας Βι* 6\ων Ίτητοκράτης απάν- 
των πρώτος eyvω• καϊ τας άργ^άς ye τών άπο- 
Ββίξεων, ών ύστερον ^Αριστοτέλης μετεγειρίσατο, 
παρ εκείνω πρώτω yeypaμμevaς εστίν εύρεΐν. 

Εί, Β ωσπερ τας ποιότητας ούτω καϊ τάς ουσίας 
Βι 6\ων κεράννυσΡαι γ^ρη νομίζειν, ώς ύστερον 
απεφήνατο Χηνών ό Έ^ιττιεύς, ονχ ηyoΰμaι Βεΐν 
ετι περί τούτου κατά τόνΒε τον \oyov επεξιεναι. 
μόνην yap εις τα παρόντα Βεομαι yιyvώσκεσθaι 

^ "Όβ ea alterationequae per totam fit siibstantiam" (Lin- 
acre). ^ Tlie systeinatizer of Stoicism and successor of Zeno. 

^ Note cliaracteiistic impatience with metaphysics. To 
Galen, as to Hippocrates and Aristotle, it suthced to look on 



are unchangeable and immutable from eternity to 
eternit)•, and that these apparent alterations are 
brought about by separation and combinaiion. 

Now, if I Λvere to go out of my way to confute 
these people, my subsidiarj' task would be greater 
than my main one. Thus, if they do not know all 
that has been \\Titten, "On Complete Alteration or 
Substance "1 by Aristotle, and after him by Chry- 
sippus,- I must beg of them to make themselves 
familiar with these men's writings. If, however, 
they know these, and yet willingly prefer the worse 
views to the better, they will doubtless consider my 
arguments foolish also. I have shown elsewhere that 
these opinions were shared by Hippocrates, who 
lived much earlier than Aristotle. In fact, of all 
those known to us \vho have been both physicians 
and philosophers Hippocrates Λvas the first who took 
in hand to demonstrate that there are, in all, four 
mutually interacting qualities, and that to the opera- 
tion of these is due the genesis and destruction of 
all things that come into and pass out of being. Nay, 
more ; Hippocrates was also the first to recognise 
that all these qualities undergo an intimate mingling 
with one another ; and at least the beginnings of the 
proofs to which Aristotle later set his hand are to be 
found first in the writings of Hippocrates. 

As to whether we are to suppose that the substances 
as well as their qualities undergo this intimate mingling, 
as Zeno of Citium afterwards declared, I do not think 
it necessary to go further into this question in the 
present treatise ; ^ for immediate purjx)ses λ\ e only 

the qualitative differences apprehended by the senses as 
fundamental. Zeno of Citium was the founder of the Stoic 
achool ; on the further analysis by this school of the qualities 
into bodies ef. p. 144, note 3. 

c 9 


την δί' 6\ης τή<ί ουσίας άΧλοίωσιν, Ινα μι) Τίς 
οστού καΐ σαρκός και νεύρου καΐ των άΧλων 
βκάστου μορίων olovel μισΎα'^/κειάν τίνα τω αρτψ 
6 νομίστ) 7Γ€ρί€^εσθαι καττειτ ev \\ τω σώματι δία- 
κρινόμβνον ως το όμόφυΧον €καστον Uvat. καίτοι 
ττρό ye της Βιακρίσβως αίμα φαίνεται ^ι^νόμενος 
ό ττας άρτος, el yoOv τταμπόΧλω τις χρόνω μη^Ιν 
αλλ' εΐη σιτίον ττροσφερόμξνος, ovSev ήττον ev 
ταΐς φΧεψΙν αίμα ττεριε'χ^όμενον e^ei. και φανερώς 
τούτο την των άμετάβΧητα τα στοιχεία τιθεμένων 
εξεΧε'γχει 8όξαν, ώσττερ οΐμαι και τοΰΧαιον εις 
την τού Χύχνου φXoya καταναΧισκόμενον άτταν 
και τα ξύΧα ττύρ μικρόν ύστερον yιyvόμεva. 

Κ,αίτοι τό y άvτιXeyειv αντοΐς ήρνησάμην, αλλ' 
εττεί της ιατρικής ΰΧης ην το ^τapάhειyμa και 
χρτ]ζω ττρος τον τταρόντα XSyov αυτού, Βια τούτ 
εμνημόνευσα. καταΧιττόντες ούν, ως εφην, την 
Ίτρος τούτους άvτιXoyίav, <€Vov> τοις βουΧομενοις 
τα των ΊταΧαιών εκμανθάνειν κάξ ων ημείς ί8ία 
ττερί αυτών εττεσκεμμεθα. 

Ύον εφεξής Xoyov ατταντα ττοιησόμεθα ζητούντες 
ύττερ ων εξ αρχής ττρούθέμεθα, ττόσαι τε καΐ τίνες 
είσϊν αΐ της φύσεως δυνάμεις καϊ τι ττοιεΐν epyov 

' Α rallying-ground : lit. a place wliere two glens meet. 

* Thus according to Gomperz (Greek Thinkers), the hypo- 
thesis of Anaxagoras was that "the bread . . . already con- 
tained the countless forms of matter as such which the 
human body displays. Their minuteness of size would with- 
draw them from our perception. For the defect or ' weak- 
ness' of the senses is the narrowness of tlieir receptive area. 



need to recognize the complete alteration of substance. 
In this way, nobody will suppose that bread repre- 
sents a kind of meeting-place ^ for bone, flesh, nerve, 
and all the other parts, and that each of these 
subsequently becomes separated in the body and 
goes to join its own kind ; ^ before any separation 
takes place, the whole of the bread obviously becomes 
blood ; (at any rate, if a man takes no other food 
for a prolonged period, he will have blood enclosed 
in his veins all the same).^ And clearly this dis- 
proves the view of those who consider the elements * 
unchangeable, as also, for that matter, does the oil 
Λvhich is entirely used up in the flame of the lamp, 
or the faggots which, in a somewhat longer time, 
turn into fire. 

I said, ho\vever, that I was not going to enter into 
an argument with these people, and it was only 
because the example was drawn from the subject- 
matter of medicine, and because I need it for the 
present treatise, that I have mentioned it. We shall 
then, as I said, renounce our controversy Λvith them, 
since those who Avish may get a good grasp of the 
views of the ancients from our own personal inves- 
tigations into these matters. 

The discussion which ίοΙΙοΛνβ we shall devote 
entirely, as we originally proposed, to an enquiry 
into the number and character of the JacuUies of 
Nature, and what is the effect which each naturally 

These elusive particles are rendered visible and tangible by 
the process of nutrition, which combines them." 

* Therefore the blood mast have come from the bread. The 
food from the alimentary canal was supposed by Galen to be 
converted into blood in and by the portal veins, cf. p. 17. 

* By "elements" is meant all homogeneous, amorphous 
substances, such as metals, &c., as well as the elementary 



€κάστη ττέφνκβν. epjov Se 8η\ον6τι καΧω ro 
7 yeyovos η8η καΐ συμττβττΧη^ρωμένον νττο της evep- 
Ύβίας αυτών, οίον το αίμα, την σάρκα, το vevpov 
ivepyeiav Be την 8ραστικην ονομάζω κίνησιν καΐ 
την ταύτης αΐτίαν Βύναμιν. εττεί yap iv τω το 
σιτίον αίμα yiyveaO αι παθητική μίν η του σιτίου, 
Βραστικη δ^ ή της φΧεβος yiyveTUi κίνησις, ωσαύ- 
τως Be καν τω μ€ταφ€ρ€ΐν τα κώΧα Kivel μίν ό 
μυς, KivetTai Be τα οστά, την μβν της φΧββος καϊ 
των μυών κίνησιν ivepyeiav elvaC φημι, την Be 
των σιτίων τε καϊ των οστών σνμτττωμά τε καϊ 
■πάθημα• τα μβν yap άΧΧοιονται, τα Be φέρεται, 
την μίν ουν Ivepyeiav eyyiopel καΧεΐν και epyov 
της φύσεως, οίον την ττέψιν, την άνάΒοσιν, την 
αιμάτωσιν, ου μην τό y epyov εξ άπαντος ivep- 
yeiav η yap τοι σαρξ epyov μίν εστί της φύσεως, 
ου μην ivepyειά ye. ΒήΧον ουν, ώς θάτερον μεν 
των ονομάτων δίχώ? XeyeTai, θάτερον δ' ου. 


Έ/ζοΙ μεν ουν καϊ η φΧίψ καϊ των άΧΧων 
απάντων εκαστον Βια την εκ των τεττάρων ποιάν 

^ Work or product. Lat. οριι,ι. cf. p. 3. note 2 

' Operation, activation, or functioning. Lat. actio, cf. loc. cit. 

^ t.<?. a concomitant (pecondra-y) or passive affection. Galen 
is contrasting active and passive " motion." cf. p. 6, note 1. 

■* As already indicated, there is no exact English equiva- 
lent for the Greek term phyais, which is a principle immanent 



produces. Now, of course, I mean by an effect ^ that 
which has already come into existence and has been 
completed by the activity - of these faculties — for 
example, blood, flesh, or nerve. And activity is the 
name I give to the active change or motion, and 
the cause of this I call a faculty. Tlius, Avhen 
food turns into blood, the motion of the food is 
passive, and that of the vein active. Similarly, 
when the limbs have their position altered, it is the 
muscle which produces, and the bones which under- 
go the motion. In tliese cases I call the motion of 
the vein and of the muscle an activity, and that of 
the food and the bones a symptom or affection^ since 
the first group undergoes alteration and the second 
group is merely transported. One might, therefore, 
also speak of the activity as an effect of Nature * — 
for example, digestion, absorption,^ blood-production; 
one could not, hoAvever, in every case call the effect an 
activity ; thus flesh is an effect of Nature, but it is, oi 
course, not an activity. It is, therefore, clear that 
one of these terms is used in two senses, but not tlie 


It appears to me, then, that the vein, as well as 
each of the other parts, functions in such and such a 
way according to the manner in Λvhich the four quali- 

in the animal itself, whereas our term " Nature" suggests 
something more trauscemlent ; we are forced often, however, 
to employ it in default of a better word. cf. ρ 2, note 1. 

* In Greek anadosis. This process includes two stages : 
(1) transmission of food from alimentary canal to liver (rather 
more than our " absorption ") ; (2) further transmission from 
liver to tissues. Anadotis is lit. a yielding-up, a *' delivery;" 
it may sometimes be rendered " dispersal." " Distribution " 
{diadoaU) is a further stage ; cf. p. 16.3, note 4. 1 3 


κρασιν ώΒί ττως ivepyetv Βοκ€Ϊ. elal Se ye μην ουκ 

8 όλιγοί rivh άνΒρ€<; \\ ουδ' άΒοξοι, φιλόσοφοι Τ€ 
καΐ ιατροί, τω μεν θβρμω κσΧ τφ ψυχρώ το Βράν 
αναφερόντα, ύ7ΓθβάΧλοντ€<; δ' αύτοΐ<ϊ τταθητικα 
το ξηρόν Τ6 καΐ το vjpov. και ττρώτό'! y ^Αριστο- 
τέλης τα9 των κατά, μέρος απάντων αιτίας εις 
ταύτας avdyeiv ττειράται τας αρχάς, ηκοΧούθησβ 
δ' ύστερον αύτω και 6 άττο της στοάς χορός, καί- 
τοι τούτοις μεν, ώς αν καΐ αυτών τών στοιχείων 
την εΙς άΧληΧα μεταβοΧην χύσεσί τε τισι και 
ΊΓίλησεσιν άναφέρουσιν, εΰλο^ον ην άρχας hpa- 
στικας ττοιησασθαι το θερμον καϊ το ψυχρόν, 
^ΑριστοτεΧει δ' ονχ όντως, άΧλα ταΐς τέτταρσι 
ΤΓΟιότησιν εις την τών στοιχείων yεvεσιv χρωμενω 
βεΧτιον ην καϊ τάς τών κατά μέρος αιτίας άττάσας 
εις ταύτας avayeiv. τί Βήττοτ οΰν εν μεν τοις ττερί 
yεvεσεως καϊ φθοράς ταΐς τέτταρσι χρήται, εν Βε 
τοις μeτeωpo\oyικoΐς καϊ τοις ττροβΧήμασι και 
αΧΧοθι ΤΓοΧΚαχόθι ταΐς Βύο μόναις ; ει μεν yap 
ώς εν τοις ζωοις τε και τοις φντοΐς μαΧλον μεν 
8ρά το θερμον καϊ το ψυχρόν, ήττον 8ε το ξηρον 
και το vypov άττοφαίνοιτό τις, ϊσως αν εχοι καϊ 
τον Ίτητοκράτην σύμψηφον ει δ' ωσαύτως εν \\ 

9 άττασιν, ούκετ οΐμαι συyχωpήσειv τοντο μη οτι 
τον Ίτητοκράτην άλλα μηΒ)' αύτον τον Άριστοτε- 
Χην μεμνήσθαί yε βουΧόμενον ων εν τοις ττερι 
yεvεσεως καϊ φθοράς ούχ άπΧώς αΧΧα μετ αττο- 
Βείξεως αύτος ημάς εδί8αξεν. αλλά ττερϊ μεν 
τούτων καν τοις ττερΙ κράσεων, εις όσον ιατρώ 
χρησιμον, εττεσκεψάμεθα. 

' cf. ρ. 9. 


ies^ are mixed. There are, however, a considerable 
iiumber of not undistinguished men — philosophers 
and physicians — who refer action to the Warm and the 
Cold, and who subordinate to these, as passive, the 
Dry and the Moist ; Aristotle, in fact, was the first 
who attempted to bring back the causes of the 
various special activities to these principles, and he 
was followed later by the Stoic school. These latter, 
of course, could logically make active principles of 
the Warm and Cold, since they refer the change of 
the elements themselves into one another to certain 
diffusions and condensations.^ This does not hold 
of Aristotle, however; seeing that he employed the 
four qualities to explain the genesis of the elements, 
he ought properly to have also referred the causes of 
all the special activities to these. ΗοΛν is it that he 
uses the four qualities in his book " On Genesis and 
Destruction," whilst in his "Meteorology," his 
• Problems," and many other works he uses the t\vo 
•nly ? Of course, if anyone were to maintain that in 
the case of animals and plants the Warm and Cold 
are more active, the Dry and Moist less so, he might 
|)erhaps have even Hippocrates on his side ; but if he 
were to say that this happens in all cases, he Avould, 
I imagine, lack support, not merely from Hippocrates, 
but even from Aristotle himself — if, at least, Aristotle 
chose to remember Avhat he himself taught us in his 
work " On Genesis and Destruction," not as a matter 
of simple statement, but Avith an accompanying 
demonstration. I have, however, also investigated 
these questions, in so far as they are of value to a 
physician, in my work " On Temperaments." 

* Since lieat and cold tend to cause diffusion and condensa- 
tion respectively. 




Ή δ' ονν Βύναμις ή iv ταΐς φΧζψϊν η αίματο- 
ΤΓΟίητίκη Ίτροσα^ορ^υομβυη καΧ ττάσα 8* αλΧη 
Βύναμι<ί ev τω ττρό? τί νενόηταί' Ίτρώτως μβν 
'γαρ τή<ί ivepjeia^ αίτια, ηΒη Be καΐ του epyov 
κατά. συμβββηκο^. αλλ' elirep η αΙτία ττρό^ 
τι, του yap ύττ' αυτής yevopevou μόνου, των δ' 
ά\\ων ούΒεΐ'ός, βΰΒηΧον, οτί και ή Βύναμι<; iv τω 
προς τι. καΐ μ^χρι γ' αν ά'γνοώμεν την ουσίαν 
τή<ί ένερΎούσης αΙτία<ί, Βύναμιν αυτήν ονομάζομβν, 
elvai τίνα \eyovTe'; ev ταΐ<; φΧεψΙν αίματοττοιητι- 
κήν, ώσαύτω<ζ Be καν Trj κοιΧία ττβτττικην καν Tjj 
καρΒία σφυγμικην καΐ καθ' βκαστον των άΧΧων 
10 ΙΒίαν τίνα τ?}? || κατά το μόριον ivepyeia^. eiTrep 
ουν μβθόΒω μέΧΧοιμ€ν e^euprjaeiv, οττόσαι τε καΐ 
οττοΐαί Tive<i αϊ Βυνάμεις elaiv, άττο των βρηων 
αυτών άρκτάον εκαστον yap αυτών ύττο τίνος 
evepyeia^ ytyveTai και τούτων βκάστης ττροηγεΐταί 
τις αίτια. 

"Εργα τοίνυν της φύσεως ετι μεν κυου μενού τε 
καΐ ΒιαττΧαττομενου του ζώου τα σύμτταντ εστί 
του σώματος μόρια, yεvvηθevτoς Βε κοινον εφ' 
άττασιν epyov η εις το τεΧειον εκάστω μeyeθoς 
αγωγ') καΐ μετά ταυθ' η μέχρι του Βυνατοΰ 

'Evepyeiai δ' επϊ τρισϊ τοις είρημένοις εpyoις 
τρεις εξ άvάyκης, εφ' εκάστω μία, yεvεσLς τε κα\ 




The so-called blood-making ^ faculty in the veins, 
then, as Λνεΐΐ as all the other faculties, fall within 
the category of relative concepts ; primarily because 
the faculty is the cause of the activity, but also, 
'ccidentally, because it is the cause of the effect. 
But, if the cause is relative to something — for it is the 
cause of what results from it, and of nothing else — it 
is obvious that the faculty also falls into the category 
of the relative ; and so long as we are ignorant of the 
true essence of the cause which is operating, we call 
it a faculty. Thus we say that there exists in the 
V eins a blood-making faculty, as also a digestive - 
faculty in the stomach, a pulsatile^ faculty in the 
heart, and in each of the other parts a special faculty 
corresponding to the function or activity of that part. 
If, therefore, we are to investigate methodically the 
number and kinds of faculties, we must begin with 
the effects ; for each of these effects comes from a 
certain activity, and each of these again is preceded 
bv a cause. 

The effects of Nature, then, >vhile the animal is 
^till being formed in the ΛνοηΛ, are all the different 
parts of its Ixxly ; and after it has been born, an 
effect in which all parts share is the progress of each 
to its full size, and thereafter its maintenance of 
itself as long as possible. 

The activities corresponding to the three effects 
mentioned are necessarilv three — one to each — 

* Lit. haemaiopo'tiic. ς/". P• 11| «"^e 3. • Lit. peptic. 

• Lit. sphi/gmic. 


ανξησι<{ και θρέψι^;. αλλ' ή μ€Ρ '^/βνβσίς ον-χ 
άπ\ή Ti9 ivepyeia της φυσ€ως, αλλ' βξ άΧΧοι- 
ώσεώ"? re καΐ δίαττλάσεώ? iari σύνθβτος. "να μίν 
yap οστονν 'γένηταί καΐ vevpov καϊ ώΧβψ καΐ των 
άΧλων βκαστον, άΧλοιοΰσθαι χρη την ΰττοβββΧη- 
μβνην ονσίαν, βξ ή<ί yiyveTai το ζωον 'ίνα Be καϊ 
σχήμα το Seov καϊ θέσιν καϊ κοιΧότητάς τινας 
11 καΐ άτΓοφύσεις καϊ συμφύσεί<ζ καϊ ταλλα || τά 
τοιαύτα κτ7]σηται, ΒιαττΧάττεσθαι γ^ρη την άλλοί- 
ουμενην ούσίαν, ην Βη καΐ νΧην του ζωον καΧών, 
ώς της νβως τα ξύΧα καϊ της εικόνος τον κηρόν, 
ουκ αν άμαρτοις. 

Ή δ' αΰξησις ίττίΒοσίς εστί καϊ Βιάστασις κατά, 
μήκος καϊ ττΧάτος καϊ βάθος των στερβών του 
ζώου μορίων, ωιττερ καϊ ή ΒίάττΧασις ήν, ή Be 
θρέψις ττρόσθεσις τοις αύτοΐς άνευ Βιαστάσεως. 


ΪΙβρϊ πρώτης ουν της γενέσεως εϊιτωμ^ν, ην εξ 
άΧλοιώσεώς θ' άμα καϊ ΒιαττΧάσεως εΧε^ομεν 

ΚαταβΧηθεντος Βη του σττερματος εΙς τήν 
μήτραν η εΙς την ^ήν, ούΒεν yap Βιαφέρει, χρόνοις 
τισϊν ώρισμένοις τταμττοΧΧα συνίσταται μόρια 
τής yεvvωμεvης ουσίας vypότητι και ξηρότητι καϊ 
ψνχρότητι καϊ θερμότητι καϊ τοις άΧΧοις άττασιν, 

1 Genesis corresponds to the intrauterine life, or what we 
may call tmbryogeny. Alteration here means histogenesis 
or tissue-production ; shaping or moulding (in Greek diaplatdit) 
means the ordering of these tissues into organs (organogenesis). 



namely. Genesis, Growth, and Nutrition. Genesis, 
however, is not a simple activity of Nature, but is com- 
pounded of alteration and of shaping.^ That is to say, 
in order that bone, nerve, veins, and all other [tissues] 
may come into existence, the underlying substance 
from which the animal springs must be altered ; and 
in order that the substance so altered may acquire 
its appropriate shape and position, its cavities, out- 
growths, attachments, and so forth, it has to undergo 
a shaping or formative process.- One would be 
justified in calling this substance which undergoes 
alteration the material of the animal, just as wood is 
the material of a ship, and wax of an image. 

Growth is an increase and expansion in length, 
breadth, and thickness of the solid parts of the 
animal (those Avhich have been subjected to the 
moulding or shaping process). Nulrition is an addition 
to these, without expansion. 


Let us speak then, in the first place, of Genesis, 
which, as we have said, results from alteration to- 
gether with shaping. 

The seed having been cast into the >vomb or into 
the earth (for there is no difference),^ then, after a 
certain definite period, a great number of parts 
become constituted in the substance \vhich is being 
generated ; these differ as regards moisture, dryness, 
coldness and warmth,* and in all the other qualities 

^ cf. p. 25, note 4. 

• Note inadequate analogy of semen with fertilised seeds 
of plants (i.e. of gamete with zygote). Strictly speaking, of 
course, semen corresponds to pollen, cf. p. 130, note 2. 

* i.e. the four primary qualiiiea ; cf. chap. iiL supra. ^g 


οσα Ύοιηοι^ errerai, 8ιαφεροντα. τά δ' ίττόμβνα 
ytyvu)aK€i<;, ζίττβρ δλως €φι\οσόφησά<; τι ττβρι 
γβι^εσεως καΐ φθοράς• αΐ ΧοιτταΙ yap των άτττών 
όνομαζομβνων Βιαφορων ταΐς βίρημεναις έπονται 

12 ττρώται καΐ μάΧιστα, μ€τα δε τανίτας αϊ yevaTui 
re καΐ οσφρηταΐ καΐ οραται. σκΧηρότης μεν ουν 
κα\ μαΧακοτης καΐ y\ισχ^pότη<ί καΐ κρανρότης και 
κουφότης καΧ βαρύτης καΐ ττυκνότης και άραιότης 
καϊ Χεωτης καΐ τραγύτης καΐ τταχύτης καΐ λετττό- 
της άτΓταΙ ΒιαφοραΙ καϊ €ΐ'ρηται irepX ττασων 
Άριστοτελεί Λ:αλω9. οίσθα he Βήττου και τα? 
7ευστα9 τ€ καϊ οσφρητας καϊ ορατάς διαφοράς, 
ωστ , el μϊν τας ττρώτας τε και στοί^^ε^ώδείν 
άΧΧοιωτικας Βυνάμεις ζητο'ιης, ύypότης βστϊ και 
ξηρότης και ψυχ^ρότης καϊ θερμότης• el δε τάς e/c 
της τούτων κράσεως yevoμevaς, τοσαυται καθ' 
€καστον ίσονται ζωον, οσαττερ αν αύτον τα 
αΙσθητά στοιχεία υττάρχτ)' καΧεΙται δ' αΙσθητα 
στοιγεια τα όμοιομερη ιτάντα του σώματος μόρια' 
καϊ ταΰτ ουκ εκ μεθόδου τίνος άΧΧ αύτότττην 
yεv6μει>ov εκμαθεΐν χρη δίά των ανατομών. 

^Οστοΰν 8η καϊ χόνΒρον καϊ νευρον καϊ υμένα 
καϊ σύνΒεσμον καϊ φΧεβα καϊ ττάνθ' όσα τοιαύτα 
κατά την ττρώτην του ζώου yεveσιv ή φύσις 
atrepyaKeTaL 8υνάμει χρωμενη καθόΧου μεν 

13 είττεΐν τ?! yevvητικη re καϊ αΧΧοιω\\τίκη, κατά 
μέρος δε θερμαντική τε καϊ ψυκτικτ) καϊ ξηραν- 

1 Various secondary or derivative differences in the tissues. 
Note pre-eminence of sense of touch. 

2 De Anima, ii. et acq. 

* Lit. homoe()incroiit = oi similar parts throughout, "the 
same all through." He refers to the elementary tissues, 
conceived as not being susceptible of further analysis. 


which naturally derive therefrom.^ These deriva 
tive qualities, you are acquainted with, if you have 
given any sort of scientific considei-ation to the 
question of genesis and destruction. For, first and 
foremost after the qualities mentioned come the 
other so-called tangible distinctions, and after them 
those Avhich appeal to taste, smell, and sight. 
ΝοΛν, tangible distinctions are hardness and softness, 
viscosity, friability, lightness, heaviness, density, 
rarity, smoothness, roughness, thickness and thin- 
ness ; all of these have been duly mentioned by 
Aristotle.^ And of course you knoAV those Avhich 
appeal to taste, smell, and sight. Therefore, if 
you wish to know which alterative faculties are 
primary and elementary, they are moisture, dry- 
ness, coldness, and Avarmth, and if you Λvish to 
know Λvhich ones arise from the combination of 
these, they Avill be found to be in each animal of a 
number corresponding to its sensible elements. The 
name sensible elements is given to all the hmnogeneous" 
parts of the body, and these are to be detected 
not by any system, but by personal observation of 

Now Nature constructs bone, cartilage, nerve, mem- 
brane, ligament, vein, and so forth, at the first stage 
of the animal's genesis,^ employing at this task a 
faculty which is, in general terms, generative and 
alterative, and, in more detail, warming, chilling, 
drying, or moistening ; or such as spring from the 

* That is, by the bodily eye, and not by the mind's eye. 
The observer is here called an autopfes or "eye-witness." 
Our medical term autopiy thus means literally a persvncU 
inspection of internal parts, ordinarily hidden. 

* i.e. '* alteration " is the earlier of the two stages which 
constitute embryogeny or " genesis." <if. p. 18, note 1. 



riKT] και vypavTiKrj και ταΐς ifc της τούτων 
κράσβως ιγβνομβι/αις, οίον οστοττοιητικτ} τ€ κα\ 
νευροτΓοιητίκτ] καϊ 'χ^ονΒροττοίητικτ}' σαφήνειας 
yap eveKa καϊ τούτοις τοις ονόμασι χρηστάον. 

"Εστί <yovv καϊ ή ί8ία σαρξ του ήπατος €κ 
τούτου του γένους και ή του σττΧηνος καϊ ή των 
νεφρών καϊ ή του πνεύμονας καϊ ή της καρΒίας 
ούτω δε κα\ του ε^κεφαΚου το ΐ8ιον σώμα καΐ 
της ιγαστρος καϊ του στομάχου καϊ των εντέρων 
καϊ των ύστερων αίσθητον στοιγείόν εστίν όμοιο- 
μερες τε καϊ άπΧοΰν καϊ άσύνθετον εάν yap 
εξεΚ7}ς εκάστου των είρημενων τας αρτηρίας τε 
καϊ τας φΧέβας καϊ τα νεύρα, το ύπόΧοιττον 
σώμα το καθ^ εκαστον opyavov άττΧούν εστί καϊ 
στοιγειώ^ες ώς ττρος αϊσθησιν. οσα δε τών 
τοιούτων 6pyάvωv εκ δυοΐν σύyκειτaι ■χιτώνων 
ούχ^ ομοίων μεν άΧλήΧοις, άττΧοΰ δ εκατερου, 
τούτων οι γλίτωνες εισι τά. στοιχ^εΐα καθάττερ της 
τε yaστpbς καϊ τού στομά-χ^ου καϊ τών εντέρων 
καϊ τών αρτηριών, καϊ καθ" εκάτερόν ye τών 
■χ^ιτώνων ϊ8ιος ή άΧλοιωτικη δύναμις ή εκ τού 
14 τταρά της \\ μητρός ετημηνίου yevv■ψτaσa το 
μόρων, ώστε τας κατά μέρος άΧλοιωτικάς δυνά- 
μεις τοσαύτας είναι καθ' εκαστον ζώον, οσαττερ 
&ν εχη τα στοιχειώδη μόρια, καϊ μεν ye καϊ 
τάς εvεpyείaς ιδίας εκάστω τών κατά μέρος 
avayKaiov ύττάρχειν ώσττερ καϊ τάς χρείας, οίον 
καϊ τών άπο τών νεφρών εις την κύστιν διηκόντων 
πόρων, οΐ δη καϊ ουρητήρες καΧούνται. ούτοι 

1 The terms Galen actually uses are : ostopoietic, «euro- 
poielic, chondropoietic 



blending of these, for example, the boue-producing, 
nerve-producing, and cartilage-producing faculties ^ 
(since for the sake of clearness these names must 
be used as well). 

Now the peculiar ^ flesh of the liver is of this kind 
as Λνεΐΐ, also that of the spleen, that of the kidneys, 
that of the lungs, and that of the heart ; so also 
the proper substance of the brain, stomach, gullet, 
intestines, and uterus is a sensible element, of similar 
parts all through, simple, and uncompounded. That 
is to say, if you remove from each of the organs 
mentioned its arteries, veins, and nerves,^ the 
substance remaining in each organ is, from the point 
of vieΛv of the senses, simple and elementary. As 
regards those organs consisting of two dissimilar 
coats,* of which each is simple, of these organs the 
coats are the elements — for example, the coats 
of the stomach, oesophagus, intestines, and arteries ; 
each of these two coats has an alterative faculty 
peculiar to it, which has engendered it from the 
menstrual blood of the mother. Thus the special 
alterative faculties in each animal are of the same 
number as the elementary parts ^ ; and further, 
the activities must necessarily correspond each to one 
of the special parts, just as each part has its special 
tise — for example, those ducts which extend from 
the kidneys into the bladder, and which are called 
ureters ; for these are not arteries, since they do not 
pulsate nor do they consist of two coats ; and they 

' As we should say, parenchyma (a term used by Erasis- 


^ These were all the elementary tissues that Aristotle, for 
example, had recognized ; other tissues {t.g. flesh QK tiuscle) 
he believed to bo complexes of these. 

* Or tunica, ' i.e. tissues. 



yap OUT aprrfpLUC ecaLV, on μητ€ σφυζουσι μητ 
€κ Svoiv χιτώνων σννβστήκασιν, οΰτ€ φΧεβες, οτι 
μηθ^ αίμα ττζριε'χουσι μητ eoiKev αυτών 6 χιτών 
κατά TL τω της φΧ€βό<ϊ' άΧλά καΐ νεύρων irrl 
ifkeov άφεστηκασιν η τών είρημίνων. 

Τί. τΓΟτ' ουν elaiv; βρωτα τί?, ώσττερ άνα^καΐον 
ον άπαν μοριον ή άρτηρίαν η φΧζβα η vevpov 
υττάργβίν η εκ τούτων ττεττΧίχθαι καΐ μη τοΰτ 
αύτο το νυν Χε^ομβνον, ώ<; ΐ8ιος εκάστω τών κατά 
μέρος οργάνων εστίν η ουσία, καΐ yap καΐ αϊ 
κύστεις εκάτεραι ή τε το ουρον ΰττο^εγομενη καϊ 
η την ξανθην χο\ην ου μόνον τών άΧΧ,ων άττάντων 
άΧλα καϊ άΧληΧων Βιαφερονσι καϊ οΐ εΙς το ητταρ 
15 άτΓοφνόμενοι || ττόροι, καθάττερ στόμαχοι τίνες 
άττο της χοΧηΒοχου κύστεως, ούΒεν οΰτ άρτηρίαις 
οΰτε φΧεψΙν ούτε νεύροις εοίκασιν, αλλά ττερί 
μεν τούτων εττΐ ττΧεον εν άΧλοις τε τισί καν τοΐς 
•περΧ της Ίτητοκράτους ανατομής εϊρηται. 

Αι δε κατά μέρος αττασαι Βυνάμεις της φύσεως 
αΐ αΚΚοιωτικαϊ αύτην μεν την ούσιαν τών χιτώ- 
νων της κοιλίας καϊ τών εντέρων και τών υστερών 
άττετέλεσαν, οΐαττερ εστί• την Βε σύνθεσιν αυτών 
καϊ την τών εμφυομενων ττΧοκην καϊ την εις το 
εντερορ εκφυσιν και την της ενόον κοιΧότητος 
ί8έαν και TaX}C οσα τοιαύτα Βύναμίς τις έτερα 
διέττΧασεν, ην Βιαττλαστικην όνομάζομεν, ην 8η 
και τεχνικην είναι Xέyoμεv, μάΧΧον δ' άρίστην 
καϊ άκραν τεχνην καϊ ττάντα τίνος ένεκα ττοιουσαν, 
ώς μηδέν apyov είναι μη8ε ττεριττον μη8 οΧως 

' As, for example. Aristotle had held ; cf. p. 23, note 3. 
Galen added many new tissues to those descinbed by Aristotle. 



are not veins, since they neither contain blood, nor 
do their coats in any way resemble those of veins ; 
from nerves they differ still more than from the 
structures mentioned. 

" What, then, are they ? " someone asks — as 
though every part must necessarily be either an 
artery, a vein, a nerve, or a complex of these,^ 
and as though the truth were not what I am now 
stating, namely, that every one of the various 
organs has its own particular substance. For in fact 
the two bladders — that which receives the urine, 
and that which receives the yellow bile — not only 
differ from all other organs, but also from one 
another. Further, the ducts which spring out like 
kinds of conduits from the gall-bladder and which 
pass into the liver have no resemblance either to 
arteries, veins or nerves. But these parts have been 
treated at a greater length in my \vork " On the 
Anatomy of Hippocrates," as well as elsewhere. 

As for the actual substance of the coats of the 
stomach, intestine,~and uterus, each of these has 
been rendered Λvhat it is by a special alterative 
faculty of Nature ; while the bringing of these 
together,* the combination therewith of the structures 
which are inserted into them, the outgrowth into the 
intestine,^ the shape of the inner cavities, and the 
like, have all been determined by a facidty which we 
call the shaping or formative faculty*; this faculty 
we also state to be arlislic — nay, the best and highest 
art — doing everything for some purpose, so that 

- Lit. synthesvi. 

' By this is meant tlie duodenum, considered as an out- 
growth or prolongation of the stomach towards the in- 

« cf. p. 19, note 2. 



όντως €χον, ως Βννασθαί βέΧτιον ίτερως βγβιν. 
αλλά τούτο μίν ev τοις irepX -χρείας μορίων 
άίΓοΒεί^οιχ,εν. II 


1β ΈτΓΐ δε την αυζητικην η8η μβταβάντες Ζύναμίν 
αυτό τοϋθ^ ύττομνησωμεν πρώτον, ως υπάρχει 
μεν καΧ αυτή τοις κυουμενοις ώσττερ καΐ η θρεπ- 
τική' ίΐλλ' οίον ύπηρετιΒες τινές είσι τηνικαΰτα 
των προειρημένων Βυνάμεων, ουκ εν αύταΐς 
εχουσαι το πάν κνρος. επειΒάν Βε το τεΧειον 
άποΧάβτ) μί'^εθος το ζωον, εν τω μετά την 
άποκύησιν χρόνω παντϊ μέχρι της ακμής ή μεν 
αυξητική τηνικαΰτα κρατεί' βοηθοί δ' αυτής καΐ 
οίον ΰπηρέτιΒες ή τ' άΧλοιωτικη Βύναμίς εστί 
και η θρεπτική, τι ουν το ϊΒιόν εστί της αυ- 
ξητικής Βυνάμεως; εΙς πάν μέρος εκτεΐναι τά 
πεφυκότα. καΧεΐται δ' ούτω τά στέρεα μόρια 
του σώματος, άρτηρίαι καΐ φΧέβες καΐ νεύρα και 
οστά και χόνΒροι καΐ υμένες και σύνΒεσμοι καϊ οι 
χιτώνες άπαντες, ους στοιχειώΒεις τε καϊ ομοιο- 
μερεΐς καϊ άπΧούς oXiyov έμπροσθεν (καΧούμεν. 
δτω Βε τρόπω την εις πάν μέρος εκτασιν ϊσχουσιν, 
εγώ φράσω παράΒεΐ'^μά τι πρότερον ειπών ένεκα 
τον σαφούς. \\ 

17 Ύάς κύστεις τών νών Χαβόντες οι παΐΒες 
πΧηρούσί τε πνεύματος και τρίβονσιν επϊ τής 
τέφρας πΧησίον τον πυρός, ώς άΧεαίνεσθαι μεν, 
βΧάπτεσθαι Βε μηΒέν καϊ ποΧΧή y αύτη ή 

* Lit. the auxetic or incremental faculty. 


there is nothing inefFective or superfluous, or capable 
of being better disposed. This, however, I shall 
demonstrate in my \vork " On the Use of Parts. 


Passing now to the faculty of Growth ^ let us 
first mention that this, too, is present in the foetus 
in utero as is also the nutritive faculty, but that 
at that stage these two faculties are, as it Λvere, 
handmaids to those already mentioned,^ and do not 
possess in themselves supreme authority. When, 
however, the animal ^ has attained its complete size, 
then, during the Λvhole period following its birth and 
until the acme is reached, the faculty of groΛvi;h is 
predominant, while the alterative and nutritive 
faculties are accessory — in fact, act as its handmaids. 
What, then, is the property of this faculty of groAvth ? 
To extend in every direction that which has already 
come into existence — that is to say, the solid parts of 
the body, the arteries, veins, nerves, bones, cartilages, 
membranes, ligaments, and the various coats which 
we have just called elementary, homogeneous, and 
simple. And I shall state in what way they gain this 
extension in every direction, first giving an illustra- 
tion for the sake of clearness. 

Children take the bladders of pigs, fill them with 
air, and then rub them on ashes near the fire, so as to 
>varm, but not to injure them. This is a common 

^ i.e. to the alterative and shaping facolties (histogenetic 
and orgariogenetic). 

^ If the reading is correct we can odIj suppose that Galen 
meant tht embryo. 



iraiSia ττβρί re την ^Ιωνίαν καϊ iv αΧλοις βθνεσυ 
ουκ okiyoL^ iariv. eTTiki'yovai δέ δί) και τιν 6ττη 
τρίβοντες iv μάτρω τέ rivc καϊ μέΧβι καϊ ρυθμω 
καϊ βστί ττάντα τα ρήματα ταντα τταρακέΧενσις 
ττ} κνστεί ττρο^; την αΰξησιν. eTreiBav δ' ίκανώς 
αντοΐς Βιατετάσθαι 8οκη, τταλιν βμφνσώσί τε καϊ 
€7nScaT€Lvovac καϊ ανθι<; τρίβονσι καϊ τοΰτο 
7Γ\€ονακίς ττοιονσιν, άχρί'ζ αν αντοΐς ι) κνστί<; 
ίκανώ<; e^eiv Soktj της αυξήσεως, αλλ' iv τούτοις 
ye τοις €pyoις των τταίΒων ivapyώς, όσον εΙς 
μeyeθoς εττίΖ'ώωσιν η ivτoς ενρνχ^ωρία της 
κνστεως, τοσούτον avayKatov εΙς Χετττότητα 
καθαιρ€Ϊσβαι, το σώμα καϊ et ye την Χετττότητα 
ταύτην άνατρεφειν οΙοί τ ήσαν οι τταΐΒες, ομοίως 
αν ττ} φνσεο την κύστιν iv μικράς μeyάXηv 
ά7Γ€ιpyάζovτo. νννΐ Be τοντ αύτοΐς ii'Bei το 
epyov ovBe καθ^ eva τρόττον εΙς μίμησιν ενΒεχό- 
18 μενον άγθηναι μη οτι τοις || ττοισίν αλλ' ούδ' αλλω 
τινι,' μονής yap της φύσεως ϊΒιόν εστίν, 

"Ω,στ ηΒη σοι ΒήΧον, ώς avayKaia τοις αύζανο- 
μενοις η θρεψις. et yap Βιατείνοιτο μεν, άνατρε- 
φοιτο Βε μη, φαντασίαν -ψευΒή μαΧΧον, ουκ 
αΰξησιν αληθή τα τοιαύτα σώματα κτήσεται. 
καίτοι καϊ το Βιατείνεσθαι ττάντη μόνοις τοΐς υττο 
φύσεως ανξανομενοις ύττάρχ^ει. τα yap ύφ^ ημών 
Βιατεινόμενα σώματα κατά μίαν τινά Βιάστασιν 
τοΰτο ττάσ-χ^οντα μειούται ταΐς Χοιτταΐς, ούΒ' εστίν 
ευρείν ούΒεν, ο συνεχές ετι μενον κα\ άΒιάστταστον 
εις τάς τρεις Βιαστάσεις i^Γεκτεΐvaι Βυνάμεθα. 
μόνης ουν της φύσεως το ττάντη Βιιστάναι συνεχές 
εαυτω μενον εη καϊ την άρχαιαν αττασαν ΙΒεαν 
φυΧάττον το σώμα. 



trame in the district of Ionia, and among not a few 
other nations. As tliey rub, they sing songs, to a 
certain measure, time, and rhythm, and all their words 
are an exhortation to the bladder to increase in size. 
When it appears to them fairly weW distended, they 
again blow air into it and expand it further ; then 
they rub it again. This they do several times, until 
the bladder seems to them to have become large 
enough. Now, clearly, in these doings of the children, 
the more the interior cavity of the bladder increases 
in size, the thinner, necessarily, does its substance 
l)ecome. But, if the children were able to bring 
nourishment to this thin part, then they ΛνουΜ make 
the bladder big in the same way that Nature does. 
As it is, hoAvever, they cannot do what Nature does, 
for to imitate this is beyond the power not only of 
children, but of any one soever ; it is a property of 
Nature alone. 

It Λνϋΐ now, therefore, be clear to you that nutrilioti 
is a necessity for growing things. For if such bodies 
were distended, but not at the same time nourished, 
they would take on a false appearance of growth, 
not a true growth. And further, to be distended 
i?i all directions belongs only to bodies whose 
i^rowth is directed by Nature ; for those which are 
distended by us undergo this distension in one 
direction but grow less in the others ; it is im- 
possible to find a body which will remain entire 
and not be torn through Λvhilst we stretch it in 
the three dimensions. Thus Nature alone has the 
poAver to expand a body in all directions so that it 
remains unruptured and preserves completely its 
previous form. 



ΚαΙ τοΟτ' €στιν ή αΰξησις avev τή<; €7ηρρ€θύση<ί 
T€ καυ ττροσττΧαττομενη^ τροφή<ϊ μη Βυναμένη 


ΚαΙ τοινυν ο λόγο9 ηκβιν βοίκεν 6 irepl της 
θρ€\{τ€ω<;, 09 Βη λοίπό? iari καΐ τρίτος ων €ξ 
αρχή'ί ττρονθίμβθα. του <yap ετηρρβοντα ev eiSei 
19 τροφής τταντί \\ μορίω τον τρεφομένου σώματος 
7Γ ροσπΧαττομένου θρβψις μεν ή ivepyeia, θρεπτική 
Βε Βύναμις ή αΙτία. άΧλοίωσις μεν Βη κάνταυθα 
το <γενος της ενερ'^είας, αλλ' ούχ ο'ίατνερ η εν ττ} 
γενέσει, εκεί μεν yap ούκ ον ττρότερον ύστερον 
iyiv6T0, κατά, Βε την θρέψιν τω ήΒη 'γε'γονότι 
συνεξομοιουται το εττιρρέον καϊ Βιά τοΰτ ευλόγως 
εκείνην μεν την αΧΚοίωσιν ηένεσιν, ταύτην δ' 
εξομοίωσιν ώνόμασαν. 


*Επ€ίδ^ δε ττερί των τριών Βυνάμεων της φύσεως 
αύτάρκως εϊρηται καϊ φαίνεται μηΒεμιάς άΧλης 
ΊτροσΒεΙσθαι το ζφον, έχον γε κα\ οττως αυξηθη 
και οττως τεΧειωθγ καϊ οττως εως ττΧείστου Βιαφυ- 
Χαχθτ}, Βόξειε μεν αν ΐσως ίκανώς εχειν ό λόγοί 
οΰτος ηΒη καϊ ττάσας εζη^εΐσθαι τάς της φύσεως 
Βυνάμεις. αλλ' εϊ τις ττάΧιν εννοησειεν, ως ού- 



Such then is grcnvth, and it cannot occur w ithout 
the nutriment which flows to the part and is worked 
up into it. 


We have, then, it seems, arrived at the subject 
of Nutrition, >vhich is the third and remaining con- 
sideration which we proposed at the outset. For. 
when the matter which flows to each part of the 
body in the form of nutriment is being worked up 
into it, this activity is nidntion, and its cause is the 
mitntive faculty. Of course, the kind of activity 
here involved is also an alleralion, but not an altera- 
tion like that occurring at the stage of genesis.^ For 
in the latter case something comes into existence 
which did not exist previously, while in nutrition the 
inflowing material becomes assimilated to that >vhich 
has already come into existence. Therefore, the 
former kind of alteration has with reason been termed 
genesis, and the latter, assimilation. 


Now, since the three faculties of Nature have 
been exhaustively dealt with, and the animal would 
appear not to need any others (being possessed of 
the means for growing, for attaining completion, and 
for maintaining itself as long a time as possible), 
this treatise might seem to be already complete, and 
to constitute an exposition of all the faculties of 
Nature. If, however, one considers that it has not 

^ i.e. not the pre natal development of tissue already 
described, ς/", chap, vi, 



δβΓΟ? ovheTTw των τον ζώου μορίων ζφή-^ατο, 
κοιλίας λέγω καΐ εντέρων καϊ ήπατος καΐ των 
ομοίων, ovS e^yiyrjaaTO τάς iv αύτοΐς 8ννάμ€ίς, 
αύθις So^ecev αν οίον ττροοίμιόν τι μόνον ειρήσθαι 
•20 της ■χρησίμου 8ι8ασκα\ίας. || το yap σύμπαν ώδ' 
εχ€ί. <γβν€σις καϊ αΰξησις καϊ θρβψις τα πρώτα 
καϊ οίον κβφάΧαια των βρ'γων έστΙ της φύσεως• 
ώστε καϊ αϊ τούτων ερ^αστικαΧ δυνάμεις αϊ 
πρωται τρεις είσι καϊ κυριώταταΐ' Ββονται δ' εΙς 
ύπηρεσιαν, ώς ηδη δεΒεικται, καϊ άΧληΧων καϊ 
άΧλων. Τίνων μεν ουν ή γεννητική τε καϊ αυξη- 
τική Ζεονται, εϊρηται, τίνων δ' y) θρεπτική, νυν 

Αοκω <γάρ μοι Ζείζειν τα περί την της τροφής 
οίκονομίαν opyavd τε καϊ τας δυνάμεις αυτών 
Βιά ταύτην yεyovότa. επειΒη yap ή εvεpyειa 
ταύτης της δυνάμεως εξομοίωσίς εστίν, ομοιοΰ- 
σθαι δε καϊ μεταβάΧλειν εις άΧληΧα πάσι τοις 
οΐισιν αδύνατον, ει μή τίνα εχοι κοινωνίαν ήδη 
και συyyεvειav εν ταις ποιότησι, δια τοΰτο 
πρώτον μεν ουκ εκ πάντων εδεσμάτων παν ζωον 
τρεφεσθαι πεφυκεν, έπειτα δ' ούδ' εξ ων οΙόν τ 
εστίν ούδ' εκ τούτων παραχρήμα, και δια ταύτην 

^ Administration, lit. "economy." 

' The activation or functionivg of this faculty, the faculty 
in actttal operation, cf. p. 3, note 2. 



vet touched upon any of the parts of the animal (I 
mean the stomach, intestines, liver, and the Uke), 
and that it has not dealt \vith the faculties resident 
tn these, it will seem as though merely a kind of in- 
troduction had been given to the practical parts of 
our teaching. For the whole matter is as follows : 
Genesis, groAvth, and nutrition are the first, and, so 
to say, the principal effects of Nature ; similarly also 
the faculties Avhich produce these effects — the first 
faculties — are three in number, and are the most 
dominating of all. But as has already been shown, 
these need the service both of each other, and of 
vet different faculties. ΝοΛν, these Λvhich the 
faculties of generation and growth require have 
been stated. I shall now say what ones the nutritive 
faculty requires. 

For I believe that I shall prove that the organs 
which have to do >vith the disposal ^ of the nutri- 
ment, as also their faculties, exist for the sake of 
this niitntive faailty. For since the action of this 
faculty ^ is assimilalioii, and it is impossible for any- 
thing to be assimilated by, and to change into 
anything else unless they already possess a certain 
communily and affinity in their qualities,^ therefore, in 
-the first place, any animal cannot naturally derive 
nourishment from any kind of food, and secondly, 
even in the case of those from which it can do so, it 
cannot do this at once. Therefore, by reason of 

' " Un rapport commun et une aflBnit^" (Daremberg). 
"Societat«m alicjuam cognationemque in qualitatibus " (Liu- 
acre), cf. p. 36, note 2. 


την άνά'γκην trXeiovoiv ορηάνων αΧΧοίωτικων τή<ί 

21 Ύροφή<; βκαστον \\ των ζωών 'χρ^ζβι. ίνα μβν <γαρ 
το ξανθον έρνθρον Ύβνηταί και το βρυθρον ξανθόν, 
άττΧής καΧ μίας Βεΐται της άλ\οιώσεω<;' 'ίνα δε το 
XevKov μεΧαν καϊ το μβΧαν Χβυκόν, άττασών των 
μεταξύ, καϊ τοίννν καϊ το μαλακώτατον ουκ αν 
αθρόως σκΧηροτατον καϊ το σκ\ηρότατον ουκ αν 
αθρόως μαλακώτατον (γένοιτο, ώσττερ ov8e το 
ΒυσωΒβστατον εύωΒεστατον ούδ' €μπα\ιν το εύω- 
δύστατον ΒυσωΒεστατον €ξαίφνης yevotT^ αν. 

ΤΙώς ουν εξ αίματος όστοΰν αν ττοτε yevoiTO μη 
Ίταγυνθ εντός <ye ττρότερον εττΐ ττΧεΙστον αυτοΰ καϊ 
Χευκανθεντος η πώς εξ άρτου το αίμα μη κατά 
βραγυ μεν άττοθεμένου την Χευκότητα, κατά 
βραγυ hk Χαμβάνοντος την ερυθρότητα; σάρκα 
μεν yap εξ αίματος γενέσθαι ραστον ει yap εΙς 
τοσούτον αυτό 'τταγυνειεν η φύσις, ώς σύστασίν 
τίνα σχεΐν καϊ μηκετ είναι ρυτόν, η ττρώτη καϊ 
vεo^Γayης ούτως αν εϊη σαρξ' όστούν δ' ϊνα yέvη- 
ται, ττοΧΧου μεν Βεΐται χρόνου, ττοΧΧής δ' εpyaσίaς 
καϊ μεταβοΧης τω αϊματι. οτι Βε καϊ τω αρτφ 

22 καϊ ττοΧύ μάΧΧον θριΒα\\κίνη και τεύτΧω καϊ τοις 
όμοίοις τταμττόΧΧης Βεΐται της άΧΧοιώσεως είς 
αίματος yεvεσιv, ούΒε τοΰτ άΒηΧον. 

'Έι/ μεν Βη τοΰτ αΧτιον του πολλά yεvεσθaι τα 
•περϊ την της τροφής άΧΧοίωσιν opyava. Βεύτερον 
δ' ή τών περιττωμάτων φύσις. ώς yap ύττό 
βοτάνων ούδ' οΧως Βυνάμεθα τρεφεσθαι, καίτοι 
τών βοσκημάτων τρεφομένων, ούτως νττο ραφανί- 

^ Lit. "necessity"; more restrictive, however, than our 
" law of Nature." cf. p. 314, note 1. 

'■* His point is that no great change, in colours or in any- 
thing else, can take place at one step. 



this law,^ every animal needs several organs for 
altering the nutriment. For in order that the yellow- 
may become red, and the red yellow, one simple 
process of alteration is required, but in order that 
the white may become black, and the black white, 
all the intermediate stages are needed. ^ So also, a 
thing which is very soft cannot all at once become 
\ery hard, nor vice versa ; nor, similarly can anything 
w hich has a very bad smell suddenly become quite 
fragrant, nor again, can the converse happen. 

How, then, could blood ever turn into bone, with- 
out having first become, as far as possible, thickened 
and white ? And how could bread turn into blood 
without having gradually parted with its white- 
ness and gradually acquired redness .'' Thus it is 
quite easy for blood to become flesh ; for, if Nature 
thicken it to such an extent that it acquires a 
certain consistency and ceases to be fluid, it thus 
becomes original newly-formed flesh ; but in order 
that blood may turn into bone, much time is needed 
and much elaboration and transformation of the 
blood. Further, it is quite clear that bread, and, 
more particularly lettuce, beet, and the like, re- 
quire a great deal of alteration in order to become 

This, then, is one reason why there are so many 
organs concerned in the alteration of food. A 
second reason is the nature of the superflidlies.^ For, 
as we are unable to draw any nourishment from 
grass, although this is possible for cattle, similarly 
we can derive nourishment from radishes, albeit not 

3 Not quite our "waste product-^" since these are con- 
sidered as being partly synthetic, whereas the (ireek perillo- 
ricUa were simply superfluous substances which could not be 
used and were thrown aside. 



009 τρβφομεθα μ€ν, άΧΧ ούχ ώς ύττο των κρεών. 
τούτων μβν yap oXiyov Betv οΧων ή φνσι<; ημών 
κρατβΐ και μεταβάΧλξί καϊ αΚΚοίοΙ καϊ γ^ρηστον 
€ξ αυτών αίμα συνίστησιν iv δε τ^ ραφαι>ί8ι το 
μβν οΙκ€Ϊον τ€ καϊ μβταβΧηθήναί Βυνάμβνον , μΰyις 
καϊ τοΰτο καϊ συν ttoWtj ttj KaTepyaaia, τταντά- 
πασιν βΧάχιστοί'• οΧη δ' 6Xίyoυ Seiv βστι ττβρίτ- 
τωματικη καϊ Βιβξερχ^βταί τα της πέψεως opyava, 
βραγβα βξ αύτή<{ eh τας φΧεβα<ί άναΧηφθεντα 
αίματο<ί καϊ ούδε τούτου τεΧβως ■χρηστού. BevTe- 
ρα<; ουν αυθί<ζ εδέησε 8ίακρ[σεω<; τη φύσει τών εν 
ταΐς φΧε\ΙτΙ ττεριττωμάτων. καϊ χρεία καϊ τού- 
•i.S τοις οΒών τε τίνων έτερων εττΐ τας εκ\\κρίσει<ί αυτά 
7Γapayoυσώv, ώ? μη Χυμαίνοιτο τοις χρηστοΐς, 
υποδοχών τε τίνων οίον δεξαμενών, εν αίς όταν 
εις Ικανον ττΧήθος άφίκηται, τηνικαντ εκκριθή- 

Αεύτερον δή σοι και τοΰτο το yεvoς τών εν τω 
σώματι μορίων εξεύρηται τοις ττεριττώμασι της 
τροφής άνακειμενον. αΧΧο δε τρίτον ύττερ του 
ττάντη φερεσθαι, καθάττερ τίνες όδοΙ ττοΧΧαΙ Βιά 
του σώματος οΧου κατατετμημεναι. 

Μια μεν yap είσοδος η Βια του στόματος αττασι 
τοις σιτίοις, ούχ εν Be το τρεφόμενον άΧΧά 
παμτΓοΧΧά τε και τταμτΓολυ Βιεστώτα. μη τοίνυν 
θαύμαζε το ττΧηθος τών 6pyάvωv, οσα βρεψεως 
ένεκεν ή φύσις e8ημιoύpyησε. τά μίν yap αΧΧοι- 

' Note " our natures," cf. p. 12, note 4 ; p. 47, note ). 

^ The term oiKflos, here rendered appropriate, is explained 
on p. 33. cf. also footnote on same page. Linacre often 
translated it conveniens, and it may usually be rendered 
proper, peculiar, own special, or own particular in English. 
Sometimes it is almost equal to ahin, cognate, rdaied : cf. 



to the same extent as from meat ; for almost the 
whole of the latter is mastered by our natures ^ ; 
it is transformed and altered and constituted useful 
blood ; but, in the radish, Avhat is appropriate - and 
capable of being altered (and that only with diffi- 
culty, and \vith much labour) is the very smallest 
part ; almost the whole of it is surplus matter, and 
passes through the digestive organs, only a very 
little being taken up into the veins as blood — nor is 
this itself entirely utilisable blood. Nature, there- 
fore, had need of a second process of separation for 
the superfluities in the veins. Moreover, these super- 
fluities need, on the one hand, certain fresh routes to 
conduct them to the outlets, so that they may not 
noil the useful substances, and they also need 
ertain reservoirs, as it were, in which they are 
collected till they reach a sufficient quantity, and 
ire then discharged. 

Thus, then, you have discovered bodily parts of a 
second kind, consecrated in this case to the [removal 
of the] superfluities of the food. There is, however, 
also a third kind, for carrying the pabulum in every 
direction ; these are like a number of roads inter- 
secting the whole body. 

Thus there is one entrance — that through the 
mouth — for all the various articles of food. What 
receives nourishment, however, is not one single part, 
-but a great many parts, and these Avidely separatee' : 
do not be surprised, therefore, at the abundance of 
organs which Nature has created for the purpose oi 
nutrition. For those of them which have to do with 

p. 319, note 2. With Galen's oIkuos and άλλότρίοι we may 
compare the German terms eigen and fremd used by Aber- 
halden in connection with hia theory of defensive fermente in 
the blood-serum. 



οΟι>τα "προΊταρασκευάζα την ετητήδείον ίκάστω 
μορίω τροφήν, τα δε διακρίνει τα ττβριττώματα, 
τα δε 7Γαρα7Γ€μ7Γ€ΐ, τα δ' ύττοδβχεταί, τα δ 
εκκρίνει, τα δ' όδοί τη<; ττάντη φοράς είσι των 
•χ^ρηστών γνμών, ωστ, εΐττερ βονΧει τα? δυνάμεις 
της φύσεως άττάσας εκμαθεΐν, νττερ εκάστου 
τούτων αν εΐη σοι των οργάνων ετησκετττεον. 
24 ^Αρχη δ' αύτων της 8ι8ασκαΧίας, οσα \\ του 
τέλους εγγύς ερ^α re της φύσεως εστί καΐ μόρια 
καΐ δυνάμεις αύτων. 


Χυτοί) δε δ^ ττάΧιν άναμνηστεον ημΐν του 
τεΧ,ους, ούττερ ένεκα τοσαυτά τ ε και τοιαύτα τη 
φύσει Βε^ημιούρΎηται μόρια, το μεν ουν όνομα 
του ΊτραΎματος, ωσπερ καΐ ττρότερον εϊρηται, 
θρεψις' ό δε κατά τοΰνομα λ,όγο? όμοίωσις τον 
τρεφοντος τω τρεφομενω. 'ίνα δ' αΰτη 'γενηται, 
ττροη'γησασθαι χρη ττρόσφυσιν, ίνα δ' εκείνη, 
ττρόσθεσιν. εττεώαν <γαρ εκττεστ) των αγγείων 
ό μέΧλων θρεψειν ότιονν των του ζώου μορίων 
γυμός, εις ατταν αυτό διασπείρεται ττρώτον, 
εττειτα προστίθεται κάττειτα ττροσφύεται και 
τεΧεως όμοιουται. 

* Transit, c/. p. 6, note 1. 

• i.e. of the living organism, cf. p. 2, note 1. 

• i.e. with nutrition. 

* We might perhaps say, more shortl}', "assimilation of 
food to feeder," or, "of food to fed"; Linacre renders, 
" nutrimenti cum uutrito assimilatio." 



alteration prepare the nutriment suitable for each 
part ; others separate out the superfluities ; some 
pass these along, others store them up, others ex- 
crete them ; some, again, are paths for the transit ^ 
in all directions of the ut'ilisahle juices. So, if you 
wish to gain a thorough acquaintance with all the 
faculties of Nature,^ you will have to consider each 
one of these organs. 

Now in giving an account of these Λνβ must begin 
\\ith those effects of Nature, together with their 
corresponding parts and faculties, which are closely 
connected with the purpose to be achieved.' 


Let us once more, then, recall the actual purpose 
for Λνΐηοΐι Nature has constructed all these parts. Its 
name, as previously stated, is nutrition, and the defini- 
tion corresponding to the name is : an assimi/afion of' 
that which nourishes to that which receives nourishment.* 
And in order that this may come about, >ve must 
issume a preliminary process cf adhesion,^ and for 
':hat, again, one of presentation.^ For whenever the 
iice which is destined to nourish any of the parts of 
the animal is emitted from the vessels, it is in the 
tirst place dispersed all through this part, next it is 
presented, and next it adheres, and becomes com- 
pletely assimilated. 

* Lit. prosphysis, i.e. attachment, implantation. 

• Lit. prosthesvi, "apposition." One is almost tempted to 
c-tain the terms j/rGstheins and prosphysis in translation, as 
ney obviously correspond much more closely to Galen's 

physiological conceptions than any £uglieh or semi-English 
words can. 



* ΑηΧονσι δ' αΐ καΧ,ονμεναι \evKai την Βιαφοράν 
ομοιώσεων re καϊ ττροσφνσεως, ωσττβρ το yevo^ 
εκείνο των ύΒέρων, 6 τίνες ονομάζουσιν άνα 
σάρκα, Βίορίζει σαφώς ττρόσθεσιν ττροσφύσεως. 
ου yap ivBeia 8ήπον της εττιρρ^ούσης υ^ρότητος, 
ώ? evLai των ατροφιών τε καΐ φθίσεων, ή του 

25 τοιούτου 'γενεσις ύ8ερου \\ συντεΧεΐται. φαίνεται 
yap Ικανώς η τε σαρξ hypa καϊ 8ιάβρο-χος 
εκαστόν τε τών στερεών του σώματος μορίων 
ωσαύτως Βιακείμενον. αλλά ττρόσθεσις μεν τις 
yίyvετaι της εττιφερομενης τροφής, ατε δ' ύ8ατω- 
δεστερας ούσης ετι καϊ μη ττάνυ τι κεχυμωμενης 
μηΒε το y\ίσ'χpov εκείνο καϊ κοΧ\ώ8ες, ο Βη 
της εμφύτου θερμασίας οΙκονομία 'πpoσyίyvετaι, 
κεκτημένης η ττρόσφυσις ά8ύνατός εστίν εττι- 
τεΧεΐσθαι ττΧηθει Χετττης ύypότητoς άττετττου 
Βιαρρεούσης τε καϊ ρα8ίως οΧισθαινούσης αττο 
τών στερεών του σώματος μορίων της τροφής, 
εν 8ε ταΐς Χεύκαις ττρόσφυσις μεν τις yιyvετaι 
της τροφής, ου μην εξομοίωσίς yε. καϊ 8ήΧον εν 
τώ8ε το μικρώ ττρόσθεν ρηθέν ώς ορθώς ε\εyετo 
το 8εΐν ττρόσθεσιν μεν ττρώτον, εφεξής 8ε ττρόσ- 
φύσιν, εττειτ εξομοίωσιν yεvεσθaι τω μεΧΧοντι 

Κυρίως μεν ονν το τρεφον η8η τροφή, το δ' οίον 
μεν τροφή, οΰττω 8ε τρεφον, οττοΐον εστί το 
ττροσφυομενον ή ιτροστιθεμενον, τροφή μεν ου 

* Lit. phthieM. cf. p. 6, note 2. Now means ttiherculosis 

^ More literally, "chymified." In anasarca the sub- 
cutaneous tissue is soft, and pits on pressure. In the "white" 
disease referred to here (by which is probabl}' meant nodular 
leprosy) the same tissue* are indurated and " brawny." The 



The so-called white [leprosy] shows the differ- 
ence between assimilation and adhesion, in the 
^;\me way that the kind of dropsy Λvhic■h some people 
all anasarca clearly distinguishes presentation from 
adhesion. For, of course, the genesis of such a 
dropsy does not come about as do some of the condi- 
tions of atrophy and wasting,^ from an insufficient 
supply of moisture ; the flesh is obviously moist 
enough, — in fact it is thoroughly saturated, — and 
each of the solid parts of the body is in a similar 
condition. While, ho\vever, the nutriment conveyed 
to ti:e pirt does undergo presentation, it is still too 
watery, and is not properly transformed into a Juice,- 
nor has it acquired that viscous and agglutinative 
quality which results from the operation of innate 
heat ; ^ therefore, adhesion cannot come about, since, 
o\ving to this abundance of thin, crude liquid, the 
pabulum runs off and easily slips away from the solid 
parts of the body. In white [leprosy], again, there 
is adhesion of the nutriment but no real assimilation. 
From this it is clear that what I have just said is 
correct, namely, that in that part which is to be 
nourished there must first occur presentation, next 
adhesion, and finally assimilation proper. 

Strictly speaking, then, nutriment is that which is 
actually nourishing, \vhile the quasi-nutnment Avhich is 
not yet nourishing {e.g. matter Λvhich is undergoing 
adhesion or presentation) is not, strictly speaking, 
nutriment, but is so called only by an equivocation. 

principle of certain diseases being best explained as cases of 
arrtxt at various stages of the metabolic path is recognized 
in n)o<lei-n pathology, although of course the instances given 
by Galen are too crude to stand. 

' The effects of oxidation attributed to the heat which 
accompanies it. ? ς/", p. 141, note 1 ; p. 234, note 1. 



κυρίω<;, ομνννμω<; Se τροφή• το δ' iv ταΐς ψΧβψΙν 

26 ert ττβριβ'χ^όμβνον || καΧ τούτου μάλλον 'έτι το κατά 
την 'yaaTepa τω μεΧΧειν ττοτβ θρέψειν, el καλώς 
κατερ^ασθβίη, κέκληταί τροφή, κατά ταυτά Be 
και των έΒβσμάτων εκαστον τροφην ονομάζομβν 
ούτ€ τω τρ€φ€ΐν ή8η το ζωον οΰτε τω τοιούτον 
ύττάρχ^ειν οίον το τρβφον, αλλά τω Βύνασθαί τβ 
καϊ μ€λλ€ΐν τρζφβιν, el καλώς κατερΎασθείη. 

Ύοΰτο jap ην καϊ το ττρό? ΊτττΓοκράτονς 
ΧεΎομενον " Τροφή δε το τρέφον, τροφή καϊ το 
οίον τροφή και το μέΧΧον." το μεν jap όμοιου- 
evov ή8η τροφην ώνόμασε, το δ' οίοΐ' μεν εκείνο 
ττροστιθεμενον ή ττροσφνόμενον οίον τροφην το 
δ' άΧΧο ττάν, όσον εν ττ} ^αστρί καϊ ταΐς φλεψΐ 
ττεριεγεται, μέλΧον. 


Οτι μεν ουν αναηκαΐον όμοίωσίν τιν eivai τον 
τρεφοντος τω τρεφομενω την θρεψιν, άντικρυς 
ΒηΧον. ου μην ΰττάρ'χουσαν ye ταντην την όμοί- 
ωσίν, άΧΧα φαινομενην μόνον elva'i φασιν οι μήτε 
τεχνικην οίόμενοι την φνσιν elvai μήτε ττρονοη- 
τικην του ζώου μήθ^ όλως τινας οικείας ε-χειν 
Βυνάμεις, αίς ■χρωμένη τα μεν άΧλοιοΐ, τα δ' 

27 έλκει, \\ τα δ' εκκρίνει. 

ΚαΙ αύται Βύο ηε^όνασιν αιρέσεις κατα >^ενος 
εν ιατρική τε και φιλοσοφία τών άττοφηναμενωρ 



Also, that which is still contained in the veins, and 
still more, that which is in the stomach, from the fact 
that it is destined to nourish if properly elaborated, 
has been called "nutriment." Similarly we call the 
various kinds of food " nutriment," not because they 
are already nourishing the animal, nor because they 
exist in the same state as the material which actually 
is nourishing it, but because they are able and 
destined to nourish it if they be properly elaborated. 
This Λvas also what Hippocrates said, viz., " Nutri- 
ment is what is engaged in nourishing, as also is 
quasi -nutriment, and what is destined to be nutri- 
ment." For to that which is already being assimi- 
lated he gave the name of nutriment ; to the similar 
material which is being presented or becoming 
adherent, the name of quasi-niUriment ; and to every- 
thing else — that is, contained in the stomach and 
veins — the name of destined nutriment. 


It is quite clear, therefore, that nutrition must 
necessarily be a process of assimilation of that which 
is nourishing to that which is being nourished. 
Some, however, say that this assimilation does not 
occur in reality, but is merely apparent ; these are 
the people who think that Nature is not artistic, that 
she does not show forethought for the animal's 
Λvelfare, and that she has absolutely no native powers 
whereby she alters some substances, attracts others, 
and discharges others. 

Now, speaking generally, there have arisen the 
following two sects in medicine and philosophy 



η rrepl φνσ€ω<; άνΖρών, όσοι 7* αυτών yiyvco- 
σκονσιν, 6 τι Xiyovai, καΙ την άκόλονθίαν ων 
υττίθεντο θεωρούσί θ^ άμα και ΒιαφυΧάττουσιν. 
όσοι Be μηΒ^ αύτο τοντο συνιάσιν, αλλ' άττΧώς, 
ο τι αν €7γΙ ykSiTTav eXOrj, Χηρονσιν, ev ovScTepa 
των αιρέσεων ακριβώς καταμ€νοντ€<ί, ovBe μ€μ- 
ν?}σθαι τών τοιούτων ττροσήκει. 

Ύίνες ονν αΐ Βνο αίρβσεις αύται και τις η τών 
iv αύταΐς ύττοθ^σεων άκοΧουθία; την υττοβεβΧη- 
μ€νην ούσιαν yeviaei και φθορά ττάσαν ηνωμβνην 
θ^ άμα και άΧΧοιοΰσθαι Βυναμβνην virkdeTO 
θάτ€ρον γ6ΐΌ9 της αίρύσεως, άμετάβΧητον δε και 
άναΧΧοίωτον καΧ κατατετμημίνην €ίς λβτττά και 
Κ€ναΐς ταΐς μ€ταξυ γωραις ΒιειΧημμενην ή Χοιττη. 

Kat τοίννν όσοι ye της ακοΧουθίας τών ΰττο- 
θίσβων αισθάνονται, κατά μ^ν την BevTepav 
a'ipeaiv οΰτε φύσεως οντε ψυ-χ^ης ιΒίαν τίνα νομί- 
28 ζονσιν ούσιαν η Βύναμιν νττάρχ^βιν, || άλλ iv ττ) 
ττοια συνόΒω τών ττρώτων εκείνων σωμάτων τών 
άτταθών άτΓοτεΧεΐσθαι. κατά Be την ττροτεραν 
είρημενην αίρεσιν ούχ υστέρα τών σωμάτων ή 
φύσις, άλΧά ττοΧύ ττροτερα τε καΐ ττρεσβυτερα. 
καϊ τοινυν κατά μεν τούτους αύτη τα σώματα 
τών τε φυτών και τών ζώων συνίστησι Βυνάμει^ 
τινάς εχ^ουσα τάς μεν έΧκτικάς θ* άμα και 
ΰμοιωτικάς τών οικείων, τάς δ' άττοκριτικάς τών 

^ Here follows a contrast between the Vitalists and the 
Epicurean Atomists. rf. p. 153 et seq. 
- A unity or continuum, an individuum. 



among those who have made any definite pronounce- 
ment regarding Nature. I speak, of course, of such 
of them as know what they are talking about, and 
who realize the logical sequence of their hypotheses, 
and stand by them ; as for those who cannot under- 
stand even this, but Λνΐιο simply talk any nonsense 
that comes to their tongues, and \vho do not remain 
definitely attached either to one sect or the other — 
such people are not even worth mentioning. , 

What, then, are these sects, and Avhat are the a L^ 
logical consequences of their hypotheses?^ The one ^ "^ 
class supposes that all substance Avhich is subject to 
genesis and destruction is at once continuous - and 
susceptible of alteration. The other school assumes 
substance to be unchangeable, unalterable, and sub- 
divided into fine particles, Λvhich are separated from 
one another by empty spaces. 

All people, therefore, who can appreciate the logical 
sequence of an hypothesis hold that, according to 
the second teaching, there does not exist any sub- 
stance or faculty peculiar either to Nature or to 
Soul,•^ but that these result from the Avay in Avhich 
the primary corpuscles,* which are unaffected by 
change, come together. According to the first- 
mentioned teaching, on the other hand, Nature is not 
posterior to the corpuscles, but is a long way prior to 
them and older than they ; and therefore in their 
view it is Nature which puts together the bodies 
iwth of plants and animals ; and this she does by 
virtue of certain faculties which she possesses — these 
being, on the one hand, attractive and assimilative of 
what is appropriate, and, on the other, expulsive oi 

' Lit. to the phytfis or the psyche ; that is, a denial of the 
autonomy of physiology and psychology. * Lit. somatn. 



άΧλοτρίων, καϊ Ί€γνίκω<ζ άπαντα Βιαττλάττβι re 
y€vi>a}aa και, irpovoetTai των Ύβννωιιένων iripai^; 
αυθίς τισι Βυνάμεσι, στερκτικτ) μ€ν τινι καϊ 
•προνοητική των Ι'^ηονων, κοινωνικτ} 8k καϊ φιλική 
των όμοΎενών. κατά, δ' αΰ τους ίτβρους οΰτβ 
τούτων ou8ev νττάρχ^βι ταΐς φύσβσιν ούτ evvoia 
τις εστί ττ} ψνχτ) σύμφυτος βξ άρχί^ς ουκ άκο- 
Χουθίας ου μάγτης, ου Βιαιρβσεως ου συνθίσβως, 
ου Ζίκαιων ουκ άΒίκων, ου καΧων ουκ αίσ'χρων, 
* αλλ ζξ αίσθησβως τ€ καΐ δί' αίσ Θησέως ατταντα 
τα τοίαυθ" ήμΐν iyyiyveaOaL• φασι καϊ φαντασίαις 
τισϊ καϊ μνήμαις οίακίζεσθαι τά ζωα. 
29 Rvtoi II δ' αυτών καϊ ρητώς άττεφηναντο μηδβ- 
μίαν elvaL της -ψυχής Βύναμιν, rj Χο'γιζόμεθα, αλλ' 
ύττο των αΙσθητών ayeadai τταθών ημάς καθάττερ 
βοσκηματα ττρος μη8βν άναν^ΰσαι μη^ άντειττεΐν 
δυναμένους, καθ' ους ΒηΧονότι καϊ ανδρεία καϊ 
φρόνησις καϊ σωφροσύνη καϊ εγκράτεια Χηρός 
εστί μάκρος καϊ φιΧοΰμεν οΰτ άλλτ^λου? ούτε τα 
εγγόνα καϊ τοις θεοΐς ούδεν ημών μέΧει. κατα- 
φρονούσι 8ε καϊ τών ονειράτων καϊ των οιωνών 
καϊ τών συμβόλων καϊ ττάσης άστροΧογίας, ύττβρ 
ών ημείς μεν ι8ία 8ι ετέρων γραμμάτων εττϊ ττΧέον 
εσκεψάμεθα ττερϊ τών ΆσκΧηττιάδου του ιατρού 
σκοπούμενοι δογμάτων, ενεστι 8ε τοις βουΧο- 
μένοις κάκείνοις μεν ομιΧησαι τοις Χόγοις καϊ νυν 
8 ήδη σκοπεΐν, ώσπερ τινών δυοΐν οδών ήμΐν 
προκειμένων, οποτέραν βέΧτιόν εστί τρέπεσθαι. 
Ιπποκράτης μεν yap την προτέραν ρηθεΐσαν 
ετράπετο, καθ' ην ηνωται μζν ή ουσία καϊ άΧΧοι- 
οΰται και σύμπνουν οΧον εστϊ καϊ σύρρουν το 



what is foreign. Further, she skilfully moulds every- 
thing during the stage of genesis ; and she also pro- 
vides for the creatures alter birth, employing here 
other faculties again, namely, one of affection and 
forethought for offspring, and one of sociability and 
friendship for kindred. According to the other 
school, none of these things exist in the natures ^ [of 
living things], nor is there in the soul any original 
innate idea, whether of agreement or difference, ot 
separation or synthesis, of justice or injustice, of the 
beautiful or ugly ; all such things, they say, arise in 
us Jrom sensation and through sensation, and animals 
are steered by certain images and memories. 

Some of these people have even expressly declared 
that the soul possesses no reasoning faculty, but that 
we are led like cattle by the impression of our senses, 
and are unable to refuse or dissent from anything. 
In their view, obviously, courage, Avisdom, temperance, 
and self-control are all mere nonsense, we do not 
love either each other or our offspring, nor do the 
gods care anything for us. This school also despises 
dreams, birds, omens, and the whole of astrology, 
subjects with which we have dealt at greater length 
in another work,- in >vhich we discuss the views 
of Asclepiades the physician. ^ Those \vho wish to 
do so may familiarize themselves with these argu- 
ments, and they may also consider at this point which 
of the t\vo roads lying before us is the better one tn 
take. Hippocrates took the first-mentioned. Accord- 
ing to this teaching, substance is one and is subject 
to alteration ; there is a consensus in the move- 

^ For "natures" in the plural, involving the idea of a 
separate nature immanent in each individual, c/".p. 36, note 1. 
* A lost work. 
' For Asclepiades r. p. 40, note δ. 



σώμα καΐ ή φύσις άπαντα τεχνικώς καΐ δικαίως 
ττράττβι Βυΐ'άμζΐς €χονσα, καθ^ ας €καστον τών 
30 μορίων β\κ€ΐ μεν || εφ' ίαντο τον οίκβΐον εαυτω 
■χυμόν, ek^av he ττροσφνβι τβ ιταντΧ μερβι τών iv 
αντώ και τέλεω? εζομοιοΐ, το Be μη κρατηθίν iv 
τούτω μη8ε την τταντεΧη ΒυνηθΙν αΚΧοίωσίν τε 
καϊ ομοιότητα του τρεφομένου καταΒέξασθαι Βι 
€Τ€ρας αν τινο•; εκκριτικής Βυνάμεως άττοτρίβεται. 


Μα^εΓΐ' δ' ενεστιν ου μόνον ef ων οι τάναντία 
τιθέμενοι Βιαφέρονται τοις εναρ-γώς φαινομενοις, 
€49 όσον όρθότητός τε καϊ άΧηθείας ηκει τα Ίττπο- 
κράτους Βο'γματα, αΧΧα κάξ αυτών τών κατά 
μέρος iv ττ} φυσικτ} θεωρία ζητουμένων τών τ' 
άΧΧων άττάντων καϊ τών iv τοις ζφοις ενεργειών. 
όσοι yap ούΒεμίαν ούΒενΙ μορίω νομίζονσιν ύπάρ- 
γειν εΧκτικην της οικείας ττοιότητος Βύναμιν, 
αναγκάζονται ττοΧλάκις ivavTia Χεγειν τοις εναρ- 
ιγώς φαινομενοις, ώσπερ καϊ \\.σκΧη7ΓΐάΒης ό 
ιατρός ετΓΐ τών νεφρών iπoL•r)σev, ους ου μόνον 
ΊτΓΤΓΟκράτης η ΑιοκΧής η ^Ερασίστρατος η 

' " Le corps tout entier a unito de soutHe {perspiration et 
expiration) et unite de flux {courants, circulation det Hqnidea)" 
(Dareniberg). "Conspirabile et confluxile corpus esse" (Lin- 
acre). Apparently (ialen refers to the pneuma and theΛ'arious 
humours, rf. p. 293, note 2. 

^ i.e. "appropriated"; ver^' nearly "assimilated." 



raents of air and fluid throughout the whole body ; ^ 
Nature acts throughout in an artistic and equitable 
manner, having certain faculties, by virtue of Λvhich 
each part of the body draws to itself the juice Avhich 
is proper to it, and, having done so, attaches it to 
every portion of itself, and completely assimilates it ; 
Avhile such part of the juice as has not been mastered,- 
and is not capable of undergoing complete alteration 
and being assimilated to the part \vhich is being 
nourished, is got rid of by yet another (an expulsive) 


Now the extent of exactitude and truth in the 
doctrines of Hippocrates may be gauged, not 
merelv from the Λvay in >vhich his opponents are 
at variance \vith obvious facts, but also from the 
various subjects of natural research themselves — the 
functions of animals, and the rest. For those people 
Avho do not believe that there exists in any part of 
the animal a faculty for attracting its own special 
quality^ are compelled repeatedly to deny obvious 
facts.* For instance, Asclepiades, the physician,^ 
did this in the case of the kidneys. That these are 
organs for secreting [separating out] the urine, was 
the belief not only of Hippocrates, Diodes, 

* " Attractricem convenientis qualitatis vim " (Linacre). 
•:f. p. 36, note 2. * Lit. "obvious phenomena." 

' AsclepiaJes of Bithyuia, λυΗο flourished in the first half 
of the first century B.C., was an adherent of the atomistic 
philosophy of Democritus, and is the typical representative 
of the Mechanistic school in Oraeco-Ronmn medicine ; he 
diisbelieved in any principle of individuality ("nature") in the 
organism, and his methods of treatment, in accordance with 
his pathology, were mechano-therapeuticaL cf. p. 64, note 3. 



Tlpa^ayopa<i η τί? αλλο9 Ιατρός αριστο<ί opf^ava 
Βιακριτικα των ούρων τΓβτηστεύκασιν νττάρ'χ^είν, 

31 άλλα καΐ οι \\ μά•^Βΐροι σχεΒον άπαντες ϊσασιν, 
οσημβραί θβώμβνοί την τ€ θίσιν αυτών καϊ τον 
αφ €κατβρου ττορον eh την κύστιν βμβάΧΧοντα, 
τον ουρητήρα καΧούμβνον, &ξ αυτής τής κατα- 
σκευής άναΧοΎΐζόμβνοί την re 'χ^ρ€ίαν αυτών καϊ 
την 8ύναμιν. καϊ ττρό <ye των μα^γείρων ατταντβς 
άνθρωποι καϊ Βυσουροΰντβς ττοΧΧάκις καϊ τταντά- 
ττασιν ίσχουροΰντες, όταν αλγωσί μεν τα κατά 
τας ψόας, "^αμμώδη δ' βξουρώσιν, νεώριτικούς 
ονομάζουσι σφας αυτούς. 

^ ΑσκΧητΓΐάΒην δ' οΐμαί μηΒε Χίθον ονρηθίντα 
7Γ0Τ€ θεάσασθαί ττρος των ούτω ττασγόντων μηΒ^ 
ώς 7Γροη'•^ησατο κατά την μεταξύ των νεφρών 
καϊ τής κύστεως 'χωράν ό8ύνη τις οξεία διερχο- 
μένου του Τύθου τον ουρητήρα μη8^ ώς ούρηθεντος 
αύτοΰ τά τε τής 68ύνης καϊ τά τής ίσχουρίας 
ετταύσατο παραχρήμα, πώς ουν εις την κύστιν 
τω λόγω παράγει το ουρον, άξιον άκούσαι και 
θαυμάσαι τάν8ρ6ς την σοφίαν, ος καταλιπών 
ούτως ευρείας οδούς εναργώς φαινομενας αφανείς 

32 καϊ στενάς καϊ παντάπασιν αναίσθητους \\ ύπε- 
θετο. βούΧεται yap εις ατμούς άναΧυομειον το 
πινόμενον xjypov εις την κύστιν 8ιαδί8οσθαι 
κάπειτ εξ εκείνων αύθις αΚΧηΧοις συνιοντων 
ούτως άπόΧα μβάνειν αύτο την άρχαιαν iBeav καϊ 
^ί^νεσθαι πάλιν hypov εξ ατμών άτεχνώς ώς περϊ 
σπoyyιάς τίνος ή ερίου τής κυστεως διανοού- 
μενος, αλλ' ου σώματος ακριβώς πυκνού καϊ 
στeyavoΰ δύο χιτώνας ισχυρότατους κεκτημένου, 



Erasistratus, Praxagoras,^ and all other physicians 
of eminence, but practically every butcher is aware 
of this, from the fact that he daily observes both the 
position of the kidneys and the duct (termed the 
ureter) which runs from each kidney into the bladder, 
and from this arrangement he infers their character- 
istic use and faculty. But, even leaving the butchers 
aside, all people who suffer either from frequent 
dysuria or from retention of urine call themselves 
'■ nephritics,"^ when they feel pain in the loins and 
pass sandy matter in their water. 

I do not suppose that Asclepiades ever saw a stone 
which had been passed by one of these sufferers, or 
observed that this was preceded by a sharp |)ain 
in the region between kidneys and bladder as the 
stone traversed the ureter, or that, when the stone 
was passed, both the pain and the retention at once 
ceased. It is worth while, then, learning hoAv his 
theory accounts for the presence of urine in the 
bladder, and one is forced to marvel at the ingenuity 
of a man who puts aside these broad, clearly visible 
routes,^ and postulates others which are narrow, in- 
visible — indeed, entirely imperceptible. His view, 
in fact, is that the fluid which we drink passes into 
the bladder by being resolved into vapours, and that, 
when these have been again condensed, it thus 
regains its previous form, and turns from vapour into 
fluid. He simply looks upon the bladder as a sponge 
or a piece of wool, and not as the perfectly com- 
pact and impervious body that it is, Avith two very 

^ Diodes of Carystus was the chief representative of the 
Dogmatic or Hippocratic school in the first half of the fourth 
century B.C. Piaxagoras was his disciple, and followed him in 
the leadership of the school For Erasistratus, cf. p. 95 et s^q. 

* Sufferer» from kidney -trouble. • The ureters. 



Bt ων eiTTep Βιβρχ^εσθαι φησομεν τους ατμούς, τι 
ίηττοΎ ούγΐ Βια του 7Γ€ρίτοναίου καΐ των φρβνών 
ΒιβΧθόντβς ενέττΧησαν ύδατος τό τ ίττί'^άστριον 
άτταν και τον θώρακα; άλλα τταχντβρος, φησίν, 
€στΙ ΒηΧαΒη καΐ στβΎανώτβρος ό ττεριτόναιος 
-χ^ιτων της κύστζως καΐ Βιά τοΰτ ζκεΐνος μεν 
ίίτΓοστεγεί τους ατμούς, ή Be κύστις τταραΒε^ζεται. 
αλλ etirep άνατετμηκει ττοτβ, τάχ άν ήττίστατο 
τον μεν έξωθεν χιτώνα της κύστεως άττο του 
ττεριτοναίον ττεφυκότα την αύτην εκείνω φνσιν 
εχειν, τον δ' ενΒοθεν τον αυτής της κύστεως ϊΒιον 
ττΧεον η ΒίΤΓλ,άσιον εκείνου το ττάχος ΰττάργειν. 
33 'Αλλ' ϊσως ούτε το \\ πάχος οΰθ^ ή Χετττότης 
των χιτώνων, αλλ' ή θεσι^ της κύστεως αίτια του 
φερεσθαι τους ατμούς εις αύτην. και μην ει και 
Βιά ταΧΧα ττάντα ττιθανον ην αυτούς ενταυθοι 
συναθροίζεσθαι, τό ye της θέσεως μόνης αΰταρκες 
κωΧΰσαι. κάτω μεν yap η κύστις κείται, τοις δ' 
άτμοΐς σύμφυτος ή ττρός το μετεωρον φορά, ώστε 
τΓοΧύ νρότερον άν εττΧησαν άτταντα τα κατά τον 
θώρακα τε και τον ττνεύμονα, ττρίν επϊ την κύστιν 

Καιτοί τί θέσεως κύστεως και ττεριτοναίου καΧ 
θώρακος μνημονεύω; Βιεκττεσοντες yap Βήττου 
τους τε της κοιΧίας και των εντέρων χιτώνας οι 
άτμοΙ κατά την μεταξύ χώραν αυτών τε τούτων 
καΐ του ττεριτοναίου συναθροισθήσονται και υηρόν 
ενταυθοι yεvησovτaι, ώσττερ και τοις ύΒερικοΐς εν 
τούτω τω χωρ'ιω το ττΧεΐστον αθροίζεται του 

1 Unless otherwise stated, "peritoneum" stands for pari- 
etal peritontuni alone. 



strong coats. For if we say that the vapours pass 
through these coats, wliy should they not pass through 
the peritoneum ^ and the diaphragm, thus filling 
the whole abdominal cavity and thorax with water ? 
" But," says he, " of course the peritoneal coat is 
more impervious than the bladder, and this is why 
it keeps out the vapours, Λνίπΐε the bladder admits 
them." Yet if he had ever practised anatomy, he 
might have known that the outer coat of tlie bladder 
springs from the peritoneum and is essentially the 
same as it, and that the inner coat, which is peculiar 
to the bladder, is more than twice as thick as the 

Perhaps, however, it is not the thickness or thin- 
ness of the coats, but the silnat'ion of the bladder, 
which is the reason for the vapours being carried 
into it ? On the contrary, even if it Avere probable 
for every other reason that the vapours accumulate 
there, yet the situation of the bladder would be 
enough in itself to prevent this. For the bladder is 
situated below, Avhereas vapours have a natural 
tendency to rise upΛvards ; thus they would fill all 
the region of the thorax and lungs long before they 
came to the bladder. 

But why do I mention the situation of the bladder, 
peritoneum, and thorax ? For surely, Λvhen the vapours 
have passed through the coats of the stomach and 
intestines, it is in the space between these and 
the peritoneum ^ that they will collect and become 
liquefied (just as in dropsical subjects it is in this 
region that most of the Λvater gathers).^ Otherwise 
the vapours must necessarily pass straight forward 

* In the peritoneal cavity. 

• Contrast, however, anasarca, p. 41. 



νΒατος, fj ττάντως αύτού<: χ^ρη φερβσθαι ττρόσω 
8ια ττάντων των οττωσονν όμιΚονντων καΐ μη8ε- 
ΤΓοθ' ΐστασθαι. αλλ' el καΐ τοΰτό τις νττόθοιτο, 
hieKireaovTe^ αν ούτως ου το ττεριτόναιον μόνον 
αλλά και το έττι-γάστριον, elf το ττερίβχον σκζ- 

34 Βασθεΐεν η ττάντως αν νττο τω Βέρματί || σνν- 

Άλλα καΐ 'προς ταυτ avTiXeyeiv οι νυν 
ΑσκΧηπίάΒβιοι ττειρώνται, καίτοι ττρος άττάντων 
άεϊ των τταρατυ'^γανόντων αύτοΐς, όταν irepl 
τούτων εριζωσι, κατα'^βΧώμζίοι. ούτως άρα 
Βυσαπότρηττόν τι κακόν έστιν ή ττβρί τας αίρβσβις 
φιλοτιμία καϊ Βυσβκν'τττον iv τοις μάλιστα κα\ 
ψώρας άττάσης Βυσιατότβρον. 

Ύών yoOv καθ^ ημάς τις σοφιστών τά τ' άΧλα 
καϊ Trepl τους εριστικούς ΧόΎους ικανώς συ^κ€- 
κροτημίνος καϊ Βεινος elireiv, etirep τις άλλος, 
άφικόμενος βμοι ττοθ^ ύττϊρ τούτων βίς λό'γους, 
τοσούτον άττέΒβι του ΒυσωττεΙσθαι ττρός τίνος 
των €ίρημ€νων, ώστε καϊ θαυμάζβιν βφασκβν 
εμού τα σαφώς φαινόμενα 'λόyoις ΧηρώΒεσιν 
ανατρεττειν επιγ^ειρούντος. εναρ^ώς yap όσημεραι 
θεωρεΐσθαι τας κύστεις άττάσας, ει τις αύτας 
εμττλησειεν ύΒατος ή αέρος, είτα Βήσας τον 
τρά'χ^ηλον ττιέζοι τταντα-χ^όθεν, ούΒαμόθεν μεθιεί- 
σας ούΒεν, αλλ' ακριβώς ατταν εντός εαυτών 
στeyoύσaς. καίτοι γ' εϊττερ ησάν τίνες εκ τών 
νεφρών εις αύτας ηκοντες αίσθητοϊ καϊ μεyaλoι 
τ: όροι, ττάντως αν, εφη, δί' εκείνων, ώσττερ είσ^ει 

35 το II ύypόv εις αύτάς, ούτω καϊ θλιβόντων 
εξεκρίνετο. ταύτα καϊ τά τοιαύτ ειπών εξαίφνης 



through everytliing Avhich in any Λναγ comes in con- 
tact with them, and Λνίΐΐ never come to a standstill. 
But, if this be assumed, then they will traverse not 
merely the peritoneum but also the epigastrium, and 
will become dispersed into the surrounding air ; 
otherwise they will certainly collect under the skin. 

Even these considerations, however, our present- 
day Asclepiadeans attempt to ansΛver, despite the 
fact that they always get soundly laughed at by all 
who happen to be present at their disputations on 
these subjects — so difficult an evil to get rid of is 
this sectarian partizanship, so excessively resistant 
to all cleansing processes, harder to heal than any 
itch ! 

Thus, one of our Sophists who is a thoroughly 
hardened disputer and as skilful a master of language 
as there ever was, once got into a discussion with me 
on this subject ; so far from being put out of 
countenance by any of the above-mentioned con- 
siderations, he even expressed his surprise that I 
should try to overturn obvious facts by ridiculous 
arguments ! " For," said he, " one may clearly 
observe any day in the case of any bladder, that, if 
one fills it with water or air and then ties up its neck 
and squeezes it all round, it does not let anything out 
at any point, but accurately retains all its contents. 
And surely," said he, " if there were any large and 
perceptible channels coming into it from the kidneys 
the liquid >vould run out through these when the 
bladder was squeezed, in the same \s?i\ that it 
entered .'' " ^ Having abruptly made these and 

^ Regurgitation, however, is prevented by the fact that 
the ureter runs for nearly one inch obliquely through the 
bladder wall before opening into its cavity, and thus an 
efficient vaXvt is produced. 



ατηαιστω και σαψβΐ τω στόματι τεΧεντών 
άΐ'α7Γη8ήσα<ί aTrrjet καταΧιττωρ ημάς ώς ονδε 
ΤΓίθανής τίνος avriXoyLa^ εύπορήσαι δυνάμενους. 

Ούτως ου μόνον ύγί€9 ovhev ϊσασιν οι ταΐ^ 
αίρέσεσι δουΧεύοντες, αλλ' ούΒε μαθεΐν ύττο- 
μενουσι. Βεον yap άκοΰσαο την αίτίαν, St' ήι• 
είσιέναι μεν δύναται δια των ουρητήρων εΙς την 
κΰστιν το hypov, εξιεναι δ' ανθις οττίσω την 
αυτήν όδον ουκεβ* οίον τε, καΐ θαυμάσαι την 
τέχνην της φύσεως, ούτε μαθεΐν εθέΧουσί καΐ 
Χοιδοροΰνται ττροσετι μάτην ύττ' αυτής άΧΧα τε 
ΊΓοΧΧα καΐ τους νεφρούς yεyovεvac φάσκοντες. 
είσϊ δ' oi καΐ δεί'χθήναί τταρόντων αυτών τους 
άττο των νεφρών εις την κύστιν εμφυομενους 
ουρητήρας υττομείναντες ετόΧμησαν είττεΐν οι μεν, 
ΟΤΙ μάτην και ούτοι yεyόvaσιv, οι δ', οτι σττερ- 
ματικοί τίνες εΙσι ττόροι καΐ δια τούτο κατά τον 
τρά'χ^ηΧον αυτής, ούκ εις το κύτος εμφύονται. 
δείξαντες οΰν ημείς αύτοΐς τους ώς άΧηθώς 
σττερματικούς πόρους κατωτέρω τών ουρητήρων \\ 
36 εμβάΧΧοντας εις τον τράχηΧον, νύν yoύv, εΐ καΐ 
μη ττρότερον, ωήθημεν άττάξειν τε τών ψευδώς 
ύττειΧημμενων εττί τε τάιαντία μεταστήσειν 
αύτίκα. ο'ι δε καΐ ττρος τούτ avTiXiyeiv ετόΧμων 
ούδεν είναι θαυμαστον είττόντε^, εν εκείνοις μεν 
ώς αν στεyavωτεpoις ούσιν εττΙ ττΧεον ύττομενειν 
το σττερμα, κατά δε τους άττο τών νεφρών ώς αν 
Ικανώς άνενρυσμενους εκρεΐν δια ταγ^εων. ημείς 

^ On the τίχνη (artistic or creative skill) shown bj' the 
living organism (φύσυ) v. pp. 25, 45, 47; Introdnction, p. xxix. 

^ I)irect denial of Aristotle's dictum that " Nature does 
nothing in vain." We are reminded of the view of certain 



similar remarks in precise and clear tones, he con- 
eluded by jumping up and departing— leaving me 
as though I were quite incapable of finding any 
plausible answer ! 

The fact is that those who are enslaved to 
sects are not merely devoid of all sound k 
ledge, but they will not even stop to learn ! 
stead of listening, as they ought, to the reason 
why liquid can enter the bladder through the 
ureters, but is unable to go back again the same way, 
— instead of admiring Nature's artistic skill * — they 
refuse to learn ; they even go so far as to scoff, and 
maintain that the kidneys, as well as many other 
things, have been made by Nature Jor no purpose ! 2 
And some of them Λvho had allowed themselves to 
be shown the ureters coming from the kidneys and 
becoming implanted in the bladder, even had the 
audacity to say that these also existed for no purpose ; 
and others said that they were spermatic ducts, and 
that this was why they were inserted into the neck 
of the bladder and not into its cavity. When, there- 
fore, we had demonstrated to them the real sper- 
matic ducts ^ entering the neck of the bladder lower 
down than the ureters, we supposed that, if \ve had 
not done so before, we would now at least draw 
them away from their false assumptions, and convert 
them fortlnvvth to the opposite view. But even this 
they presumed to dispute, and said that it was not to 
be wondered at that the semen should remain longer 
in these latter ducts, these being more constricted, 
and that it should flow quickly down the ducts 
which came from the kidneys, seeing that these were 

moilern laboratory piiysieiaus and surgeons tiiat the colon is 
a " useless " organ, r'f. Erasislratus, p. 143. 
• The vaaa de/ertiuia. 


their I , jS' 
enow- Μ 
! In- \ 


ovv ην^^κάσθημεν αύτοϊ^ του Χοιττοΰ BetKVV€ii> 
elapeov rfj κύστ€ί Bia των ουρητήρων το ουρον 
ivapyco'i εττι ζώντοζ βτι του ζώου, //.όγί? αν ούτω 
ΊΓοτζ την φΧυαρίαν αυτών Ιπίσχήσειν εΧ'ττίζοντβς. 
Ό Bk τρότΓος της δεί^εώς έστι τοιόσδβ. SieXeiv 
χρη το ττρο των ουρητήρων "ττερίτόναιον, είτα 
βρογοί'ί αυτούς βκΧαββΐν κάττβιτ ίττιΒήσαντας 
iaaac το ζωον ου <γαρ αν ούρήσειεν έ'τί. μετά 
he ταΰτα Χύβιν μβν τους 'έξωθεν Βεσμούς, Βεικνύναι 
Be Κ€νην μβν την κύστιν, μεστούς δ' Ικανώς καΐ 
Βίατ€ταμίνονς τους ουρητήρας καΐ κινδυνεύοντας 
payr]vai καττείτα τους βρόγους αυτών άφεΧόντας 
έναρ^ώς όράν η8η ττΧηρουμύνην ούρου την 
37 ΈτΓΐ Be τούτω \\ φανίντι, ττρΧν ούρήσαι το 
ζωον, βρόχον αύτοΰ ττβριβαΧεΐν χρή τω αΙΒοίω 
κάττειτα ΘΧίββιν πανταχόθεν την κύστιν. ούΒε 
yap αν ούΒεν ετι Βια τών ουρητήρων εττανεΧθοι 
ττρος τους νβφρούς. καν τούτω ΒήΧον yiyveTai 
το μη μόνον iirl τεθνεώτος αλλά κα\ ττεριόντος ετι 
του ζώου κωΧύεσθαι μεταΧαμβάνβιν αύθις εκ της 
κύστεως τους ουρητήρας το ουρον. εττΐ τούτοις 
οφθεΐσιν ετΓίτρεττειν ηΒη το ζωον ούρεΐν Χύοντας 
αυτού τον εττΐ τω αΙΒοίω βρόχον, είτ αύθις 
ετΓΐβαΧεΐν μεν θατερω τών ουρητήρων, εάσαι Βε 
τον έτερον εις τήν κύστιν σνρρειν και τίνα ΒιαΧι- 
ττόντας χρόνον εττιΒεικνύειν ήΒη, ττώς ό μεν έτερος 
αυτών ο ΒεΒεμενος μεστός καΐ Βιατεταμενος κατά 
τα ττρος τών νεφρών μέρη φαίνεται, ό δ' έτερος 
6 ΧεΧυμενος αύτος μεν χαΧαρος εστί, ττεττΧήρωκε 
δ' ούρου την κύστιν. εΙτ αύθις Βιατεμεΐν πρώτον 
μεν τον ττΧήρη και ΒεΙξαι, ττώς εξακοντίζεται το 




well dilated. We were, therefore, further compelled 
to show them in a still living animal, the urine 
plainly running out through the ureters into the 
bladder ; even thus we hardly hoped to check their 
nonsensical talk. 

ΝοΛν the method of demonstration is as follows. 
One has to divide the peritoneum in front of the 
ureters, then secure these with ligatures, and next, 
having bandaged up the animal, let him go (for he 
will not continue to urinate). After this one loosens 
the external bandages and shows the bladder empty 
and the ureters quite full and distended — in fact 
almost on the point of rupturing ; on removing the 
ligature from them, one then plainly sees the bladder 
becoming filled with urine. 

When this has been made quite clear, then, before 
the animal urinates, one has to tie a ligature round 
his penis and then to squeeze the bladder all over; still 
nothing goes back through the ureters to the kidneys. 
Here, then, it becomes obvious that not only In a 
dead animal, but in one which is still living, the 
ureters are prevented from receiving back the urine 
from the bladder. These observations having been 
made, one now loosens the ligature from the animal's 
penis and allows him to urinate, then again ligatures 
one of the ureters and leaves the other to discharge 
into the bladder. Allowing, then, some time to elapse, 
one now demonstrates that the ureter which was 
ligatured is obviously full and distended on the side 
next to the kidneys, Λvhile the other one — that from 
which the ligature had been taken — is itself flaccid, 
but has filled the bladder with urine. Then, again, 
one must divide the full ureter, and demonstrate how 



οΐιρον έξ αυτού, καθάττβρ iv rat? φΧββοτομίαις 
το αίμα, μ€τα ταντα Be καϊ τον βτ€ρον ανθι<; 
ΖιατβμβΙν κα7Γ€ίτ έττώησαι το ζωον βξωθ^ν, άμ- 

38 φοτερων Βΐϊ]ρημβνων, \\ eW^ όταν Ικανώς έ'χβίν 
BoKTJ, \νσαι τον Ββσμόν. ευρεθησεταί yap ή μ€ΐ 
κνστι,^ Κ€νή, 7r\r)pe<; δ' ούρου το μεταξύ των 
εντέρων τ€ καϊ του ττεριτοναίου 'χωρίον άπαν, 
ώ? άν el καϊ ύΒερικον ην το ζωον. ταύτ ουν εϊ 
τις αύτος καθ* εαυτόν βουΧηθείη βασανίζειν εττΐ 
ζώου, με^αΚως μοι ΒοκεΙ κατα^νώσεσθαι της 
^ΑσκΧητΓΐύδου Ίτροιτετείας. ει 8e Βη και τψ 
αΐτίαν μύθοι, δί' ην ούΒεν εκ της κύστεως εις 
τους ουρητήρας αντειζρεΐ, ττεισθήναι άν μοι Βοκεΐ 
και Βιά τούΒε την εΙς τα ζωα ττρόνοιάν τε καϊ 
τέχνην της φύσεως. 

ΊτττΓοκράτης μεν ουν ων ΐσμεν ιατρών τε καϊ 
φιλοσόφων Ίτρωτος άττάντων, ως αν και ττρωτος 
ετΓΐ^νούς τα της φύσεως epya, θαυμάζει τε καϊ 
Βιά τταντος αύτην υμνεί Βικαίαν ονομάζων και 
μόνην εξαρκεΐν εις άτταντα τοις ζωοις φησίν, 
αύτην εξ αυτής άΒιΒάκτως ιτράττουσαν άπαντα 
τα Βεοντα• τοιαύτην δ' ούσαν αύτην εύθεως 
καϊ Βυνάμεις ύπεΚαβεν εχ^ειν εΚκτικην μεν των 
οικείων, άποκριτικην Be των άΧΧοτρίων καϊ 

39 τρέφειν τε καϊ αύξειν αύ\την τα ζωα καϊ κρίνειν 
τά νοσήματα' καϊ Βιά τοΰτ' εν τοις σώμασιν 
ημών σύμπνοιάν τε μίαν εΙναί φησι και σύρροιαν 
και πάντα αυμπαθέα: κατά Βε τον ΆσκΧηπιάΒην 

' "De I'habileto et de la pievoyance de la nature k I'egard 
des animaux" (Daremberg). c/. p. 56, note 1. 
" rf. p. 36, note 2. 



the urine spurts out of it, like blood in the operation 
of venesection ; and after this one cuts through the 
other also, and both being thus divided, one bandages 
up the animal externally. Then Avhen enough time 
seems to have elapsed, one takes off the bandages ; 
the bladder will now be found empty, and the 
whole region between the intestines and the 
peritoneum full of urine, as if the animal Avere 
suffering from dropsy. Noav, if anyone Avill but test 
this for himself on an animal, I think he will strongly 
condemn the rashness of Asclepiades, and if he also 
learns the reason why nothing regurgitates from the 
bladder into the ureters, I think he λνίΐΐ be persuaded 
by this also of the forethought and art shown by 
Nature in relation to animals.^ 

Now Hippocrates, who was the first known to 
us of all those Avho have been both physicians and 
philosophers inasmuch as he \vas the first to re- 
cognize Λvhat Nature effects, expresses his admira- 
tion of her, and is constantly singing her praises 
and calling her "just." Alone, he says, she suffices 
for the animal in every respect, performing of 
her own accord and without any teaching all that is 
required. Being such, she has, as he supposes, cer- 
tain faculties, one attractive of what is aj)propriate,' 
and another eliminative of >vhat is foreign, and she 
nourishes the animal, makes it grow, and expels its 
diseases by crisis.^ Therefore he says that there 
is in our bodies a concordance in the movements 
of air and fluid, and that ever^^thing is in sympathy. 
According to Asclepiades, however, nothing is 

' The morbid material passed siT-cessively through the 
stages of "crudity," "coction" {pepsia), and " elimioation'' 
{crisii)). For "critical days' ς/", p. 74, note 1. 



ovBev ovSevl σνμτταθες βστί φυσ^ί, 8ίτ}ρημ€νη<ϊ re 
καΐ κατατεθραυσμενης et? αναρμα στοιχεία καΧ 
\ηρώδ€ί<; ojkou^ άττάσης τή^ ούσία<;. εξ άνά'γκης 
ουν ά\\α re μυρία τοΐ<; ivapy(t)<i φαινομενοίς 
εναντίω<ζ άττεφηνατο και της φύσεως η'γνόησε 
την τ€ των οικείων ετΓίστταστικην Βύναμιν καΐ 
την των άΧλοτρίων άττοκριτικην. εττΐ μεν ουν 
της εξαιματώσεώς re και άναΒόσεως εξενρέ τίνα 
ψν)(ράν άΒοΧεσ-χίαν εις Βε την των ττεριττωμάτων 
κάθαρσιν ούΒεν ο\ως εύρων είττεΐν ουκ ώκνησεν 
όμόσε χωρήσαι τοις φαινομενοις, εττΐ μεν της 
των ούρων Βιακρίσεως άττοστερήσας μεν των τε 
νεφρών καΐ των ουρητήρων την ενερ^ειαν, άΒηλους 
Βε τινας ττορους εις την κύστιν ύττοθεμενος' τούτο 
•yap ην Βη\αΒη μεηα και σεμνον άττιστησαντα 
τοις φαινομένοις τηστεΰσαι τοις άΒήΧοις. 
40 ΈτγΙ II δε της ξανθής χολής ετι μείζον αυτω 
καΐ νεανικώτερόν εστί το τόλμημα' 'γεννάσθαι 
yap αύτην εν τοις χοληΒόχοις άγγειοί?, ου Βια• 
κρίνεσθαι λε^ει. 

Πω9 ουν τοις ίκτερικοΐς άμ άμφω συμττίτττει, 
τα μεν Βιαχωρήματα μηΒεν όλως εν αύτοΐς 
έχοντα χολής, άνάττλεων δ' αύτοΐς ^ι^νόμενον 
όλον το σώμα; ληρεΐν τταλιν ενταΰθ' αναγκάζεται 
τοις εττϊ τών ούρων είρημενοις τταραπλησίως. 
ληρεΐ δ' ούΒεν ήττον καΐ ττερϊ τής μέλαινης χολής 
και του σπληνος ούτε rt ττοθ ύφ' Ίτητοκράτους 
εΐρηται συνιεις άντιλε^ειν τ' εττιχειρών οίς ουκ 
οΙΒεν εμττληκτω τινΧ και μανικω στόματί. 

* This was the process by which nutriment was taken up 
from the alimentary canal ; "absorption," "dispersal;" cf. 




naturally in sympathy with anything else, all 
substance being divided and broken up into in- 
harmonious elements and absurd "molecules." 
Necessarily, then, besides making countless other 
statements in opposition to plain fact, he Λνββ ignorant 
of Nature's faculties, both that attracting what is 
appropriate, and that expelling what is foreign. Thus 
he invented some Avretched nonsense to explain 
blood-production and anadosis^ and, being utterly 
unable to find anything to say regarding the 
clearing-out 2 of superfluities, he did not hesitate 
to join issue with obvious facts, and, in this matter of 
urinary secretion, to deprive both the kidneys and 
the ureters of their activity, by assuming that there 
were certain invisible channels opening into the 
bladder. It was, of course, a grand and impressive 
thing to do, to mistrust the obvious, and to pin one's 
faith in things which could not be seen ! 

Also, in the matter of the yellow bile, he makes 
an even grander and more spirited venture ; for he 
says this is actually generated in the bile-ducts, not 
merely separated out. 

How comes it, then, that in cases of jaundice two 
things happen at the same time — that the dejections 
contain absolutely no bile, and that the Λvhole body 
becomes full of it.-* He is forced here again to talk 
nonsense, just as he did in regard to the urine. He 
also talks no less nonsense about the black bile and 
the spleen, not understanding Λν1ΐ3ί was said by 
Hippocrates ; and he attempts in stupid — I might 
say insane — language, to contradict Avhat he knoΛvs 
nothing about. 

p. 13, note 5. The subject is dealt with more fully in 
chap. xvi. 

' Lit. catharsi», 



Ύί Βη TO Κ€ρΒο<; €Κ των τοιούτων Βο^μάτων els 
τα<; θ€ρα7Γ€ία<; €κτήσατο; μητ€ νεφριτικόν τι 
νόσημα Βννασθαι depaTrevaai μήτ ίκτβρικον 
μητ€ μ€\α'γχοΧικόν, άΧλά καΐ ττβρί του ττάσιν 
άνθρωποι^; ούχ^ Ίτητοκράτει μόνον ό μοΧο^ου μβνου 
του καθαίρ€ΐν των φαρμάκων evia μ€ν την ξανθην 
■χ^οΧην, evia δε την μέΧαιναν, άΧΧα Be τίνα φλεγ/^α 
και τίνα το Χετττον καΐ ύδατώδε? ττβρίττωμα, 
μηΒβ ΤΓβρΙ τούτων συ'^χ(ι)ρβΊ,ι•, άΧΧ υττ αύτωι• 
των φαρμάκων '^ί'^νεσθαι Xeyeiv τοιούτον βκαστον 
41 των κενουμένων, ωσττερ υττο των 'χρΧη\Βό•^ων 
ττόρων την 'χοΧην και μη?€ν Βιαφίρειν κατά τον 
θαυμαστον ΆσκΧηττιάΒην η ύΒρα-γωΎον ΒιΒοναι 
TOt? υΒβριώσιν η ■)ζο\α'^ω'^ον φάρμακον άπαντα 
ιγάρ ομοίω<; κενοΰν και συντηκβιν το σώμα και το 
σύντηη μα τοιόνΒε τι φαίνεσθαι ττοιεΐν, μη ττρότε- 
ρον ύπάρνον τοιούτον. 

Κρ ονν ου μαινεσοαι νομιστβον αυτόν η 
τταντάττασιν άττ€ΐρον elvni των ερ^ων της τέχνης;; 
τί? yap ουκ olBev, ώς, el μεν φΧ€'γματο<ί άηωηόν 
ΒοθεΙη φάρμακον τυΐς ικτεριώσιν, ουκ αν ούΒβ 
Τ6τταρα>; κυάθου<; καθαρθβΐεν ούτω δ' ούδ' el 
των ύΒρα^ωηών τι• 'χ^οΧα'γω'γω Be φαρμάκω 
ττΧεΐστον μεν εκκενούται χολτ)?, αύτικα δε 
καθαρός τοις ούτω καθαρθεΐσιν ό χρως yiyvcTai. 
τΓοΧΧούς <γούν ημείς μετά το θεμαπεΰσαι την εν 
τω ήττατι Βιάθεσιν άτταξ καθήραντες άττηΧΧάξα- 
μεν τού τταθηματος. ου μην ούΒ^ el φΧε^ματος 
αγωγω καθαίροις φαρμάκω, ττΧίον αν τι Βια- 

^ ι e. urine. ^ On nse of khOu) r. p. 67, note 9. 

^ i.e. bile and phlegm had no existence as such before the 



And what profit did he derive from these opinions 
from the point of vie\v of treatment ? He neither 
was able to cure a kidney ailment, nor jaundice, nor 
a disease of black bile, nor would he agree Avith the 
view held not merely by Hippocrates but by all men 
regarding drugs — that some of them purge away 
yellow bile, and others black, some again phlegm, 
and others the thin and watery superfluity ^ ; he held 
that all the substances evacuated - were produced by 
the drugs themselves, just as yellow bile is produced 
by the biliary passages ! It matters nothing, accord- 
ing to this extraordinary man, \vhether we give a 
hydragogue or a cholagogue in a case of dropsy, for 
these all equally purge - and dissolve the body, and 
produce a solution having such and such an appear- 
ance, which did not exist as such before ! ^ 

Must Λve not, therefore, suppose he was either mad, 
or entirely unacquainted with practical medicine ? 
For who does not know that if a drug for attracting 
phlegm be given in a case of jaundice it will not 
even evacuate four cyathi •* of phlegm ? Similarly 
also if one of the hydragogues be given. A chola- 
gogue, on the other hand, clears away a great 
quantity of bile, and the skin of patients so treated 
at once becomes clear. I myself have, in many 
cases, after treating the liver condition, then removed 
the disease by means of a single purgation ; whereas, 
if one had employed a drug for removing phlegm 
one would have done no good. 

drugs were given ; they are the products of dissolved tissue. 
AficTepiades did not believe that diseases were due to a 
materia jitrcavs, but to disturbances in the movements of 
ihe molecules (o-yKoi) which constitute the body; thus, in 
opposition to the humoralists such as Galen, he had no use for 
drugs, ej. p. 49, note 5. * Alxjut 4 oz., or one-third of a pint. 



Κ,αΙ ταΰτ οΰχ Ί7Γ7Γθκράτη<; μ^ν οΰτω<; ol8e 
'γιyvόμeva, τοΐς δ' άττο τή<ϊ εμπειρίας μόνη•; ορμω- 

42 μένοις €Τ€ρως έ'γϊ'ωσταί, άΧλα κάκβί'^νοις ωσαύτως 
και ττάσιν ίατροΐς, οΐς μέΧβι των βρ'γων της τέχ- 
νης, ούτω BoKei ττΧην ^ΑσκΧηττιάΒου, ττροΒοσίαν 
yap eivai νενόμικζ των στοιχείων ων υττεθετο την 
άΧηθη ττερί των τοιούτων ομοΧο^ίαν. ει yap 
οΧως ευρεθείη τι φάρμακον εΧκτικον τοΟδε τίνος 
του -χυμοί) μόνου, κίνδυνος κρατεΐν 8ηΧα8η τω 
X6yω το εν εκάστω των σωμάτων εΙναί τίνα 
8νναμιν ετηστταστικην της οικείας ποιότητος. 8ιά 
τούτο κνήκον μεν καΐ κόκκον τον κνίδιον και 
ίπποφαες ούχ εΧκειν εκ του σώματος άΧΧα ποιεΐν 
το φXeyμa φησίν άνθος δε χάΧκοΰ καΐ ΧεπίΒα 
κα\ αύτον τον κεκαυμίνον χαΧκον και χαμαί8ρυν 
και χαμαιΧεοντα εις ΰ8ωρ άναΧύειν το σώμα καΐ 
τους υ8ερικούς ύπο τούτων ου καθαιρομενους όνί- 
νασθαι aXXcL κενούμενους συναυζόντων 8ηΧα8η το 
πάθος, ει yap ου κενοί το περιεχόμενον εν τοις 
σώμασιν υ8ατώ8ες bypov άΧΧ! αύτο yεvva, τω 
νοσηματι προστιμωρεΐται. και μεν yε και ή 
σκαμμωνία προς τω μη κενοΰν εκ του σώματος 
των ικτερικών την χοΧην έ'τ/. και το χρηστον αίμα 

43 χοΧην εpyaζoμεvη \\ καϊ συντηκουσα το σώμα και 
τηΧικαΰτα κακά 8ρώσα καϊ το πάθος ετταύξουσα 
κατά yε τον ^ ΑσκΧηπιά8ου Xoyov. 

"Ομως εναρηώς όράται ποΧΧούς ώφεΧουσα. 
ναι, φησίν, ονίνανται μεν, αλλ' αύτώ μόνω τω 

^ The Empiricists, cf. Introduction, p. xiii. 

* His uyKot or molecules. 

• He does not say "organized" or "living" body ; inanimate 
things were also thought to possess "natures" ; cf. p. 2, note 1. 



Nor is Hippoonites the only one who knows this to 
be so, whilst those who take experience alone as their 
starting-point ^ kno%v othenvise ; they, as well as aU 
physicians who are engaged in the practice of 
medicine, are of this opinion. Asclepiades, how- 
ever, is an exception ; he Avould hold it a betrayal of 
his assumed " elements " ^ to confess the truth about 
such matters. For if a single drug were to be dis- 
covered which attracted such and such a humour 
only, there would obviously be danger of the opinion 
gaining ground that there is in every body ^ a faculty 
which attracts its own particular quality. He there- 
fore says that safflower,* the Cnidian berry,^ and 
Hippophaes,^ do not draw phlegm from the body, but 
actually make it. Moreover, he holds that the 
flower and scales of bronze, and burnt bronze itself, 
and germander,^ and Avild mastich^ dissolve the 
body into water, and that dropsical jjatients derive 
benefit from these substances, not because they are 
purged by them, but because they are rid of sub- 
stances which actually help to increase the disease ; 
for, if the medicine does not evacuate ^ the dropsical 
fluid contained in the body, but generates it, it 
aggravates the condition further. Moreover, scam- 
mony, according to the Asclepiadean argument, not 
only fails to evacuate^ the bile from the bodies of 
jaundiced subjects, but actually turns the useful 
l>lood into bile, and dissolves the body ; in fact it 
does all manner of evil and increases the disease. 

And yet this drug may be clearly seen to do good 
to numbers of people ! " Yes," says he, " they derive 

* Carthamns tinctorius. ' Daphne Gnidinm. 

* Euphorbia acanthothamnos. ^ Teucrium chamaedrys. 

* Atractylie gummifera. • On nee of Ktiote cf. p. 9S, note 1. 



Χ(τ/ω της κ€νώσ€ως. καΐ μην ei φΧύΎματος άτ/ω- 
ynv αύτοΐς 8οίης φάρμακου, ουκ ονησονται. και 
Ύοί'θ^ ούτως ii'apye^ iariv, ωστβ καΐ οι <Ιπο μόνης 
της €μτΓ€ΐριας ορμώμβνοι yiyvcoaKovaiv αυτό. 
καίτοι τούτοις ye τοις avhpaaiv αύτο Βη τούτ 
€στι φιΧοσόφημα, τό μηΒβνΙ λόγο) ττιστ^ύζΐν αλλά 
μόνοις τοις ivapyως φαινομβνοις. ixeivot μβν ουν 
σωφρονούσιν ΑσκΧηττιάΒης Se τταρατταίει ταΐς 
αίσθήσ€σιν ημάς άττίστα,ν κβΧβύων, βνθα το φαι- 
νόμενον άνατρβττει σαφώς αύτον τάς ύττοθεσβις. 
καίτοι μακρω y ην αμβινον ούχ^ όμόσβ "χ^ωρβίν 
τοις φαινομβνοις αλλ,' έκβίνοις άναθέσθαι το τταν. 
Άρ' ούν ταύτα μόνον evapyώς μάχβται τοις 
^ΑσκΧητΓΐάδου 8όyμaσιv η και το θβρους μβν 
ττΧβίονα κβνοΰσθαι την ξανθην •χοΧην νττο των 
αυτών φαρμάκων, χβιμώνος Be το φXeyμa, και 
ν€ανίσκω μίν ττΧβιονα την 'χ^οΧην, ττρΐσβύτη he τό 
44 φΧίτγμα; φαίν€ται || yap €καστον eXKeiv την 
οΰσαν, ουκ αύτο yevvav την ουκ ούσαν. el yovv 
€θ€Χησαις νεανίσκω τινι των ίσ'χ^νών και θερμών 
ώρα θέρους μήτ^ άpyώς βεβιωκότί μητ ev ττΧησ- 
μονη φXeyμaτoς άyωyov δούναι φάρμακον, οΧί- 
yiaTOV pev και μετά βίας ττοΧΧής εκκ€νώσεις του 
"χυμού, βΧάψεις δ' εσχάτως τον ανθρωττον εμττα- 
Χιν δ' €ί χoXayωyov δοίης, και ττάμποΧυ Κ€νώσ€ΐς 
καΐ βΧάψβις ouBev. 

Ά^' άτΓίστούμεν €τι τω μη οΰχ €καστον τών 
φαρμάκων eTrayeaBai τον oiKeiov €αυτώ γυμόν; 

* Empiricist physicians. 



benefit certainly, but merely in proportion to the 
evacuation," . . . But if you give these cases a drug 
>vhich draws off phlegm they Λνϋΐ not be benefited. 
This is so obvious that even those who make ex- 
perience alone their starting-point ^ are aware of it ; 
and these people make it a cardinal point of theii• 
teaching to trust to no arguments, but only to 
what can be clearly seen. In this, then, they show 
good sense ; whereas Asclepiades goes far astray in 
bidding us distrust our senses ΛvheΓe obvious facts 
plainly overturn his hypotheses. Much better would 
it have been for him not to assail obvious facts, but 
rather to devote himself entirely to these. 

Is it, then, these facts only which are plainly 
irreconcilable with the views of Asclepiades ? Is 
not also the fact that in summer yellow bile is 
evacuated in greater quantity by the same drugs, 
and in winter phlegm, and that in a young man more 
bile is evacuated, and in an old man more phlegm .'' 
Obviously each drug attracts something which 
already exists, and does not generate something pre- 
viously non-existent. Thus if you give in the summer 
season a drug Avhich attracts phlegm to a young man 
of a lean and warm habit, who has lived neither idly 
nor too luxuriously, you will with great difficulty 
evacuate a very small quantity of this humour, and 
you Λvill do the man the utmost harm. On the 
-.other hand, if you give him a cholagogue, you ΛνϋΙ 
produce an abundant evacuation and not injure him 
at all. 

Do Λve still, then, disbelieve that each drug attracts 
Ihal humour which is proper la it ? - Possibly the 

2 Note that drugs also have " natures " ; c/. p. 66, note 3, 
and pp. 83-84. 



ίσως φήσουσιν oi air* ^ ΑσκΧηττίάΒου, μάΧλον δ' 
ουκ ϊσως, άΧλα πάντως άτηστβΐν βροΰσιν, ϊνα μη 
ττροΖώσι τα φίΧτατα. 


ΓΙ αλί 1/ ονν καΐ ημείς ^φ" irepav μβταβωμβν 
ά^όΧβσχίαν ου yap ετητρέττουσιν οί σοφισταΐ 
των αξίων Τί ζητημάτων ττροχβιρίζεσθαι καίτοι, 
τταμπόΧλων υπαρχόντων, αλλά κατατρίββιν ava/y- 
κάζουσι τον γ^ρόνον εΙς την των σοφισμάτων, ων 
ττροβάΧλουσι, Χύσιν. 

Ύίς ουν η ά8ο\€σ\ία; ή €νΒοξος αΰτη καΐ 
45 ΊΓοΧυθ ρύΧητος \ιθος η τον σί8ηρον \\ ετησπωμίνη. 
τάχα yap αν αΰτη ττοτε την ψυχην αυτών ίτη- 
σττάσαίτο τηστεύβίν είναι τινας iv ίκάστω των σω- 
μάτων εΧκτικας των οικείων ποιοτήτων δυνάμεις. 

^Ειπικουρος μεν ουν καίτοι παραπΧησίοις Ά<τ- 
κΧηπιάΒ-ρ στοι-χ^είοις προς την φυσιoXoyίav χρώ- 
μενος όμως 6μoXoyεΐ, προς μεν της ήρακΧείας 
Χίθου τον σίΒηρον εΧκεσθαι, προς Βε των ηΧεκ- 
τρων τα κυρη(3ια καϊ πειράται yε καΐ την αΐτίαν 
άποΒιΒόναι του φαινομένου, τας yap απορρέουσας 
άτόμους άπο της Χίθου ταϊς άπορρεούσαις άπο 
του σιΒηρου τοις σχημασίν οικείας εΙναί φησιν, 
ώστε περιπΧεκεσθαι ραΒίως, προσκρούουσας ουν 
αύτάς τοις συyκpίμaσιv εκατέροις της τε Χίθου 
και του σιΒηρου κάπειτ εις το μέσον άποπαΧ- 
Χομενας ούτως άΧΧιίΧαις τε περιπΧεκεσθαι καϊ 

1 Pun here. ^ Lit. pht/siologi/, i.e. nature-lore, almost 

our "Natural Philosophy" ; cf. Introduction, p. xxvi. 



adherents of Asclepiades will assent to this — or 
rather, they will— not possibly, but certainly — de- 
clare that they disbelieve it, lest they should betray 
their darling prejudices. 


Let us pass on, then, again to another piece of 
nonsense ; for the sophists do not 3ΐ1θΛν one to engage 
in enquiries that are of any Avorth, albeit there are 
many such ; they compel one to spend one's time in 
dissipating the fallacious arguments which they bring 

What, then, is this piece of nonsense ? It has to 
do with the famous and far-renowned stone which 
draws iron [the lodestone]. It might be thought 
that this would draw ^ their minds to a belief that 
there are in all bodies certain Jaculfies by Λvhich 
they attract their own proper qualities. 

Now Epicurus, despite the fact that he employs in 
his Physics ^ elements similar to those of Asclepiades,' 
yet allows that iron is attracted by the lodestone,* 
and chaff by amber. He even tries to give the cause 
of the phenomenon. His view is that the atoms 
Λvhich flow from the stone are related in shape to 
those flowing from the iron, and so they become 
easily interlocked with one another ; thus it is that, 
after colliding with each of the two compact masses 
(the stone and the iron) they then rebound into the 
middle and so become entangled with each other, 

' The ultimate particle of Epicurus was the ίτομοί or atom 
(lit. "non-divisible"), of Asclepiades, the 07*0 τ or molecule. 
Asclepiades took his atomic theory from Epicurus, and he 
again from Democritus ; cf. p. 49, note 5. 

* Lit. Herculean stone, 



συνειτισ'ΤΓασθαί τον σί8ηρον. το μβρ ονν των 
υποθέσεων εί<ί την αΙτιόΧο^ίαν άττίθανον αντίκρυ^ 
8η\ον, όμως δ' ονν όμοΧοΎεΐ την οΧκήν. καΧ ούτω 
ye και, κατά τα σώματα των ζωών φησί 'γί'γνεσθαι 
τά? τ' άναΒοσεις καΐ τα? Βιακρίσεις των περιτ- 
τωμάτων καΐ τά9 των καθαιρόντων φαρμάκων 

Ασκ\η7Γίά8η<; 8η τυ τ€ της είρημενης αίτιας 

4Η άττίθανον II ύττιΒόμενος καΐ μηΒεμίαν άΧ\ην εφ^ 
οίς ύττεθετο στοιχείοις εξευρίσκων ττιθανην εττΐ το 
μηΒ δλω<? εΧκεσθαι Xiyeiv νττο μηΖενος μηΒεν 
άναισγνντησας ετράπετο, 8εον, εΐ μηθ^ οΐς Έπί- 
κουρος είττεν ηρεσκετο μητ άΧλα βεΧτίω Xiyeiv 
είχεν, άτΓΟστηναι των υποθέσεων καΐ την τε φύσιν 
ειπείν τεχνικην και την ούσίαν των όντων ενου- 
μενην τε προς εαντην άε\ καϊ άΧΧοιονμενην ϋπο 
των εαυτής μορίων εΙς άΧΧηΧα Βρώντων τε καΐ 
πασχόντων, ει yap τανθ^ υπεθετο, χαΧεπον ούΒεν 
ην την τεχνικην εκείνην φύσιν 6μoXoyήσaι δυνά- 
μεις εχειν επισπαστικην μεν των οικείων, άπο- 
κριτικην 8ε των άΧΧοτρίων. ου yap δί' άΧΧο τι 
y ην αύτη το τεχνική τ είναι και του ζώου 
8ιασωστικη καϊ των νοσημάτων κριτική πάρα το 
προσίεσθαι μεν καϊ φυΧάττειν το οίκεΐον, άπο- 
κρίνειν 8ε το άΧΧότριον. 

'Αλλ' ^ΑσκΧηπιά8ης κάνταύθα το μεν άκόΧου- 
θον ταΐς άρχαΐς αΐς υπεθετο σννει8εν, ου μην την 
ye προς το φαινόμενον evapyώς η8εσθη μάχην, 

47 αλλ' όμόσε \\ χωρεΐ και περί τούτου ττασιν ουκ 
ίατροις μόνον άλλ' η8η καϊ τοις άΧΧοις άνθρώποις 

' Lit. aetiology. ^ Aimdonia ; ς/Ι ρ. 62, note 1. 



and draw the iron after them. So far, then, as his 
hypotheses regarding causation ^ go, he is perfectly 
unconvincing ; nevertheless, he does grant that 
there is an attraction. Further, he says that it is 
on similar principles that there occur in the bodies of 
animals the dispersal of nutriment - and the discharge 
of waste matters, as also the actions of cathartic 

Asclepiades, however, who viewed \vith suspicion 
the incredible character of the cause mentioned, 
and who saw no other credible cause on the basis 
of his supposed elements, shamelessly had recourse 
to the statement that nothing is in any way attracted 
by anything else. ΝοΛν, if he Λvas dissatisfied with 
Λvhat Epicurus said, and had nothing better to say 
himself, he ought to have refrained from making 
hypotheses, and should have said that Nature 
is a constructive artist and that the substance of 
things is always tending towards unity and also 
towards alteration because its own parts act upon 
and are acted upon by one another.^ For, if he had 
assumed this, it would not have been difficult to allo\v 
that this constructive nature has poΛvers which 
attract appropriate and expel alien matter. For in 
no other way could she be constructive, preservative 
of the animal, and eliminative of its diseases,'• unless 
it be alloΛved that she conserves what is appropriate 
and discharges what is foreign. 

But in this matter, too, Asclepiades realized the 
logical sequence of the principles he had assumed ; 
he showed no scruples, however, in opposing plain 
fact ; he joins issue in this matter also, not merely 
with all physicians, but \vith everyone else, and 

• cf. p. 45. * The vis comerwUrix et nudicatriz Naturae. 

Ε 73 


οι5τ€ κρίσιν elvaL rtva λβγωι/ οΰθ^ ήμέραν κρίσιμον 
ούθ^ ολω9 ov^ev eVl σωτηρία του ζώου 7Γpayμa- 
τβύσασθαι την φύσιν. aei 'yap το μβν άκόΧονθον 
φν\άττ€ΐν βονΧεταί, το δ' ivapyta^ φαινόμενον 
άνατρ67Γ€ΐν βμτταΧίν ^Έττικονρω, τιθβΐς yap €Κ€Ϊνο<ζ 
CLci το φαινόμβνορ αΐτίαν αυτού ψυχ^ραν άττοΒίΒωσι. 
τα yap άττοτταΧλόμενα σμικρά σώματα της ήρα- 
κΧβίας Χίθου τοιούτοις eTepoi^ ττβριττΧίκβσθαι μο- 
ρίοις του σιΒηρου κάττειτα Βια της ττξρητΧοκης 
ταύτης μη^αμού φαινομβνης βτησττάσθαι βαρβΐαν 
οΰτως ουσίαν ουκ οΖδ' οττως αν τις ττβισθβίη. καΐ 
yap el τούτο συyγ^ωpησoμev, το ye τω σι8ήρω 
ττάλιν erepov στροστεθεν τι συνάτττεσθαι την 
αυτήν αΐτίαν ούκέτι ττροσίεται. 

Ύί yap έρούμεν; η 8ηλα8η των απορρεόντων 
της χίθου μορίων evia μεν ττροσκρούσαντα τω 
σιδΐίρω ττάΧιν άττοττάΧΧεσθαι και ταύτα μεν είναι, 
Βι ων κρεμάννυσθαι συμβαίνει τον σιΒηρον, τα δ' 
48 εΙς αύτον εΙσΒυόμενα Βια των || κενών ττόρων 8ι- 
εξεργεσθαι τάχ^ιστα κάττειτα τω παρακείμενα) 
σιΒήρω προσκρούοντα μητ εκείνον ΒιαΒυναι Βύ- 
νασθαι, καίτοι τον ye πρώτον ΒιαΒύντα, παΧινΒρο- 
μοΰντα δ' αύθις επϊ τον προτερον ετέρας αυθι^ 
εpyάζεσθaι ταΐς προτεραις όμοιας περιπΧοκας ; 

Έvapyώς yap ενταύθα το ΧηρώΒες της αίτιας 
ελεγχεταί. ypaφεΐa yoOv οΙΒά ποτέ σιΒηρα πέντε 
κατά, το συνεχές άΧΧηΧοις σνναφθεντα, του πρώ- 
του μεν μόνου της λίθου ψαύσαντος, εξ εκείνου 

^ cf. ρ. 61, note 3. The crisis or resolation in fevers was 
observed to take place with a certain regularity ; hence 
arose the doctrine of "critical daye." 



maintains that there is no such thing as a crisis^ 
or critical day,^ and that Nature does absolutely 
nothing for the preservation of the animal. For 
his constant aim is to follow out logical conse- 
quences and to upset obvious fact, in this respect 
being opposed to Epicurus ; for the latter always 
stated the observed fact, although he gives an in- 
effective explanation of it. For, that these small 
corpuscles belonging to the lodestone rebound, and 
become entangled with other similar particles of 
the iron, and that then, by means of this entangle- 
ment (which cannot be seen anywhere) such a heavy 
substance as iron is attracted — I fail to understand 
hoΛv anybody could believe this. Even if we admit 
this, the same principle will not explain the fact that, 
Λνΐιεη the iron has another piece brought in contact 
Λvith it, this becomes attached to it. 

For what are we to say ? That, forsooth, some of 
the particles that flow from the lodestone collide 
with the iron and then rebound back, and that it is 
by these that the iron becomes suspended ? that 
others penetrate into it, and rapidly pass through it by 
way of its empty channels ? ^ that these then collide 
with the second piece of iron and are not able to 
penetrate it although they penetrated the first 
piece ? and that they then course back to the first 
piece, and produce entanglements like the former 

The hypothesis here becomes clearly refuted by 
its absurdity. As a matter of fact, I have seen five 
writing-stylets of iron attached to one another in a 
line, only the first one being in contact with the 

' These were hypothetical spaces or ohaunels between the 
atoms ; cf. Introduction, p. xiv. 



δ* εΙς ταλΧα της Βννάμζως ΒίαΒοθείση^ς• καϊ ουκ 
εστίν eiTrcLV, ώς, el μίν τω κάτω του 'γραφείου 
ιτίρατι TrpoadyoL^ eTepov, βχεταί re καϊ συνάτττε- 
ται καϊ κρβμαται το ττροσενεγθβν el δ' αλλω τινί 
μ€ρ€ί των 7Γ\α<γίων ττροσθβιης, ου συνάπτεται, 
ττάντη yap 6μοίω<; η τή<; Χίθου SiaBiSoTac 8ύναμι<;, 
el μόνον άψαιτο κατά τι του ττρώτου γραφείου, 
και μέντοι κάκ τούτου ττάΧιν βίς το δεύτερον 6\ον 
η Βύναμις άμα νοήματι Βιαρρεΐ κάζ εκείνου ττάλιν 
6ί9 το τρίτον οΧον. el Βη νοήσαι<; σμικράν τίνα 
Χίθον ηρακΧείαν εν οϊκω τινΙ κρεμαμένην, εΤτ εν 
κύκΧω ψαύοντα ττάμττοΧΧα σώήρια κάκείνων 
ττάΧιν έτερα κάκείνων άΧΧα καϊ τοΰτ άχ^ρι ττΧεί- 
49 ονο<;, άτταντα \\ Βήττου ττίμττΧασθαι Βεΐ τα σώηρια 
των άτΓορ ρεόντων της Χίθου σωμάτων, καϊ κινδυ- 
νεύει Βιαφορηθήναι το σμικρόν εκείνο ΧιθίΒιον eh 
τάς άττορροάς ΒιαΧυθεν. καίτοι, καν εΐ μηΒεν 
τταρακεοιτ αύτω σιΒηριον, εΙς τον άερα σκεΒάννυ- 
ται, μάΧιστ^ εΐ καϊ θερμός υττάρ-χοι. 

Nat, φησί, σμικρά yap αυτά •χ^ρη ττάνυ voeiv, 
ώστε των εμφερομενων τφ αέρι ^Jrηyμάτωv τού- 
των Βη των σμικροτάτων εκείνων ενια μυριοστον 
είναι μέρος, ειτ εζ οΰτω σμικρών τοΧμάτε Xiyeiv 
κρεμήννυσθαι βάρη τηΧικαυτα σιΒηρου ; εΐ yap 
εκαστον αυτών μυριοστον εστί μέρος τών εν τω 
άερι φερομένων yfrηyμάτωv, ττηΧικον 'χρη νοησαι 
το ττερας αυτών το άyκιστpoειBές, φ ττεριττΧέκεται 
ττρος άΧΧηΧα; ττάντως yap Βηττου τοΰτο σμικρό- 
τατόν εστίν οΧου του ■ψηyμιaτoς. 

1 He means the specific drawing power or faculty of the 
lodestone. * cf, our modern "radium-emanations." 



lodestone, and the power ^ being transmitted through 
it to the others. Moreover, it cannot be said that if 
you bring a second stylet into contact with the lo\ver 
end of the first, it becomes held, attached, and sus- 
pended, whereas, if you apply it to any other part of 
the side it does not become attached. For the power 
of the lodestone is distributed in all directions ; it 
merely needs to be in contact with the first stylet at 
any point ; from this stylet again the po\ver flows, as 
quick as a thought, all through the second, and from 
that again to the third. Now, if you imagine a small 
lodestone hanging in a house, and in contact with it 
all round a large number of pieces of iron, from them 
again others, from these others, and so on, — all these 
pieces of iron must surely become filled with the 
corpuscles which emanate from the stone ; therefore, 
this first little stone is likely to become dissipated by 
disintegrating into these emanations.'' Further, even 
if there be no iron in contact >vith it, it still disperses 
into the air, particularly if this be also \varm. 

"Yes," says Epicurus, ''but these corpuscles must 
be looked on as exceedingly small, so that some 
of them are a ten-thousandth part of the size of 
the very smallest particles carried in the air." Then 
do you venture to say that so great a weight of iron 
can be suspended by such small bodies .'' If each of 
them is a ten-thousandth part as large as the dust 
particles which are borne in the atmosphere, how big 
must we suppose the hook-like extremities by which 
they interlock with each other ^ to be .'' For of 
course this is quite the smallest portion of the whole 

* cf. Ehrlich's hypothesis of "receptors" in explanation of 
the " affinities " of animal cells. 



Είτα μικρόν μικρφ, κινούμενον κινονμένφ ττβρι- 
ττΚακεν ουκ βύθύ^ άττοττάΚΧεται. καΧ yap δτ; καΐ 
αλλ' αττα ττάντω<ζ αύτοΐς, rh μεν άνωθεν, τα 8e 
κάτωθεν, καΐ τα μεν εμττροσθεν, τα δ' Οπισθεν, 
τά δ' εκ των Βεξιων, τα δ' εκ των αριστερών || 

50 εκρηψ)ύμενα σείει τε και βράττει καΐ μένειν ουκ 
εα. καΐ μεντοι καϊ ττολλά γ^ρη νοεΐν εξ άνάιγκης 
εκαστον εκείνων των σμικρών σωμάτων εχειν 
ά'γκιστρώΒη ττερατα. Βι ενο<; μεν jap άΧΧη\οι<; 
συνάπτεται, Βι ετέρου δ' ενός τοΰ μεν υπερκει- 
μένου Tfi Τύθω, τοΰ δ' υποκειμένου τφ σιΒήρφ. 
el yap άνω μεν εξαφθειη της Χίθου, κάτω 8ε τφ 
σιΒήρω μη συμπΧακείη, πΧέον ούΒέν. ωστ€ τοΰ 
μεν υπερκειμένου το άνω μέρος εκκρέμασθαι 'χρη 
της Χίθου, τοΰ δ' υποκειμένου τφ κάτω πέρατι 
συνήφθαι τον σίΒηρον. επεϊ Βε κάκ των πXayίωv 
άΧΧήΧοις περιπΧέκεται, πάντως που κάνταΰθα 
έχει τα άyκιστpa. καϊ μέμνησό μοι προ πάντων, 
όπως οντά σμικρά τάς τοιαύτας καΧ τοσαύτας 
αποφύσεις έχει. και τούτου μάΧΧον ετι, πώς, ϊνα 
το Βεύτερον σιΒήριον συναφθτ} τφ πρώτφ καϊ τφ 
Βευτέρφ το τρίτον κάκείνω το τέταρτον, άμα μεν 
Βιεξέρχεσθαι χρη τους πόρους ταυτϊ τα σμικρά 
καϊ ΧηρώΒη 'y^rjypaTa, άμα δ' άποπάΧΧεσθαι τοΰ 

51 μετ αύτο || τετayμέvoυ, καίτοι κατά πάν ομοίου 
την φύσιν υπάρχοντος, 

ΟύΒε yap ή τοιαύτη πάΧιν ΰποθεσις άτοΧμος, 
αλλ', ει χρη τάΧηθβς εΙπεΐν, μακρω των έμπροσ- 
θεν άναισχυντοτέρα, πέντε σιΒηρίων ομοίων άλλτ^- 



Then, again, when a small body becomes en- 
tangled with another small body, or when a body 
in motion becomes entangled with another also in 
motion, they do not rebound at once. For, further, 
there will of course be others \vhich break in upon 
them from above, from below, from front and rear, 
from right and left, and Λvhich shake anJ agitate 
them and never let them rest. Moreover, we must 
perforce suppose that each of these small bodies has 
a large number of these hook-like extremities. For 
by one it attaches itself to its neighbours, by another 
— the topmost one — to the lodestone, and by the 
bottom one to the iron. For if it were attached to 
the stone above and not interlocked with the iron 
below, this would be of no use.^ Thus, the upper part 
of the superior extremity must hang from the lode- 
stone, and the iron must be attached to the lower 
end of the inferior extremity ; and, since they inter- 
lock with each other by their sides as well, they 
must, of course, have hooks there too. Keep in 
mind also, above everything, what small bodies these 
are which possess all these different kinds of out- 
growths. Still more, remember how, in order that 
the second piece of iron may become attached to the 
first, the third to the second, and to that the fourth, 
these absurd little particles must both penetrate the 
passages in the first piece of iron and at the same 
time rebound from the piece coming next in the 
series, although this second piece is naturally in 
every way similar to the first. 

Such an hypothesis, once again, is certainly not 
lacking in audacity ; in fact, to tell the truth, it is far 
more shameless than the previous ones ; according 

* i.e. from the point of view of the theory. 



λθί9 €φ€ξής τ€τα'γμ€νων Βια τού πρώτου 8ια8νό- 
μενα ραΒίως τή<; \ίθου τα μόρια κατεί το Bevrepov 
άττοτταλΧεσθαί και μη Sia τούτου κατά τον αύτον 
τρόπον ετοίμως Βιεξβρχεσθαί. καΐ μην ίκατέρως 
άτοπον, el μεν yap άποπάΧλεται, πώ<ί εΙς το 
τρίτον ώκέως Βιεξερχεται; el δ' ουκ άποπαΚΧεται, 
ττώ? κρεμάννυται το Βεύτερον εκ του πρώτον; την 
yap αποπαΧσιν αύτος νπεθετο 8ημιoυpyov τ^9 
όΧκη^;. ι 

'Αλλ , όπερ εφην, €19 άΒοΧεσ'χ^ίαν ItvayKaXov 
εμπιπτειν, επειΒάν τις τοίοντοί<; άνΒράσι 8ta\eyη- 
ται. συντομον ονν τίνα καΐ κεφά\αιώ8η Xoyov 
ειπών άπα\\άττεσθαι βούΧομαι. τοΐ<; ΆσκΧη- 
πιά8ου ypdμμaσιv εϊ τις επιμεΧώ'ί όμιΧησειε, την 
τε προς τας άρχας άκοΧουθίαν των τοιούτων 
8oyμάτωv ακριβώς άν εκμύθοι και την προς τά 
φαινόμενα μάχην. 6 μεν ονν ^Κπίκουρος τα 
52 φαινόμενα φυΧάττειν βονΧόμενος άσγτ)μονεΐ \\ φι- 
Χοτιμούμενος επιΒεικνύειν αντα ταΐς άρχ^αΐς όμο- 
XoyovvTa' ό δ' ΆσκΧηπιάΒης το μεν άκόΧουθον 
ταΐς άρχαΐς φνΧάττει, του φαινομενον δ' ον8εν 
αύτω μεΧει. όστις ονν βούΧεται την ατοπίαν 
εξεXεyχειv των υποθέσεων, ει μεν προς ^ΑσκΧη- 
πιάΒην ό Xόyoς αντω yiyvoiTo, της προς το 
φαινομενον νπομιμνησκετω μάχης' ει 8ε προς 
^Έιπίκονρον, της προς τας αρχάς Βιαφωνίας. αΐ 
δ' άΧΧαι σχεΒον αιρέσεις αϊ τών όμοιων άρχων 
εχόμεναι τεΧεως άπεσβησαν, αύται δ' ετι μόναι 
Βιαρκονσιν ουκ άyεvvώς. καίτοι τα μεν Άσ- 
κΧηπιάΒου ^ηνό8οτος ο εμπειρικός άφύκτως 
i^eXiyxei, την τε προς τα φαινόμενα μάχην νπο- 
μιμνησκων αντον και την προς άΧΧηΧα' τα δ' 



to it, when five similar pieces of iron are arranged 
in a line, the particles of the lodestone which easily 
traverse the first piece of iron rebound from the 
second, and do not pass readily through it in the 
same way. Indeed, it is nonsense, whichever alter- 
native is adopted. For, if they do rebound, how then 
do they pass through into the third piece ? And if 
they do not rebound, how does the second piece 
become suspended to the first ? For Epicurus him- 
self looked on the rebound as the active agent in 

But, as I have said, one is driven to talk nonsense 
whenever one gets into discussion with such men. 
Having, therefore, given a concise and summary 
statement of the matter, I Λvish to be done >vith it. 
For if one diligently familiarizes oneself with the 
writings of Asclepiades, one will see clearly their logi- 
cal dependence on his first principles, but also their 
disagreement with observed facts. Thus, Epicurus, 
in his desire to adhere to the facts, cuts an awk\vard 
figure by aspiring to show that these agree with his 
principles, whereas Asclepiades safeguards the se- 
quence of principles, but pays no attention to the 
obvious fact. Whoever, therefore, •wishes to expose 
the absurdity of their hypotheses, must, if the argu- 
ment be in answer to Asclepiades, keep in mind his 
disagreement with observed fact ; or if in answer to 
Epicurus, his discordance >vith his principles. Almost 
all the other sects depending on similar principles 
are now entirely extinct, while these alone maintain 
a respectable existence still. Yet the tenets of 
Asclepiades have been unanswerably confuted by 
Menodotus the Empiricist, who draws his attention 
to their opposition to phenomena and to each other ; 



^ΈιΤΓίκονρον ΤΓολιν 6 * Ασκ\η'πιά8ης €χ6μ€νο<; ael 
της άκο\ουθία<ί, ή<ζ €Κ€Ϊνο<; ου ττάνυ τι φαίνεται 

'Αλλ' οί νυν άνθρωτΓοι, ττρΧν καΧ ταύτα<; 
€κμαθεΐν τας αίρβσεις καΐ τα? άΧλας τας 
βέλτίουΐξ καττβιτα γ^ρόνω ττοΧΧφ κρΐναί τβ καΐ 
βασανίσαι το καθ^ έκάστην αυτών άΧηθ€<ζ τε κάΙ 
ψεΰΒος, οί μ,Ιν ίατρού<; εαυτούς, οί Βε φίΧοσόφους 

53 ονομάζουσι μηΒεν είΒότε<;. \\ ούΒεν ουν θαυμαστον 
εττίση'ί τοΙ<ί αΧηθεσι τα ψευΒη τετιμήσθαι. οτφ 
yap αν έκαστος ττρώτω ττεριτύχΐ] ΒώασκάΧω, 
τοιούτος ε^ενετο, μη ττεριμείνας μηΒεν ετι τταρ 
αΧΧου μαθεΐν. ενιοι δ' αυτών, ει καΐ ττΧείοσιν 
εντύχοιεν, άΧΧ ούτω y είσΐν ασύνετοι τε καΐ 
βραΒεΐς την Βιάνοιαν, ώστε καϊ 'γε'γηρακότες οΰττω 
συνιασιν άκοΧουθίαν λόγοι;. ττάΧαι Βε τους τοιού- 
τους εττΐ τας βάναυσους άττεΧνον τεχνας. αλλά 
ταύτα μεν ες 6 τι τεΧευτ7ίσει θεός οΙΒεν. 

Ήμεΐς Β εττειΒή, καίτοι φεύ^οντες άντιΧε^ειν 
τοις εν αυταΐς ταΐς άρχαΐς ευθύς εσφαΧμένοις, 
όμως ηνα^κάσθημεν ύττ αυτής τών ττρα'γμάτων 
της άκοΧουθίας είττεΐν τίνα καϊ ΒιαΧεχθήναι ττρος 
αυτούς, ετι και τοΰτο ττροσθήσομεν τοις είρη- 
μενοις, ώς ου μόνον τα καθαίροντα φάρμακα 
πεφυκεν ετησττασθαι τας οικείας ΐΓοιότητας αλλά 
και τα τους σκοΧοττας avayovra καϊ τάς τών 
βεΧών άκίΒας εις ττοΧύ βάθος σαρκός εμιτετταρ- 
μένας ενίοτε, και μεντοι και οσα τους Ιούς τών 
θηρίων η τους εμτΓ^φαρμα^μίνους τοις βεΧεσιν 
άνεΧκει, και ταύτα την αύτην ταΐς ήρακΧείαις 

54 Χίθοις ετΓΐΙίΒείκνυται Βνναμιν. βγωγ' οΰν οΙΒά τότε 
καταττετταρμενον εν ττοΒι νεανίσκου σκόΧοττα toU 



and, again, those of Epicurus have been confuted by 
Asclepiades, who adhered always to logical sequence, 
about which Epicurus evidently cares little. 

Now people of the present day do not begin by 
getting a clear comprehension of these sects, as well 
as of the better ones, thereafter devoting a long time 
to judging and testing the true and false in each of 
them ; despite their ignorance, they style themselves, 
some " physicians " and others " philosophers." No 
wonder, then, that they honour the false equally with 
the true. For everyone becomes like the first teacher 
that he comes across, without waiting to learn any- 
thing from anybody else. And there are some of 
them, who, even if they meet Λvith more than one 
teacher, are yet so unintelligent and slow-Λvitted that 
even by the time they have reached old age they are 
still incapable of understandmg the steps of an argu- 
ment. ... In the old days such people used to be 
set to menial tasks. . . . What will be the end of it 
God knows ! 

Now, we usually refrain from arguing with people 
whose principles are wrong from the outset. Still, 
having been compelled by the natural course of 
events to enter into some kind of a discussion with 
them, we must add this further to what was said — 
that it is not only cathartic drugs which naturally 
attract their special qualities,^ but also those Avhich 
remove thorns and the points of arrows such as some- 
times become deeply embedded in the flesh. Those 
drugs also which draw out animal poisons or poisons 
applied to arrows all show the same faculty as does 
the lodestone. Thus,, I myself have seen a thorn 
which was embedded in a young man's foot fail to 

» qf. p. 69, note 2. 



μ€ν ΒακτύΧοίς βΧκουσιν ήμΐν βιαίως ουκ άκοΚου- 
θήσαντα, φαρμάκου δ' έπιτεθβντος άλύπω<; re καΐ 
8ιά ταχέων άνβΧθόντα. καίτοι καΐ ττρος τοΰτό 
τίνα άντιλέΎουσι φάσκοντ€<ζ, όταν ή φ\eyμovη 
Χυθτ} του μβρους, αύτόματον βξιβναί τον σκόλοττα 
ττρος ούΒβνος άνεΚκόμβνον. αλλ' αυτοί ye πρώ- 
τον μβν ayvoeiv βοίκασιν, ώ? αΧλα μέν βστι 
φΧβ^μονΐι^ί, άλλα δε των ούτω καταττβτταρμένων 
ίΧκτίκα φάρμακα' καίτοι, γ' etirep άφ\ey μάντων 
y αναμένων ξξβκρίνβτο τα τταρα φύσιν, οσα φ\ey- 
μονη<; εστί Χυτίκά, ταυτ βύθύς αν ην κάκβίνων 

AeOTCpov δ', δ καϊ μάΧΚον αν τίς θαυμάσ€ΐ€ν, 
ως ου μόνον άλλα μεν τού<; σκόλοπας, άλλα δέ 
τού<; ίού^ e^dyec φάρμακα, άλλα καϊ αυτών τών 
Tom ιούς έΧκόντων τα μεν τον της €χί8νης, τα δε 
τον της τpυy(n>oς, τα δ' άλλοι; τίΐ^ό? εττιαττάται 
καϊ σαφώς βστιν iSelv τοις φαρμάκοις εττικει- 
μένους αυτούς. ενταύθ' ούν 'Εττίκουρον μ^ν 
55 iiraivecv χρη της ττρος \\ το φαινόμενον αΙΒοϋς, 
μέμφεσθαί δε τον Xoyov της αίτιας. ον yap 
ημείς βΧκοντες τοις ΖακτύΧοις ούκ άvηyάyoμev 
σκόΧοττα, τούτον ύττο τών σμικρών εκείνων άνεΧ- 
κεσθαι ψηyμάτωv, ττώς ου τταντάπασιν άτοπον 
είναι χρη νομίζειν; 

Άρ' ούν η6η πεπείσμεθα τών όντων εκάστω 
Βύναμίν τιν ύπάρχειν, f/ την οίκείαν εΧκει 
ποιότητα, το μεν μάΧΧον, το δ' ήττον; 

' Η καϊ το τών πυρών ετι πapάBeιyμa προ- 

^ That is to sa}', the two properties should go together in 
all cases — which they do not. ^ Trygcm pastiiiaca. 



come out when we exerted forcible traction with 
our fingers, and yet come away painlessly and rapidly 
on the application of a medicament. Yet even to 
this some people will object, asserting that when the 
inflammation is dispersed from the part the thorn 
comes away of itself, without being pulled out by 
anything. But these people seem, in the first place, 
to be unaware that there are certain drugs for 
dΓaΛving out inflammation and different ones for 
draΛving out embedded substances ; and surely if it 
was on the cessation of an inflammation that the 
abnormal matters were expelled, then all drugs Λvhich 
disperse inflammations ought, ipsojacto, to possess the 
poAver of extracting these substances as well.^ 

And secondly, these people seem to be unaware of 
a still more surprising fact, namely, that not merely 
do certain medicaments draw out thorns and others 
poisons, but that of the latter there are some which 
attract the poison of the viper, others that of the 
sting-ray ,2 and others that of some other animal ; we 
can, in fact, plainly observe these poisons deposited 
on the medicaments. Here, then, we must praise 
Epicurus for the respect he shoΛvs towards obvious 
facts, but find fault with his views as to causation. 
For how can it be otherwise than extremely foolish to 
suppose that a thorn which we failed to i-emove by 
digital traction could be drawn out by these minute 
particles ? 

Have we ηοΛν, therefore, convinced ourselves that 
everything which exists ^ possesses a faculty by which 
it attracts its proper quality, and that some things do 
this more, and some less .'' 

Or shall we also furnish our argument with the 
» ςΛ p. 66, note 3. 



'χζίρισόμζθα τω λόγω; φανησονται yap οϊμαι 
και των ^^ωρ^ων αύτων αμαθέστεροι ττερί την 
φνσιν οΐ μηΒεν ολω? ύττό μη8ενο<; ελκεσθαι 
συ<γχωροΰντε<;' ώς έ'γωγε ττρώτον μεν άκουσας 
το ηι^νόμενον εθανμασα και αύτο? ηβουΧηθην 
αυτόπτης αυτοί) καταστήναι. μετά ταύτα δε, 
ώς καϊ τα τή<ϊ Tretyoa? ωμοΧό^εί, την αΐτίαν 
σκοΊΓούμενο'ί εν ΊταμττόΧΧφ 'χ^ρόνω κατά πάσα'ζ 
τάς αιρέσεις ουΒεμίαν άΧλην εύρεΐν οΙός τ' ην 
ούδ' αχρί του ττιθανοΰ ττροϊοΰσαν αλΧα κατα- 
Ύελάστους τε καϊ σαφώς εξεΧε'γχ^ομενας τάς άΧ\α<; 
άττάσας ττΧην της την οΧκην ττρεσβευούσης. 
"Εστί δε το ycyvop^vov τοιόνΒε. κατακομί- 
56 ζοντες οί τταρ' ημίν y€ωpyol τους || εκ των aypcov 
Ίτυρούς εις την ττόΧιν εν άμάξαις τΐσίν, όταν 
ύφεΧεσθαι βουΧηθώσιν, ώστε μη φωραθήναί, 
κεράμι άττα ττΧηρώσαντες ΰ8ατος μεσοις αύτοΐς 
ενιστάσιν. εΧκοντες ουν εκείνοι Sia του κεραμίου 
το iypov εΙς αυτούς oyKov μεν καϊ βάρος 
ττροσκτώνται, κατάδηΧοι δ' ου ττάνυ ylyvovTai τοΙ<ς 
opuiaiv, ει μη τις ιτροττεττυσμίνος η8η irepiepyo- 
τερον ετΓίσκοποΐτο. καίτοι γ' ^t βουΧηθείης εν 
ηΧίω καταθεΐναι ττάνυ θερμφ ταυτον άyyειov, 
εΧά'χ^ιστον τταντεΧώς ευ ρήσεις το 8απανώμενον 
εφ' εκάστης ημέρας, ούτως άρα και της ήΧιακής 
θερμασίας της σφοΒράς Ισχυροτεραν οί ττυροί 
8ύναμιν εχουσιν εΧκειν εις εαυτούς την ττΧησιά- 
ζουσαν ύγ/θότί;τα. Χήρος ουν ενταύθα μάκρος 
ή "ττρος το Χετττομερες φορά τού περιέχοντος 
ημάς άερος και μάΧισθ^ όταν ίκανώς η θερμός, 

* The way that corn can attract moisture. 


illustration afforded by com ? ^ For those who refuse 
to admit that anything is attracted by anything else, 
will, I imagine, be here proved more ignorant re- 
garding Nature than the very peasants. When, for 
my own part, I first learned of what happens, I was 
surprised, and felt anxious to see it Avith my own 
eyes. Afterwards, when experience also had con- 
firmed its truth, I sought long among the various 
sects for an explanation, and, with the exception 
of that which gave the first place to attraction, I 
could find none which even approached plausibility, 
all the others being ridiculous and obviously quite 

What happens, then, is the folloΛving. WTien our 
f)easants are bringing corn from the country into the 
city in wagons, and wish to filch some a.\\!tj without 
being detected, they fill earthen jars with water and 
stand them among the com ; the com then draws 
the moisture into itself through the jar and acquires 
additional bulk and weight, but the fact is never 
detected by the onlookers unless someone who knew 
about the trick before makes a more careful inspec- 
tion. Yet, if you care to set down the same vessel in 
the very hot sun, you will find the daily loss to be 
very little indeed. Thus com has a greater power 
than extreme solar heat of draAving to itself the 
moisture in its neighbourhood.^ Thus the theory 
that the water is carried towards the rarefied part of 
the air surrounding us ' (particularly when that is 
distinctly warm) is utter nonsense ; for although it is 

* Specific attraction of the "proper" quality; cf. p. 85, 
note 3. 

» TJieory of evaporation insufficient to account for it. ef. 
p. 104, note L 



πολύ μ€ν υττάρχοντο'ζ η κατά τους πνρούς Χεπτο- 
μ€ρ€στ€ρου, Βεχομύνου δ' ovSe το Βεκατον μέρος 
της εΙς έκάνους μεταΧαμβανομβνης ύ<γρότητος. 


*Ε7Γ6ΐ δ' Ικανώς ηΒοΧβσ'χ^ησαμβν ούχ €κόντ€ς, 
αλλ', ώ? ή παροιμία φησί, μαινομύνοίς avay- 
57 κασθβντες σνμ\\μανήναι, ττάΧίν iirl την των ούρων 
€ττ ανέλθω μ€ν Βιάκρισιν, iv η των μεν ΆσκΧη- 
7Γΐά8ου Χήρων βτηΧαθώμεθα, μβτα δε των ττε- 
7Γ€ΐσ μένων Βιηθεΐσθαι τα ουρά 8ια των νεφρών, 
τις 6 τρότΓος της ενεργείας εστίν, εττισκεψώμεθα• 
πάντως yap ή εξ αυτών εττΐ τους νεφρούς φέρεται 
τα ούρα τούτο βέΧτιον είναι νομίζοντα, καθάττερ 
ημείς, όττόταν εΙς την ayopav άττίωμεν η, ει τούτ 
άΒύνατον, έτερον τι χρη της φοράς αυτών εξευρεΐν 
αίτιον, τι Βη τούτ εστίν; ει yap μη τοις νεφροΐς 
Βώσομέν τίνα Βύναμιν έΧκτικην της τοιαύτης 
ποιότητος, ώς Ίτητοκράτης ενόμιζεν, ούΒεν έτερον 
εξενρησομεν. οτι μεν yap ήτοι τούτους εΧκειν 
αύτο Ίτροσηκεν η τας φΧέβας ττέμιτειν, εΐττερ yε μη 
εξ εαυτού φέρεται, τταντί ττου ΒηΧον. αλλ εΐ μεν 
α'ι φΧέβες ττεριστεΧΧόμεναι ττροωθοΐεν, ούκ εκείνο 
μόνον, άλλα συν αύτω καϊ το πάν αίμα το 
ττεριεχόμενον εν εαυταΐς εις τους νεφρούς εκ- 
ΘΧίψουσιν εΐ Βε τούτ άΒύνατον, ώς Βείξομεν, 
Χείπβται τους νεφρούς εΧκειν. 



much more rarefied there than it is amongst the com, 
yet it does not take up a tenth part of the moisture 
which the com does. 


Since, then, we have talked sufficient nonsense — 
not wilHngly, but because we were forced, as the 
proverb says, " to behave madly among madmen " — 
let us return again to the subject of urinary secretion. 
Here let us forget the absurdities of Asclepiades, 
and, in company with those \vho are persuaded that 
the urine does pass through the kidneys, let us con- 
sider Avhat is the character of this function. For, 
most assuredly, either the urine is conveyed by its 
own motion to the kidneys, considering this the 
better course (as do we when we go off to market ! ^), 
or, if this be impossible, then some other reason for 
its conveyance must be found. What, then, is this ? 
If we are not going to grant the kidneys a faculty 
for attracting this particular quality,^ as Hippocrates 
held, we shall discover no other reason. For, surely 
everyone sees that either the kidneys must attract 
the urine, or the veins must propel it — if, that is, it 
does not move of itself. But if the veins did exert 
a propulsive action Λvhen they contract, they would 
squeeze out into the kidneys not merely the urine, 
but along with it the whole of the blood which they 
contain.^ And if this is impossible, as we shall show, 
the remaining explanation is that the kidneys do 
exert traction. 

^ Playful suggestion of free-will in the urine. 

• Specific attraction, cf. p. 87, note 2. 

* i.e. there would be no selective action. 



11ω9 ovv αδύνατοι^ τούτο; των νεφρών η θίσι^ 
αντιβαίνει, ου yap 8η ούτω <γ υττοκεινται Trj 

68 Koikr) φλεβΐ II καθάττζρ τοΐ<; εξ ijKeipakov 
ττεριττώμασιν ev τε Trj ρινϊ και κατά την νπερωαν 
οΐ τοΐ<ί ηθμοΐς όμοιοι ττόροι, αλλ' εκατέρωθεν 
avTfi τταράκεινται. καΐ μην, εϊττερ ομοίως τοις 
ήθμοΐς όσον αν η Χετττότερον και τεΧεως ορρώΒες, 
τούτο μεν ετοίμως διαττέμιτουσι, το 8ε ττα-χυτερον 
ατΓοστε^ουσιν, άτταν eV αυτούς Ιεναι 'χ^ρη το 
αίμα το περιεχομενον εν τη κοίΧη φΧεβί, καθάττερ 
eh τους τρυγητούς ό ττάς οίνος εμβάΧλεται. καΐ 
μεν <γε καΐ το του γάλακτος του τυρουμενον 
ΊταράδείΎμα σαφώς αν, ο βούΧομαι Χέ^ειν, 
εν8είξαιτο. και yap κα\ τούτο ττάν εμβΧηθεν 
εΙς τους ταΧάρους ου ττάν διηθείται, αλλ' όσον 
μεν αν η Χετττότερον της εύρύτητος των ττΧοκά- 
μων, εις το κάταιηες φέρεται και τούτο μεν 
ορρός ετΓονομάζεταΐ' το Χοιττον 8ε το τταχύ το 
μέΧΧον εσεσθαι τυρός, ώς αν ου τταραδε'χο μένων 
αύτο των εν τοις ταΧάροις ττόρων, ου διεκττίτττει 
κάτω. καΐ τοίνυν, εϊττερ οΰτω μάΧΧει διηθεΐσθαι 
των νεφρών 6 του αίματος ορρός, άτταν εττ' 
αυτούς ήκειν 'χ^ρη το αίμα καΐ μη το μεν ναι, το 

59 Τίώς ούν εγει το φαινόμενον εκ της ανατομής; 

Το μεν έτερον μέρος της κοίΧης άνω ττρος την 

καρ8ίαν αναφέρεται, το Χοιττον δ' εττιβαίνει τη 

ρά'χ^ει καθ^ οΧης αυτής εκτεινομενον άχ^ρι τών 

σκεΧών, ώστε το μεν έτερον ούδ' iyyvς άφικνεΐται 

^ Nasal mucus was supposed to be the non-utilizable part 
of the nutriment conveyed to the brain, cf. p. 214, note 3. 



And how is propulsion by the veins impossible ? 
The situation of the kidneys is against it. They 
do not occupy a position beneath the hollow vein 
[vena cava] as does the sieve-like [ethmoid] passage 
in the nose and palate in relation to the surplus 
matter from the brain ; ^ they are situated on both 
sides of it. Besides, if the kidneys are like sieves, 
and readily let the thinner serous [whey-like] portion 
through, and keep out the thicker portion, then 
the whole of the blood contained in the vena cava 
must go to them, just as the whole of the wine 
is thrown into the filters. Further, the example 
of milk being made into cheese will show clearly 
what I mean. For this, too, although it is all 
thrown into the wicker strainers, does not all 
percolate through ; such part of it as is too fine in 
proportion to the width of the meshes passes down- 
wards, and this is called whey [serum] ; the remaining 
thick portion which is destined to become cheese 
cannot get down, since the pores of the strainers will 
not admit it. Thus it is that, if the blood-serum has 
similarly to percolate through the kidneys, the whole 
of the blood must come to them, and not merely one 
part of it. 

What, then, is the appearance as found on dis- 
section ? 

One division of the vena cava is carried upwards ^ 
to the heart, and the other mounts upon the spine 
and extends along its whole length as far as the legs ; 
thus one division does not even come near the 

' He means from its origin in the liver (i.e. in the three 
hepatic veins). His idea was that the upper division took 
nutriment to heart, lungs, head, etc., and the lower division 
to lower part of body. On the relation of right auricle to 
vena cava and right ventricle, ς/*, p. 321, notes 4 and 5. 



των νεφρών, το Χοίττον δε ττ^ησιάζει μεν, ου μην 
€69 αυτούς ye καταφύεται. ^χρήν 8\ εϊττερ 
εμεΧλεν ώς δί' ηθμών αυτών καθαρθήσεσθαι το 
αίμα, πάν εμττίτττείν εΙς αυτούς κάττειτα κάτω 
μεν φερεσθαι το Χετττόν, ϊσχ^εσθαί δ' ανω το 
ττα-χυ. νυνί δ' ού% όντως ^%ei• TrXayioi yap 
εκατέρωθεν της κοίΧης φΧεβος οΐ νεφροί κείνται, 
ούκουν ως ηθμοϊ 8ιηθοΰσι, ττεμπούσης μεν εκείνης, 
αύτοΙ δ' ούΒεμίαν εισφερόμενοι, Βύναμιν, αλλ' 
ελκουσι ΒηΧονότι• τούτο yap ετι Χείττεται. 

Πω? ούν εΧκουσιν; εΐ μεν, ως ^Επίκουρος οϊεται 
τας οΧκας άπάσας yίyvεσθaι κατά τας των 
ατόμων άττοττάλσεις τε και ττεριττΧοκάς, άμεινον 
ην όντως είττεΐν αυτούς μη8 ελκειν 6\ως• ττοΧυ 
yap αν ούτω yε τών εττϊ της ηρακΧείας Χιθου 
60 μικρω ττρόσθεν ειρη\\μενων ό Xόyoς εξεταζόμενος 
ευρεθείη yεXoιότεpoς• αλλ' ως Ίτητοκράτης ήβού- 
Χετο. Χεγ^θησεται δε σαφεστερον εττϊ ττροήκοντι 
τω λόγω. νυνι yap ου τούτο πρόκειται διΒάσκειν, 
αλλ' ώς ούτ άΧΧο τι δυνατόν είττεΐν αίτιον είναι 
της τών οΰρων διακρίσεως ττΧην της οΧκής τών 
νεφρών οΰθ^ ούτω yίyvεσθat την όΧκην, ώς οι 
μηΒεμίαν οικείαν Ζι^όντες τη φύσει Βύναμιν 
οϊονται yίyveσθaι. 

Ύούτου yap όμoXoyηθ εντός, ώς εστίν δλως τις 
εν τοις ύττο φύσεως Βιοικουμενοις Ζύναμις ελκτική, 
ΧηρώΒης νομίζοιτ αν ό ττερϊ άναΒόσεως τροφής 
άΧΧο τι Xέyειv εττιχειρών. 

1 We arrive at our belief by excluding other possibilities. 

2 i.e. the mechanistic physicists. <f, pp. 45-47. 
' cf. p. 85, note 3. 



jtidneys, while the other approaches them but is cer- 
tainly not inserted into them. ΝοΛν, if the blood 
were destined to be purified by them as if they were 
sieves, the whole of it λυοιιΜ have to fall into them, 
the thin part being thereafter conveyed downwards, 
and the thick part retained above. But, as a matter 
of fact, this is not so. For the kidneys lie on either 
side of the vena cava. They therefore do not act 
like sieves, filtering fluid sent to them by the vena 
cava, and themselves contributing no force. They 
obviously exert traction ; for this is the only remain- 
ing alternative. 

How, then, do they exert this traction ? If, 
as Epicurus thinks, all attraction takes place by 
virtue of the rebounds and etitanglements of atoms, 
it would be certainly better to maintain that the 
kidneys have no attractive action at all ; for his 
theory, when examined, >vould be found as it stands 
to be much more indiculous even than the theory of 
the lodestone, mentioned a little while ago. Attrac- 
tion occurs in the way that Hippocrates laid doΛvn ; 
this will be stated more clearly as the discussion 
proceeds ; for the present our task is not to demon- 
strate this, but to point out that no other cause of 
the secretion of urine can be given except that of 
attraction by the kidneys,^ and that this attraction 
does not take place in the way imagined by people 
who do not allow Nature a faculty of her own.^ 

For if it be granted that there is any attractive 
faculty at all in those things which are governed by 
Nature,^ a person who attempted to say anything 
else about the absorption of nutriment * would be 
considered a fool, 

* The subject of anadosie is taken up in the next chapter. 
e/. also p. 62, note 1. 




Έρασίστρατο<; δ' ουκ ο2δ' οττως ίτβραις μεν ησι 
Β6ξαι<; βύήθεσιν avretire 8ια μακρών, υττερέβη 8k 
τέλέως την ΊτητοκράΎους, ούδ' άχρι τον μνημονεΰ- 
σαι μόνον αυτής, ώ? iv τοΐ? ττερί «αταττόσεως 
€ΤΓθίησ€ν, άξΐ4&σα<;. iv iKeivoi<i μεν yap άχρι 
τοσούτου φαίνεται μνημονβύων, ώ? τοΰνομ 
είττεΐν της όΚκής μόνον ώδε ττως γράφων 

" 0\κη μβν ουν της κοιΧίας ουΖιμία φαίνεται 
61 elvai • irepX he της || αναβάσεως τον Xoyov ττοι- 
ούμενο^ ούΒ^ άχρι συΧΚαβής μιας εμνημόνευσε 
της Ίτητοκρατείου Βόξης. καίτοι y εττηρκεσεν 
αν ήμΐν, ει και τούτ εypaψε μόνον, ως Ίτητο- 
κράτης είττων " Έ,άρκες όΧκοϊ καΧ εκ κοιλίης και 
έξωθεν " ψεύΒεταΐ' ούτε yap εκ της κοιλίας οντ 
έξωθεν εΧκειν 6ύνανται. εΐ 8ε και οτι μήτρας 
αΐτιώμενος άρρωστον αυχένα κακώς είττεν " Ου 
yap δύναται αύτεης ο στόμαχος είρύσαι την yovrjv^^ 
^ ει καί τι τοιούτον αλΧο ypάφειv 6 ^Ερασί- 
στρατος ήξίωσε, τότ αν καΧ ημείς ττρος αύτον 
ά'πo\oyoύμεvoι εϊττομεν 

Ώ yεvvaΐe, μη ρητορικώς ημών κατάτρεχε 
χωρΧς άτΓοδείξεως, αλλ' είπε τίνα κaτηyopίav 
του 8όyμaτoς, "ν η ττεισθώμεν σοι ως καΧώς 
εξε\ε~^χοντι τον τταΧαιόν Xoyov η μεταττείσωμεν 

^ On Erasistratus v. Introd. p. xii. His view that the 
stomach exerts no holko, or attraction, is dealt with more 
fully in Book III., chap. viii. 




Now, while Erasistratus ^ for some reason replied at 
great length to certain other foolish doctrines, he 
entirely passed over the vieAV held by Hippocrates, 
not even thinking it worth while to mention it, 
as he did in his work " On Deglutition " ; in that 
work, as may be seen, he did go so far as at least to 
make mention of the word attraction^ wrriting some- 
what as follows : 

" Now, the stomach does not appear to exercise 
any attraction." ^ But when he is dealing with ana- 
dosis he does not mention the Hippocratic view even 
to the extent of a single syllable. Yet we should 
have been satisfied if he had even merely written 
this : " Hippocrates lies in saying ' The flesh ^ attracts 
both from the stomach and from without,' for it 
cannot attract either from the stomach or from with- 
out," Or if he had thought it worth while to state 
that Hippocrates was wrong in criticizing the weak- 
ness of the neck of the uterus, "seeing that the 
orifice of the uterus has no power of attracting 
semen," ^ or if he [Erasistratus] had thought proper 
to write any other similar opinion, then we in our 
turn would have defended ourselves in the following 
terms : 

" My good sir, do not run us down in this 
rhetorical fashion without' some proof; state some 
definite objection to our vicAv, in order that either 
you may convince us by a brilliant refutation of the 
ancient doctrine, or that, on the other hand, we may 
convert you from your ignorance." Yet Λvhy do I 

• ».e. the tissues. » c/. p. 291. 



ώ<? ayvoovvra. καίτοι τι λέγω ρητορικως; μη 
yap, €•7Γ€ΐ8ή rivet των ρητόρων, α μάΧιστ ά8υνα- 
τοΰσί ΒιαΧύβσθαι, ταύτα 8iaj€\aaavTei; ovS' 
ΐτηχβιρουσιν avTiXeyeiv, η8η που τοντο καϊ ημ€Ϊς 
ή'γώμβθ' elvai το ρητορικώς- το yap δίά λόγοι» 

62 ΤΓίθανον €στι το \\ ρητορικώ<;, το δ' avev Xoyov 
βωμοΧοχ^ικόν, ου ρητορικόν. ονκονν οντ€ ρητο- 
ρικών οντ€ Bta\€KTiK(o<i άντ€Ϊ7Γ€ν 6 ^Ερασίστρατος 
iv τω 7Γ€ρϊ της καταττόσβως λόγω. τί yap φησιν; 
"ΌΧκη μβν ουν της κοιΧίας ονΒβμία φαίνεται 
eivai. ' irakiv ουν αύτω τταρ ημών αντιμαρτυρών 
ο αυτός λόγο? άντιτταραβαΧλάσθω' ττεριστοΧη 
μ€ν ουν του στομά'χρυ ούΒεμία φαίν€ται elvai. 
κα\ ττώς ου φαίνεται; τάχ' αν ϊσως βϊττοι τις των 
άττ' αυτού' το yap aeX τών άνωθεν αυτού μερών 
συστεΧλομενων ΒιαστεΧλεσθαι τα κάτω ττώς ουκ 
εστί της ττεριστοΧής ενΒεικτικόν; αύθις ουν ημείς, 
και ττώς ου φαίνεται, φησομεν, η της κοιλίας 
οΧκη; το yap άεΐ τών κάτωθεν μερών τού 
στομάχου ΒιαστεΧλομενων συστεΧΚεσθαι τα άνω 
ττώς ουκ εστί της οΚ,κης ενΒεικτικόν; ει Be 
σωφρονησειε ττοτε και yvoίη το φαινόμενον τούτο 
μηΒεν μάΧλον της ετέρας τών Βοξών ύττάργ^ειν 
ενΒεικτικόν αλλ' αμφοτέρων είναι κοινόν, ούτως 
αν ηΒη Βείξαιμεν αύτω την όρθην όΒόν της τού 
αληθούς ευρέσεως. 

Αλλά ττερι μεν της κοιλίας αύθις, η Βε της 

63 τροφής άνάΒοσις ούΒεν Βεΐται || της ττρος το κενού- 
μενον ακολουθίας άτταζ ye της ελκτικής Βυνάμεως 


say "rhetorical"? For we too are not to suppose 
that when certain rhetoricians pour ridicule upon that 
which they are quite incapable of refuting, without 
any attempt at argument, their Avords are really 
thereby constituted rhetoric. For rhetoric proceeds 
by persuasive reasoning ; Λvords Avithout reasoning are 
buffoonery i-ather than rhetoric. Therefore, the 
reply of Erasistratus in his treatise " On Deglutition " 
was neither rhetoric nor logic. For what is it 
that he says ? " Now, the stomach does not appear 
to exercise any traction." Let us testify against 
him in return, and set our argument beside his in the 
same form. Now, there appears lo be no peristalsis^ oj 
the gullet. " And how does this appear } " one of his 
adherents may perchance ask. " For is it not indica- 
tive of peristalsis that always Avhen the upper parts of 
the gullet contract the lower parts dilate } " Again, 
then, we say, " And in what \vay does the attraction 
of the stomach not appear ? For is it not indicative 
of attraction that always Avhen the lower parts of the 
gullet dilate the upper parts contract .'' " Now, if 
he would but be sensible and recognize that this 
phenomenon is not more indicative of the one than 
of the other view, but that it applies equally to both,- 
we should then show him Avithout further delay the 
proper way to the discovery of truth. 

We will, however, speak about the stomach again. 
And the dispersal of nutriment [anadosis] need not 
make us have recourse to the theory regarding the 

^ Peristalsis may be used here to translate Gk. peristole, 
meaning the contraction and dilation of muscle-fibres circu- 
larly round a lumen, cf. p. 263, note 2. 

' For a demonstration that this phenomenon is a conclusive 
proof neither of perisfolo nor of real vital attraction, but is 
found even in dead bodies v. p. 267. 



eVt των νεφρών ώμοΧογημένηζ, ήν καίτοί ττάνν 
σαφω^ αληθή 'γί'γνώσκων virap^eiv 6 'Έιρασί- 
στρατος οντ €μνημ6ΐ'€υσ€Ρ οΰτ avTeiireu οΰθ' 
δλω9 άτΓεφηι/ατο, τίν βγει 86ξαν νπερ της των 
ούρων Βιακρίσεως. 

*Η δίά τι 7Γ ροειττων ευθύς κατ άρχ^ας των καθ' 
οΧου Χο'γων, ώς virep των φυσικών evepyeiSiV ipet, 
ττρώτον τίνες τ είσϊ καΐ ττως <γίγνονται καΐ 8ιά 
τίνων τόπων, εττΐ της των ονρων διακρίσεως, οτι 
μεν Bih νεφρών, άττεφηνατο, το δ' οττως γίγι/εταί 
τταρεΧιττε; μάτην ουν ημάς καΐ ττερί της ττεψεως 
ε8ί8αξεν, οττως ηίηνεται, και ττερΧ της του 'χρΧώ- 
8ους περιττώματος Βιακρίσεως κατατρίβει. ηρκει 
<γαρ είττεΐν κάνταυθα τα μόρια, 8ι ων '^ίγ^εται, το 
8 όπως παράΧιπίΐι>. άΧλα περϊ μεν εκείνων είγε 
ΧεΎειν, ου μόνον 8ι ών όp<yάvωv αλλά καϊ καθ" 
οντινα '^ίηνεται τρόπον, ωσπερ οΐμαι και περΧ της 
άνα8όσεως' ου yap ηρκεσεν εΙπεΙν αύτω μόνον, 
οτι 8ια φΧεβών, άλλα καΐ πώς επεξήΧθεν, οτι τ?} 
64 προς II το κενούμενον άκοΧουθία• περϊ 8ε τών 
ούρων της 8ιακρισεως, οτι μεν 8ια νεφρών <γί<γνε- 
ται, Ύράφει, το δ' όπως ουκετι προστίθησιν. 
ούΒε jap οΐμαι τι] προς το κενούμενον άκοΧουθία 
ην ειπείν ούτω yap αν ούΒεΙς υπ' Ισ-χουρία^^ 
άπεθανεν ού8εποτε μη 8υναμενου πΧείονος επιρ- 

' This was Erasistratus's favourite principle, knowO in 
Latin as the "horror vacui" and in English as ''Nature's 
abhorrence of a vacuum," although these terms are not an 
exact translation of the Greek, rb κ(νοΰμ(νον probably means 



natural tendency of a vacuum to become refilled} when 
once we have granted the attractive faculty of 
the kidneys. Now, although Erasistratus knew that 
this faculty most certainly existed, he neither 
mentioned it nor denied it, nor did he make any 
statement as to his views on the secretion of urine. 

Why did he give notice at the very begiiming of 
his "General Principles" that he was going to speak 
about natural activities — firstly what they are, how 
they take place, and in what situations — and then, 
in the case of urinary secretion, declared that this 
took place through the kidneys, but left out its 
method of occurrence ? It must, then, have been for 
no purpose that he told us how digestion occurs, or 
spends time upon the secretion of biliary super- 
fluities ; 2 for in these cases also it Avould have been 
sufficient to have named the parts through which the 
function takes place, and to have omitted the method. 
On the contrary, in these cases he Avas able to tell us 
not merely through what organs, but also in Avhat 
way it occurs — as he also did, I think, in the case of 
anadosis; for he was not satisfied Λvith sapng that 
this took place through the veins, but he also con- 
sidered fully the method, Avhich he held to be from 
the tendency of a vacuum to become refilled. Con- 
cerning the secretion of urine, however, he writes 
that this occurs through the kidneys, but does not 
add in what way it occurs. I do not think he could 
say that this Avas from the tendency of matter to fill 
a vacuum,^ for, if this Avere so, nobody would have 
ever died of retention of m"ine, since no more can 

the vacuum, not the matter evacuated, although Galen else- 
where uses Ktvoce in the latter inoii-classical) sense, e.g. pp. 67, 
215. Akoloiilliia is a folloicingxip, a sequence, almost a cott,- 
eequeiice. * v. p. 123. • ς/. Book II., chap. i. 



ρυηναί ττοτε iraph το κενονμενον αΧλης yhp 
αίτιας μηδεμιάς προστεθείσης, άλλα μόνης της 
ττρος το κενούμενοι' άκοΧονθίας 7Γθ8η^ούσης το 
συνε-χες, ουκ εγχ^ωρεΐ ττΧέον επιρρυήναί ττοτε του 
κενουμένου, αλλ' ουδ' αλΧην τίνα ττροσθεΐναι 
τΓίθανην αΐτιαν εΐ'χεν, ως ετη της αναβάσεως την 
εκθΧιψιν της ηαστρός. αλλ' αΰτη γ' εττΐ του 
κατά την κοίΧην αίματος άττωΧώΧει τεΧεως, ου 
τω μηκει μόνον τΡ]ς άττοστάσεως εκΧυθεΐσα, αλλά 
καΐ τω την καρΒναν ύττερκειμενην εξαρττάζείν 
αυτής σφοΒρώς καθ' εκάστην ΒιαστοΧην ουκ 
6Χί<γον αίμα. 

Μόΐ'τ; 8η τις ετι καΐ -πάντων έρημος άττεΧείττετο 
των σοφισμάτων εν τοις κάτω της κοίΧης η ττρος \\ 
65 το κενούμενον άκοΧουθία, 8ιά τε τούί εττϊ ταΐς 
Ισ'χουρίαίς άττοθνήσκοντας άττοΧωΧεκυΐα την τη- 
θανότητα καϊ 8ιά την των νεφρών θεσιν ούΒεν 
ήττον, εί μεν yap άτταν €7γ' αυτούς εφερετο το 
αίμα, 8εόντως άν τις ατταν εφασκεν αύτο καθαίρ- 
εσθαι. νυνί 8ε, ου yap οΧον άΧΧά τοσούτον 
αύτοΰ μέρος, όσον αϊ μέχρι νεφρών 8εχονται 
φΧεβες, εττ αυτούς ερ-χ^εται, μόνον εκείνο καθαρ- 
θήσεται. καϊ το μεν όρρώ8ες αύτοΰ καϊ Χεπτον 
οίον 8ι ηθμών τίνων τών νεφρών 8ια8ύσεταΐ' το 
δ' αΙματώΖες τε και τταγύ κατά τάς φΧεβας ύπο- 
μένον εμτΓο8ών στησεται τω κατοττιν εττιρρεοντι. 
τταΧινΒρομεΐν ούν αύτο ττρότερον εττϊ την κοίΧην 
άναηκαΐον καϊ κενάς ούτως ερΎαζεσθαι τάς επΙ 
τους νεφρούς ίούσας φΧεβας, α'ι 8εύτερον ούκέτι 

^ Vital factor necessary over and above the mechanical. 
« cf. p. 119, note 2. » pp. 91, 93. 


flow into a vacuum than has run out. For, if no other 
factor comes into operation ^ save only this tendency 
by which a vacuum becomes refilled, no more could 
ever flow in than had been evacuated. Nor could 
he suggest any other plausible cause, such, for 
example, as the expression of nutriment by the 
stomach ^ which occurs in the process of anadosis ; 
this had been entirely disproved in the case of 
blood in the vena cava ; ^ it is excluded, not merely 
owing to the long distance, but also from the fact 
that the overlying heart, at each diastole, robs the 
vena cava by violence of a considerable quantity 
of blood. 

In relation to the lower part of the vena cava* 
there would still remain, solitary and abandoned, 
the specious theory concerning the filling of a 
vacuum. This, however, is deprived of plausibility 
by the fact that people die of retention of urine, 
and also, no less, by the situation of the kidneys. 
For, if the whole of the blood were carried to 
the kidneys, one might properly maintain that it 
all undergoes purification there. But, as a matter 
of fact, the whole of it does not go to them, 
but only so much as can be contained in the veins 
going to the kidneys ; ^ this portion only, therefore, 
Λνίΐΐ be purified. Further, the thin serous part of 
this will pass through the kidneys as if through a 
sieve, while the thick sanguineous portion remaining 
in the veins will obstruct the blood flowing in from 
behind ; this will first, therefore, have to run back 
to the vena cava, and so to empty the veins going to 
the kidneys ; these veins will no longer be able to 

* i.e. the part below the liver ; c/. p. 91, note 2. 
' Renal veins. 



τταρακομιοΰσιν eV αύτού<ί άκάθαρτον αίμα' κατ• 
€ΐΧηφοτο<} yap aiira<; του προτέρου ττάροΕος 
ούΒεμία λελείττταί. τί<ί ουν ημΐν η Βυναμις άττά- 
ξβί τταΧίν οτΓίσω των νεφρών το καθαρον αίμα; 
τί<ζ δε τοντο μεν 8ία8εξαμενη κεΧενσεί ndXcv ττρος 
το κάτω μέρο<; Ιεναι τή<; κοίΧης, ετερω δ' άνωθεν 

66 ετΓίφερομενω ιτροστάζεί, ττρίν \\ επΙ τους νεφρούς 
άττεΧθεΐν, μη φερεσθαι κάτω; 

Ύαΰτ' ουν άτταντα συνώων 6 Ερασίστρατος 
άτΓοριών μεστά καΐ μίαν μόνην Βόξαν εύττορον 
εύρων εν άττασι την της όΧκής, ούτ^ άττορείσθαι 
βουΧόμενος ούτε την Ίίττγο κράτους εθεΧων Χε^ειν 
άμεινον ύττέΧαβε σιωπητέον είναι ττερϊ του τρό- 
τΓου της διακρίσεως, 

Άλλ' el κάκεΐνος εσίγησεν, ημείς ου σιωττήσο- 
μεν ΐσμεν yap, ως ουκ ενΒεχεται τταρεΧθόντα 
την ΊτττΓοκράτειον Βόξαν, είθ^ έτερον τι ττερί 
νεφρών ενεργείας είττόντα μη ου κατα^εΧαστον 
είναι Ίταντάττασι. Βιά τούτ ^Ερασίστρατος μεν 
εσιώττησεν, ^ΑσκΧηπιάΒης δ εψεύσατο τταραττΧη- 
σίως οίκεταις ΧάΧοις μεν τα ττρόσθεν τον βίου 
κ αϊ ΤΓοΧΧά ΤΓοΧΧάκίς ε^κΧηματα ΒιαΧυσαμενοις 
ύτΓΟ ττεριττης πανουργίας, eV αυτοφώρω δε ττοτε 
κατειΧημμένοίς, είτ ού8εν εξευρίσκουσι σόφισμα 
κάττειτ ενταύθα του μεν αίδημονεστερου σιωττών- 
τος, οίον άττοττΧηζία τινί κατειΧημμενου, του δ' 
άναισ'χυντοτερου κρύτττοντος μεν εθ^ ύττο μάΧης 
το ζητούμενον, εξομνυμενου δε καΐ μηΒί' εωρακεναι 
ττώτΓΟτε φάσκοντος. ούτω <γάρ τοί καΐ ο ^ΑσκΧη- 

67 ΤΓΐάδης || εττιΧειττόντων αύτον τών της -πανουργίας 
σοφισμάτων καΧ μήτε της προς το Χετττομερες 



conduct a second quantity of iinpurified blood to the 
kidneys — occupied as they are by the blood which 
had preceded, there is no passage left. What ροΛνεΓ 
have we, then, Avhich will draw back the purified 
blood from the kidncA'S ? And Avhat power, in the 
next place, will bid this blood retire to the lo>ver 
part of the vena cava, and will enjoin on another 
quantity coming from above not to proceed down- 
Avards before turning off into the kidneys ? 

Now Erasistratus realized that all these ideas were 
open to many objections, and he could only find one 
idea which held good in all respects — namely, that 
of attraction. Since, therefore, he did not wish either 
to get into difficulties or to mention the view of 
Hippocrates, he deemed it better to say nothing at 
all as to the manner in which secretion occurs. 

But even if he kept silence, I am not going to 
do so. For I ΙαιΟΛν that if one passes over the 
Hippocratic view and makes some other pronounce- 
ment about the function of the kidneys, one caimot 
fail to make oneself utterly ridiculous. It was 
for this reason that Erasistratus kept silence and 
Asclepiades lied ; they are like slaves who have had 
plenty to say in the early part of their career, and 
have managed by excessive rascality to escape many 
and frequent accusations, but who, later, when caught 
in the act of thieving, cannot find any excuse ; the 
more modest one then keeps silence, as though 
thunderstruck, whilst the more shameless continues 
- to hide the missing article beneath his arm and 
denies on oath that he has ever seen it. For it was 
in this way also that Asclepiades, when all subtle 
excuses had failed him and there was no longer any 
room for nonsense about "conveyance towards the 



φορά<; εχούσης ert χώραν €Ρτανθοΐ Χηρεΐσθαν 
μηθ* ως υττο των νεφρών ηενναται Ύοντϊ το ττερίτ- 
τωμα, καθώπερ ύττο των εν ήττατι πόρων η χο\ή, 
Βυνατον 6ν είττόντα μη ου piyiaTov 6φ\εΐν γέλ- 
ωτα, εξόμνυταί τε κα\ ψεύΒεται φανερώ<ϊ, ου 
Βίηκειν \iyωv εττΐ τού<; νεφρούς το ουρον αλλ' 
άτμοειΒώς ευθύς εκ των κατά την κοίΧην μερών 
εις την κύστιν άθροίζεσθαι. 

Ούτοι μεν ουν τοις εττ αυτοφώρω κατειΚημ- 
μενοίς οίκεταις ομοίως εκττΧα^εντες ό μεν εσιώττη- 
σεν, 6 δ' άναισ'χύντως ψεύΒεται. 


Ύών 8ε νεωτέρων όσοι τοις τούτων ονόμασιν 
εαυτούς εσεμνυναν Έρασιστρατείους τε καΐ Άσ- 
κΧηττια^είους έττονομάσαντες, ομοίως τοις ύττο του 
βεΧτίστου Μ.ενάν8ρου κατά τας κωμωδίας είσα^ο- 
μενοις οίκεταις, Αάοις τε τισι και Τέταις, ονδεν 
η^ουμενοις σφίσι ττεττρά'χθαι ^ενναΐον, ει μη τρΙς 
εζαττατήσειαν τον Βεσττότην, ούτω καΐ αύτοι κατά 
ΤΓοΧλην σγοΧην αναίσχυντα σοφίσματα συνέθε- 
σαν, οι μεν, ίνα μηΒ' οΧως εξεΧεγχθείη ττοτ \\ 
68 ΆσκΧητΓΐάΒης ψευδόμενος, οΐ δ', ίνα κακώς εΐττω- 
σιν, α καΧώς εσιώττησεν ^Ερασίστρατος. 

Άλλα των μεν ^ΑσκΧηττιαδείων άΧις. οι δ' 
^Ερασιστράτειοι Χε^ειν εττιχειροΰντες, όπως οι 
νεφροί διηθοΰσι το ουρον, άπαντα 8ρώσί τε και 

» cf. ρ. 87, note 3. 

* κοί\ην : the usual reading ίβ κοιλίαν, which would make 



rarefied part [of the air]," ^ and when it was im- 
{wssible without incurring the greatest derision to 
say that this superfluity [i.e. the urine] is generated 
by the kidneys as is bile by the canals in the liver — 
he, then, I say, clearly lied Avhen he swore that the 
urine does not reach the kidneys, and maintained 
that it passes, in the form of vapour, straight from 
the region of the vena cava,- to collect in the 

Like slaves, then, caught in the act of stealing, 
these two are quite bewildered, and Avhile the one 
says nothing, the other indulges in shameless lying. 


Now such of the younger men as have dignified 
themselves \vith the names of these two authorities 
by taking the appellations " Erasistrateans " or 
" Asclepiadeans " are like the Davi and Geiae — the 
slaves introduced by the excellent Menander into 
his comedies. As these slaves held that they had 
done nothing tine unless they had cheated their 
master three times, so also the men I am discussing 
have taken their time over the construction of 
impudent sophisms, the one party striving to prevent 
the lies of Asclepiades from ever being refuted, and 
the other saying stupidly what Erasistratus had the 
sense to keep silence about. 

But enough about the Asclepiadeans. The Erasi- 
strateans, in attempting to say ΙιοΛν the kidneys let 
the urine through, will do anything or suffer anj'thing 

it "from the region of the alimentary caoaL" qf. p. 118, 
note 1. 

F »05 


ττάσγρυσι καΐ τταντοΐοι yiyvovrac ττίθανον i^ev- 
peiv τί ζητοΰντ€ς αϊτών όΧκής μη heofievov. 

Οι μ€ν 8η Ίτλησίον ^Ειρασιστράτου τοις -χ^ρόνοίς 
^βνόμενοί τά μ^ν άνω των νεφρών μόρια καθαρον 
αίμα Χαμβάνειν φασί, τω δε βάρος e^eiv το 
ύδατώδε? ττερίττωμα βρίθβίν re κα\ υττορρεΐν 
κάτω• Βίηθούμενον δ' ενταύθα κατά τους νεφρούς 
αυτούς 'χ^ρηστον οΰτω ^ενομενον άττασι τοις κάτω 
των νεφρών ετηττεμττεσθαι το αίμα. 

Κ,αϊ μ^χρι 7^ τίνος εύΒοκίμησεν ηΒε η 86ξα καΐ 
ήκμασε καΐ άΧηθης ενομίσθη' 'χ^ρόνω δ' ύστερον 
καΐ αύτοΐς τοις ^Ερασιστρατείοις ΰττοτττος εφάνη 
καΐ τεΧευτώντες άττεστησαν αυτής. αΐτεΐσθαι 
yap εΒόκουν 8ύο ταύτα μήτε συyχωpoύμεva ττρός 
τίνος αλλ' ούδ' άνοΒείχθΡ^ναι Βυνάμενα, ττρώτον 
μεν το βάρος της ορρώΒους ύypότητoς εν ttj 
69 κοίΧτ] \\ φΧεβΙ yεvvώμεvov, ωσττερ ουκ εΙς αρχής 
ύττάρχον, όττότ εκ τής κοιΧιας εις ήτταρ άνεφέρετο. 
τί 8η ονν ουκ ευθύς εν εκείνοις τοις -χωρίοις 
ύττερρει κάτω; ττώς δ' άν τω Βόξειεν εύΧόγως 
είρήσθαι σνντεΧεΐν εις την άνάΒοσιν ή ύΒατώΒης 
ύypότης, εϊττερ οΰτως εστϊ βαρεία; 

Αεύτερον δ' άτοττον, οτι καν κάτω σvyχωpηθf} 
φερεσθαι ττασα καΐ μη κατ αΧΧο χωρίον ή την 
κοίΧην φΧεβα, τίνα τρόττον εΙς τους νεφρούς 
εμττεσεΐται, χοΧεττόν, μάΧΧον δ' ά8ύνατον είττεΐν, 
μητ εν τοΐς κάτω μερεσι κειμένων αυτών τής 
φΧεβος αλλ' εκ των 'πXayίωv μητ εμφυομενης 
eh αυτούς τής κοίΧης αλλ' άττόφυσίν τινα μόνον 



or try any shift in order to find some plausible ex- 
planation which does not demand the principle of 

Now those near the times of Erasistratus maintain 
that the parts above the kidneys receive pure blood, 
\vhilst the watery residue, being heavy, tends to run 
downwards ; that this, after percolating through the 
kidneys themselves, is thus rendered serviceable, and 
is sent, as blood, to all the parts beloΛv the kidneys. 

For a certain period at least this view also found 
favour and flourished, and >vas held to be true ; after 
a time, however, it became suspect to the Erasi- 
strateans themselves, and at last they abandoned it. 
For apparently the following two points were 
assumed, neither of which is conceded by anyone, 
nor is even capable of being proved. The first is the 
heaviness of the serous fluid, Avhich was said to be 
produced in the vena cava, and which did not exist, 
apparently, at the beginning, when this fluid was 
being carried up from the stomach to the liver. 
Why, then, did it not at once run downwards when 
it was in these situations .'* And if the watery fluid 
is so heavy, what plausibility can anyone find in the 
statement that it assists in the process of anadosis ? 

In the second place there is this absurdity, that 
even if it be agreed that all the waterj' fluid does fall 
downwards, and only when it is in the vena cava,^ 
still it is ditticult, or, rather, impossible, to say through 
what means it is going to fall into the kidneys, 
seeing that these are not situated below, but on 
either side of the vena cava, and that the vena cava 
is not inserted into them, but merely sends a branch - 

* Not at an earlier stage, svheu it is still on its way from 
the alimentary canal to the liver. • i.e. a renal vein. 



€19 eKarepov ττβμτΓούσης, ωσ-περ καϊ el<; τ5ΧΚα 
ττύντα μόρια. 

Ύίς ουν η 8ιαζεξαμ€νη ταντην Βύξα κατα- 
^γνωσθεΐσαν; έμοΧ μίν ηΚιθιωτερα μακρω φαίνεται, 
της ττροτέρας. ήκμασε δ ονν καϊ αΰτη ττοτβ. 
φασί yap, €1 κατά, της >γής εκγυθείη μεμι^μίνον 
eXaiov νΒατι, Βιάφορον έκάτερον 68όν βα8ΐ€Ϊσθαι 
καϊ ρυησεσθαι το μεντη^ε, το 8ε TrjSe. θαυμαστον 
ονν ούΒεν είναι φασιν, ει το μεν ύ8ατώΰες vypbv 

70 619 του? νε\\φρούς pel, το δ' αίμα 8ιά της κοίΧης 
φέρεται κάτω. κατε^νωσται ουν ήΒη καϊ ή8ε 
ή 8όξα. 8ια τι yap άττο της κοίΧης μυρίων 
εκττεφυκυιών φΧεβών αίμα μεν εις τάς αΧΧας 
άττάσας, ή δ' ορρώΒης υypoτης εις τας εττϊ τους 
νεφρούς φερομένας «κτρέττεται; τουτ αύτο το 
ζητούμενον ουκ είρηκασιν, aXXh το yιyv6μεvov 
είττόντες μόνον οΧονται την αίτίαν άττοΒεΒωκεναι. 

ΐΙάΧιν ουν, το τρίτον τω σωτηρι, την χειρίστην 
άττασων 8όξαν εξενρημένην νυν υττο Κύκου του 
ΜαΛεδόΐ'ος, εύΒοκιμονσαν 8ε 8ια το καινον ή8η 
Xεyωμev. άττεφήνατο yap 8η ο Ανκος ούτος, 
ώσττερ εζ άΒύτου τίνος •χ^ρησμον άττοφθ eyy6μεvoς, 
περίττωμα της των νεφρών θρεψεως είναι το 
ουρον. δτι μεν ουν αύτο το ττινομενον ατταν 
ούρον yiyveTai, ττΧην εϊ τι μετά των Βιαχωρη- 
μάτων ύττηΧθεν η εΙς ΙΒρωτας άττε'χ^ώρησεν η εΙς 
την άΒηΧον Βιαττνοην, εναρ^ώς ενΒείκνυται το 
ττΧήθος των καθ^ εκάστην ημεραν ούρου μένων, 
εν "χειμώνι 8ε μάΧιστα μαθεΐν εστίν εττϊ των 
άpyoύvτωv μεν, κωθωνιζομενων 8ε, καϊ μάΧιστ 

71 €L ΧετΓτος 6 οίνος εϊη καϊ ττόριμος. ούρούσι H yap 



into each of them, as it also does into all the other 

What doctrine, then, took the place of this one 
when it Avas condemned ? One which to me seems far 
more foolish than the first, although it also flourished 
at one time. For they say, that if oil be mixed with 
\vater and poured upon the ground, each Λνϋΐ take a 
different route, the one flowing this way and the 
other that, and that, therefore, it is not surprising 
that the Λvatery fluid runs into the kidneys, while 
the blood falls doΛvnwards along the vena cava. 
Now this doctrine also stands already condemned. 
For why, of the countless veins which spring from 
the vena cava, should blood flow into all the others, 
and the serous fluid be diverted to those going to the 
kidneys? They have not ansΛvered the question which 
was asked ; they merely state Avhat happens and 
imagine they have thereby assigned the reason. 

Once again, then (the third cup to the Saviour 1),^ 
let us ηοΛν speak of the worst doctrine of all, lately 
invented by Lycus of Macedonia,^ but which is popular 
owing to its novelty. This Lycus, then, maintains, as 
though uttering an oracle from the inner sanctuar}', 
that urine is residual matter from ike niiirition of the 
kidneys ! ^ Now, the amount of urine passed every day 
shows clearly that it is the whole of the fluid drunk 
which becomes urine, except for that Avhich comes 
away with the dejections or passes off as sweat or 
insensible perspiration. This is most easily recognized 
in Avinter in those who are doing no work but are 
carousing, especially if the wine be thin and diff"usible ; 

^ In a toast, tbe third cup was drunk to Zeus SdtSr (the 
' An anatomist of the Alexandrian sobooL 
• cf. nasal mucus, p. 90, note 1. 



ovTOi Βιά τα-χ^βων oXljov Setv, οσονττερ καΐ 
τηνονσιν. οτι Be καΐ ό *Ερασίστρατο<; όντως 
ζ'^ί'^νωσκεν, οι το ττρώτον aveyvwKOTeii αντον 
σύy'γpaμμa των καθοΧου λόγωι^ βττίστανται. ωσθ^ 
ο Αύκος οΰτ άΧηθή φαίνεται \€<γων οΰτ Έρασί- 
στράτ€ΐα, ΒήΧον δ' ώ? ούδ' ΆσκΧηττιάΒαα, ττοΧύ 
Be μάΧΧον ούΒ Ιπποκράτεια. Χευκω τοίννν κατά 
την Ίταροιμιαν εοικε κοράκι μ-ητ αύτοΐς τοΐς κόρα- 
ξιν άναμιχθήναι Βυναμενω Βια την χρόαν μήτε 
ταΐ<: ττεριστεραΐς Βια το μέγεθος, αλλ' ούτι που 
τούτου γ' ένεκα παροπτεος' ϊσως rydp τι Xiyei 
θανμαστόν, ο μηΒεϊς των έμπροσθεν εyvω. 

Το μεν ουν άπαντα τα τρεφόμενα μόρια ποιεΐν 
τι περίττωμα συηχωρουμενον, το Βε τους νεφρούς 
μόνους, ούτω σμικρά σώματα, χόας οΧους τέτ- 
ταρας ή καΐ πΧείους ϊσχειν ενίοτε περιττώματος 
ουθ" όμοΧοηούμυενον ούτε Χόηον έχον το ηαρ 
εκάστου των μειζόνων σπΧάηχνων περίττωμα 
πΧεΐον avajKaiov ύπάρχειν. οίον αύτίκα το τον 
πνεύμονας, εΐπερ avaXoyov τω με<^εθει του 
72 σπΧά^χνου yiyvoiTo, πο^^απΧάί^σιον εσται Βη- 
που τον κατά τους νεφρούς, ώσθ^ οΧος μεν ό 
θώραξ εμπΧησθήσεται, πνιγησεται δ' αύτίκα το 
ζωον. αλλ' εΐ Ίσον φησει τις ^ί^νεσθαι τό καθ" 
εκαστον των άΧΧων μορίων περίττωμα, Βια ποίων 
κύστεων εκκρίνεται; ει yap οι νεφροί τοις κωθω- 
νιζομενοις τρεις ή τέτταρας ενίοτε χόας ποιούσι 
περιττώματος, εκάστου των άΧΧων σπXάyχvωv 
ποΧΧω πΧείους έσονται καΧ πίθου τίνος οΰτω 
μeyίστoυ Βεησει του Βεξομενου τα πάντων περιτ- 

* " Sur TEnsemble dea Choses" (Daremberg). 


these people rapidly pass almost the same quantity as 
they drink. And that even Erasistratus was aware oi 
this is known to those who have read the first book of 
his " General Principles." ^ Thus Lycus is speaking 
neither good Erasistratism, nor good Asclepiadism, 
far less good Hippocratism. He is^ therefore, as the 
saying is, like a white crow, Λvhich cannot mix with 
the genuine crows OΛving to its colour, nor Λvith the 
pigeons oΛving to its size. For all this, however, he is 
not to be disregarded; he may, perhaps, be stating 
some wonderful truth, unknown to any of his pre- 

Now it is agreed that all parts which are un- 
dergoing nutrition produce a certain amount of 
residue, but it is neither agreed nor is it likely, 
that the kidneys alone, small bodies as they are, 
could hold four Avhole congii,^ and sometimes 
even more, of residual matter. For this surplus 
must necessarily be greater in quantity in each 
of the larger viscera ; thus, for example, that of 
the lung, if it corresponds in amount to the size of 
the viscus, Avill obviously be many times more than 
that in the kidneys, and thus the whole of the thorax 
Λvill become filled, and the animal will be at once 
suffocated. But if it be said that the residual matter 
is equal in amount in each of the other parts, where 
are the bladders, one may ask, through which it is 
excreted ? For, if the kidneys produce in drinkers 
three and sometimes four congii of superfluous 
matter, that of each of the other viscera Avill be 
much more, and thus an enormous barrel will be 
needed to contain the waste products of them all. 

- About twelve quarts. This is about five times as much 
as the average daily excretion, and could only be passed if a 
very large amount of wine were drunk. 



τώματα. καίτοι ττοΧλ,άκις, όσον eirie τις, ολίγον 
δεΐν ονρησεν άτταν, ώς αν inl τους νεφρούς φερο- 
μένου του πόματος ατταντος. 

"Ειοικεν ουν ό το τρίτον εξαττατων ούτος ούΒεν 
ανυειν αλλ,' εύθυς γεΎονεναι κατάφωρος και μενειν 
€τι το εξ άρ-χ^ης άττορον ^Κρασιστράτω τε καΐ τοις 
άΧΧοις άττασι ττΧην 'Ίττποκράτους. Βίατρίβω δ' 
εκών εν τω τόττω σαφώς εί8ώς, οτι μηΒεν είττείν 
έ'%€ί μηΒεΙς άΧλος ττερΧ της των νεφρών ενεργείας, 
αλλ' αναηκαΐον η τών μαγείρων αμαθέστερους 
φαίνεσθαι μηΒ^ οτι διηθείται hi αυτών το ουρον 
73 ομοΧογοΰντας η \\ τούτο συγγωρησ αντας μηδέν 
ετ εγ^ειν εΙττεΐν έτερον αίτιον της διακρίσεως 
ττΧην της οΧκής. 

Άλ\' el μη τών οΰρων η φορά Trj ιτρος το 
κενούμενον άκοΧουθία γίγνεται, δηΧον, ώς ovS' η 
του αίματος ουδ' ή της χοΧης ή εϊπερ εκείνων και 
τούτου' ιτάντα γαρ ωσαύτως άναγκαΐον εττιτε- 
Χεΐσθαι καΐ κατ αύτον τον ^Κρασίστρατον. 

ΈιΙρησεται δ' εττι ττΧεον ύπερ αυτών εν τφ μ€τα 
ταύτα γράμματι. 



Yet one often urinates practically the same quantity 
as one has drunk, which would show that the whole 
of what one drinks goes to the kidneys. 

Thus the author of this third piece of tricker}' 
would appear to have achieved nothing, but to have 
been at once detected, and there still remains the 
original difficulty which was insoluble by Erasistratus 
and by all others except Hippocrates. I dwell 
purposely on this topic, knowing well that nobody 
else has anything to say about the function of the 
kidneys, but that either we must prove more foolish 
than the very butchers ^ if we do not agree that the 
urine passes through the kidneys; or, if one ac- 
knowledges this, that then one cannot possibly give 
any other reason for the secretion than the principle 
of attraction. 

Now, if the movement of urine does not depend 
on the tendency of a vacuum to become refilled,'^ 
it is clear that neither does that of the blood nor 
that of the bile ; or if that of these latter does so, 
then so also does that of the former. For they 
must all be accomplished in one and the same way, 
even according to Erasistratus himself. 

This matter, however, will be discussed more fully 
in the book following this. 

' cf. p. 51. ' Horror vacuL Note analogical reasoning ; 
φ p. 289, note L 




74 "Οτι μ€ν ουν αναηκαΐον Ιστιν ουκ Έρασί- 
στράτω μόνον άλλα κα\ rol'i αλλοί9 αττασιν, όσοι 
μβΧλουσί irepl Βιακρίσβως ούρων ipelv τι χρη- 
στόν, ομοΧο'^/ήσαι Βύναμίν τιν ΰττάργειν τοις 
νβφροΐς βΧκονσαν et? βαυτονς ποιότητα τοιαντην, 
ο'ία iv τοις οΰροις €στί, δίά τον ττρόσθβν β'ττίδε- 
SeiKTUi Ύράμματος, άναμιμνησκόντων άμ αυτω 
και τουθ^ ημών, ώς ουκ άΧΧως μϊν εις την κύστιν 
φέρζται τα ουρά Sia των νεφρών, άλΧως δ' eh 
άπαντα του ζώου τα μόρια το αίμα, κατ άΧΚον 
δε τίνα τρόπον η ξανθή χοΧη διακρίνεται, δειχ- 

75 θείσης yap εναρ-γώς εφ* ενός || ουτινυσοΰν ορηάνου 
της ελκτικής τε καΐ επισπ αστικής ονομαζόμενης 
Βυνάμεως ούΒεν ετι χαΧεπον επί τα Χοιπα μετα- 
φερειν αύτην ου yap Βη τοις μεν νεφροΐς ή φύσις 
εΒωκε τίνα τοιαύτην Βύναμιν, ούχΙ Βέ γε καΐ τοΐ^ 
το χοΧώΒες vypov εΧκουσιν άγ^είοις ούΒε τούτοις 
μεν, ούκετι δε καΐ των άΧΧων μορίων εκάστω. 
και μην ει τοντ άΧηθες εστί, θαυμάζειν χρη του 
^Ερασιστράτου ψενΒεΐς ούτω Xόyoυς υπέρ άνα- 

^ cf. ρ. 89. ' This term is nowadays limited to the 

drawing action of a blister, cf. p. 223. 




In the previous book we demonstrated that not 
only Erasistratus, but also all others who would say 
anything to the purpose about urinary secretion., 
must acknowledge that the kidneys possess some 
faculty which attracts to them this particular quality 
existing in the urine.^ Besides this we drew atten- 
tion to the fact that the urine is not carried through 
the kidneys into the bladder by one method, the 
blood into parts of the animal by another, and the 
yellow bile separated out on yet another principle. 
For when once there has been demonstrated in 
any one organ, the drawing, or so-called epispaslic- 
faculty, there is then no difficulty in transferring 
it to the rest. Certainly Nature did not give a 
power such as this to the kidneys Avithout giving 
it also to the vessels which abstract the biliary 
iluid,^ nor did she give it to the latter without 
also giving it to each of the other parts. And, 
assuredly, if this is true, >ve must marvel that 
Erasistratus should make statements concerning the 
delivery of nutriment from the food-canal* which are 

• The radicles of the hepalie ducts in the liver were enp- 
poeed to be the active agents in extracting bile from the 
blood, cf. pp. 145-149. * AnadoeU; cf. p. 13, note 5. 



δόσβως τροφή<ί είττόντο•?, ώς μη^" \\σκ\ητΓίάΒηρ 
ΧαθβΙν. καίτοι j οϊβται τταντος μάΧλον άΧηθ€ς 
ύττάρχειν, ώς, βϊττερ έκ των φΧεβών άττορρεοι 
τι, hvolv θάτερον η /cevb'i βσται τόπος αθρόως ή 
το συνεχή cirippvi'^aefai, την βάσιν άναττΧηροΰν 
τοΰ κενουμένου, αλλ' 6 j ^ ΑσκΧηττιάΒης ου 
Βυοΐν θάτερόν φησιν, άλλα τριών εν τι χρηναι 
\eyειv εττΐ τοις κενουμενοις άyyείoις εττεσθαι ή 
κενόν αθρόως τόπον η το συνεχές άκοΧουθϊίσεΐΡ ή 
συσταΧησεσθαι το ατ/ηείον. επΙ μεν yap των 
καΧάμων καΐ των αυΧίσκων των εις το νΒωρ 
καθιεμενων άΧηθες είπεϊν, οτι κενουμίνου του 
7β περιεχομένου κατά την \\ εύρυχωρίαν αυτών αέρος 
η κενός αθρόως εσται τόπος η άκοΧουθήσει το 
συνεχε'ί• επΙ δε των φΧεβών ούκέτ εyχωpei, δυνα- 
μένου δη του χιτώνος αυτών εις εαυτόν συνιζάνειν 
και δίά τοΰτο καταπίπτειν εις την εντός εύρυ- 
χωρίαν. ούτω μεν δη ψευδής ή περϊ της προς 
το κενουμενον άκοΧουθίας ουκ άπόδειξις μα ΔΓ 
εϊποιμ αν αΧΧ ύποθεσις ^ Κρασιστράτειος. 

Καθ έτερον δ' αύ τρόπον, ει και άΧηθης εϊη, 
περιττή, της μεν κοιΧίας ενθΧίβειν τάΐς φΧεψΙ 
δυναμένης, ώς αυτός ύπέθετο, τών φΧεβών δ' αΰ 
περιστέΧΧεσθαι τω ένυπάρχοντι και προωθεΐν 
αύτο. τά τε yap aWa και πΧηθος ουκ αν εν τω 
σώματι yέvoιτo, τη προς το κενουμενον άκοΧουθία 
μόνη της άναδόσεως επιτεΧουμένης. ει μεν ουν 
ή της yaστpός ενθΧυψις εκΧύεται προϊούσα και 

^ Tlie term κοιλία is used both specifically for the stomach 
proper and also (as probably here) in a somewhat wider sense 
for the stomach region, including the adjacent part of the 
email intestine ; this was the part of the alimentary canal 



so false as to be detected even by Asclepiades. Now, 
Erasistratus considers it absolutely certain that, if 
anything flows from the veins, one of two things 
must happen : either a completely empty space will 
result, or the contiguous quantum of fluid will run 
in and take the place of that >vhich has been 
evacuated. Asclepiades, however, holds that not 
one of two, but one of three things must be said 
to result in the emptied vessels : either there Avill 
be an entirely empty space, or the contiguous 
portion will flow in, or the vessel will contract. For 
whereas, in the case of reeds and tubes it is true to 
say that, if these be submerged in water, and are 
emptied of the air which they contain in their 
lumens, then either a completely empty space Λvill 
be left, or the contiguous portion Λνΐΐΐ move onAvards ; 
in the case of veins this no longer holds, since their 
coats can collapse and so fall in upon the interior 
cavity. It may be seen, then, how false this 
hypothesis — by Zeus, I cannot call it a demonstra- 
tion ! — of Erasistratus is. 

And, from another point of vie\v, even if it were 
true, it is superfluous, if the stomach ^ has the poΛver 
of compressing the veins, as he himself supposed, and 
the veins again of contracting upon their contents and 
propelling them forwards.^ For, apart from other 
considerations, no plethora ^ would ever take place in 
the body, if delivery of nutriment resulted merely 
from the tendency of a vacuum to become refilled. 
Now, if the compression of the stomach becomes 
weaker the further it goes, and cannot reach to an 

from which nutriment was believed to be absorbed by the 
mesenteric veins ; cf. p. 309, note 2. 

" cf. p. 100, note 2 ; p. 167, note 2. 

' Δ cnaracteristio "leaion" in Eraeistratus'a pathology. 



μέχρι τταντο^ άΒννατός iartv e^iKveladat καϊ Βια 
τοΰτ άΧΧ,ης ηνο^ Set μηχ^ανης et? την ττάντη 
φοράν τον αίματος, αναηκαία μ\ν η ττρος το 
κβνονμενον άκοΧουθία ττροσβξενρηταΐ' ττΧήθο'ζ δ' 
77 iv ovSevl των μεθ^ ήτταρ έ'σταί || μορίων, η, etirep 
αρα, irepX την καρΒίαν τε καϊ τον "πνεύμονα, μόνη 
<γαρ αντη των μ^θ* ητταρ εΙς την Be^cav αντη<ζ 
κοιΧίαν €\κ€ΐ την τροφην, είτα Βια της φ\εβ6ς 
της άρτηριωΒονς βκτΓεμτΓει τω ττνενμονί' των <γαρ 
αΧΧων ούΒεν ούδ' αυτός 6 ^Έ,ρασίστ ρατος €κ καρ- 
Βίας βουΚεται τρεφεσθαί Βια την των υμένων 
βττίφυσιν. ει Be y, ίνα ττΧήθος 'γενηται , φυΧάξομεν 
αγ^ρι παντός την ρώμην της κατά, την κοιΧίαν 
€νθ\ίψεως, ούΒβν ετί Βεόμεθα της ττρος το κενού- 
μενον άκοΧουθίας, μάΧιστ ει καϊ την των φΧεβων 
συνυτΓοθοίμεθα ιτβριστοΧην, ως αϊ) καϊ τοΰτ αύτψ 
ττάΧιν αρέσκει τω ^Ερασιστράτφ. 


'Κναμνηστίον ουν αύθις αυτόν, καν μη βον- 
Χηται, των νεφρών καϊ Χεκτεον, ως έλεγχο? 
ούτοι φανερώτατος άττάντων των άττοχωρούντων 
της οΧκής' ούΒεΙς yap oiBev οΰτ βίττε ττιθανον, 
ίΐλλ' ούδ' εξευρεΐν είχε κατ ovBeva τρόττον, ως 

1 Α certain subordinate place allowed to the horror vacui. 

^ i.e. the parts to which the veins convey blood after it 
leaves the liver — second stage of anadosis ; c/. p. 91, note 2 ; 
p. 13, note 5. 



indefinite distance, and if, therefore, there is need 
of some other mechanism to explain why the blood 
is conveyed in all directions, then the principle of 
the refilling of a vacuum may be looked on as a 
necessary addition ; ^ there will not, hoAvever, be a 
plethora in any of the parts coming after the liver,^ 
or, if there be, it Λνΐΐΐ be in the region of the 
heart and lungs ; for the heart alone of the parts 
which come after the liver draws the nutriment 
into its right ventricle, thereafter sending it through 
the arterioid vein ^ to the lungs (for Erasistratus 
himself will have it that, owing to the membranous 
excrescences,* no other parts save the lungs receive 
nourishment from the heart). If, however, in order 
to explain how plethora comes about, we suppose 
the force of compression by the stomach to persist 
indefinitely, we have no further need of the principle 
of the refilling of a vacuum, especially if we assume 
contraction of the veins in addition — as is, again, 
agreeable to Erasistratus himself. 


Let me draw his attention, then, once again, even 
if he df>es not \\\s\\ it, to the kidneys, and let me 
state that these confute in tlie very clearest manner 
such people as object to the principle of attraction. 
Nobody has ever said anything plausible, nor, as we 
previously showed, has anyone been able to discover, 

' What we now call the pulmonary artery. Galen believed 
that the right ventricle existed for the purpose of sending 
nutrient blood to the lungs. 

* Lit. owing to the ongrowth {epiphysis) of membranes ; 
he means the tricuspid valve ; c/. p. 314, note 2 ; p. 321, note 4. 


βμτΓροσθβν eheiitvv^ev, erepov aXnov οΰρων Bia- 
κρισεως, αλλ' avay/catov ή μαίνεσθαι hoKelv, el 

78 φησαιμεν άτμο€ΐ\\8ώς eh την κύστιν levai το ονρον 
ή άσχη μovelv τ^9 τγ/ϊο? το κενούμενον άκοΧουθίας 
μνημονεύοντας, ΧηρώΒους μεν ονσης κάττΐ του 
αίματος, άΒυνάτου δε καΐ ηλιθίου τταντάττασιν 
eVt των οΰρων. 

Ει/ μβν 8η τοΰτο σφάλμα των άττοστάντων της 
ολκής' έτερον δε το ττερί της κατά την ξανθην 
χο\ην Βίακρίσεως. ούΒε yap ούδ' εκεί τταραρρέ- 
οντος του αίματος τα στόματα των -χ^οληΒόχων 
άyyεLωv ακριβώς Βιακριθήσεται το χολώδες 
ττερίττωμα. και μη Βιακρινέσθω, φασίν, αλλά 
συναναφερεσθω τω α'ίματι ττάντη του σώματος. 
α.λλ , ώ σοφώτατοι, ττρονοητικην του ζώου κα\ 
τεχνικην αύτος ο Ερασίστρατος ύττεθετο την 
φυσιν. άλλα και το χοΧώΒες vypbv άχ^ρηστον 
είναι ττανταττασι τοις ζωοις εφασκεν. ου συμ- 
βαίνει δ' άλλί^λθ49 άμφω ταύτα, ττώς yap αν 
ετι ττρονοεΐσθαι του ζώου Βόξειεν εττιτρέττουσα 
συναναφερεσθαι τω αϊματι μοχθηρον οΰτω χυμόν; 
Άλλα ταύτα μεν σμικρά• το Βε μeyιστov καϊ 
σαφεστατον πάλιν ενταΰθ* αμάρτημα και Βη 
φράσω. εϊττερ yap Βι ovBev αλλ' η οτι τταχύτερον 

79 μεν εστί το αίμα, λεπτότερα δ' η || ξανθή χολή 
καϊ τα μεν των φΧεβών ευρύτερα στόματα, τά 



by any means, any other cause for the secretion of 
urine ; we necessarily appear mad if we maintain jf 
that the urine passes into the kidneys in the form of / 
vapour, and we certainly cut a poor figure when we 
talk about the tendency of a vacuum to become 
refilled ; ^ this idea is foolish in the case of blood, 
and impossible, nay, perfectly nonsensical, in the 
case of the urine.- 

This, then, is one blunder made by those who 
dissociate themselves from the principle of attraction. 
Another is that Avhich they make about the secretion 
of yellow bile. For in this case, too, it is not a fact 
that when the blood runs past the mouths [stomata] 
of the bile-ducts there will be a thorough separation 
out [secretion] of biliary waste-matter. " Well," 
say they, " let us suppose that it is not secreted but 
carried with the blood all over the body." But, you 
sapient folk,Erasistratus himself supp)osed that Nature 
took thought for the animals' future, and was Λvork- 
manlike in her method ; and at the same time he 
maintained that the biliary fluid was useless in 
every way for the animals. Now these two things 
are incomj)atible. For how could Nature be still 
looked on as exercising forethought for the animal 
when she alloΛved a noxious humour such as this to 
be carried off and distributed with the blood ? . . . 

This, however, is a small matter. I shall again 
point out here the greatest and most obvious error. 
For if the yellow bile adjusts itself to the narrower 
vessels and stomata, and the blood to the wider ones, 
for no other reason than that blood is thicker and 
bile thinner, and that the stomata of the veins are 

* Horror vacui. ' But Erasistratus had never upheld 

this in the case of urinary secretion, cf. p. 99. 



δέ των -χ^οΧηΒόχ^ων αγγείων στενότερα, Sia τονθ^ 
η μεν χοΧη τοις στενοτεροις αγγ^ιοί? τε και 
στόμασιν εναρμόττει, το δ' αΐμα τοις εύρυτεροις, 
ΒήΧον, ώ<ϊ καΙ το νΒατώ8ες τούτο και 6ρρώ8ε<ζ 
ττερίττωμα τοσούτω ττρότερον είσρυήσεται τοΓ? 
■χοΧηΒόχοις ά'γ'γείοις, οσω Χετττότερόν εστί τή<ζ 
χοΧής. ττως ουν ουκ εισρεΐ; οτι τταγυτερόν εστί 
νη Δία το ονρον τη<; χοΧη^' τούτο yap ετόΧμησε 
τί? είττεΐν των καθ^ ημα<; ^Ερασιστρατείων 
άτΓοστά? ΒηΤ^νότι των αισθήσεων, αίς εττίστευσεν 
iiri τε της χοΧή'^ καΐ του αίματος, εϊτε yap 
οτι μάΧΧον ή χοΧη του αίματος ρεΐ, Βια τούτο 
Χεπτοτεραν αύτην ήμΐν εστί νομιστεον, εϊθ^ οτι 
Βι οθόνης η ράκους ή τίνος ηθμού ραον Βιεξερχεται 
καΧ ταύτης το ορρωΒες περίττωμα, κατά ταύτα 
τα yvωpLσμaτa τταχυτερα της ύΒατώΒους uypo- 
τητος και αύτη yεvήσετaι. ττάΧιν yap ούδ' 
ενταύθα Xόyoς ούΒείς εστίν, ος άττοΒείξει Χετττο- 
τεραν την χοΧην των ορρωΒών ττεριττωμάτων. 
'Αλλ* όταν τις αναίσχυντη ττεριπΧεκων τε και 
80 μήττω καταιτετΓτωκέναι συyχωpώv, \\ όμοιος εσται 
τοις ιΒιώταις των τταΧαιστών, οι καταβΧηθεντες 
ύτΓΟ των τταΧαιστρικων καΧ κατά της yής ύπτιοι 
κείμενοι τοσούτου Βέουσι το πτώμα yvωpίζειv, 
ώστε καΧ κρατούσι των αυχένων αυτούς τους 
καταβαΧόντας ουκ εώντες άπαΧΧάττεσθαι, καν 
τούτω νικαν υποΧαμβάνουσι. 

^ This was the characteristically " anatomical " explanation 
of bile-secretion made by Erasistratus. cf. p. 170, note 2. 



wider and those of the bile-ducts narrower,* then it 
is clear that this watery and serous supei-fluityj^ too, 
will run out into the bile-ducts quicker than does the 
bile, exactly in proportion as it is thinner than the 
bile! How is it, then, that it does not run out? "Be- 
cause," it may be said, " urine is thicker than bile ! " 
This was what one of our Erasistrateans ventured to 
say, herein clearly disregarding the evidence of his 
senses, although he had trusted these fn the case of 
the bile and blood. For, if it be that we are to look 
on bile as thinner than blood because it runs more, 
then, since the serous residue ^ passes through fine 
linen or lint or a sieve more easily even tlian does 
bile, by these tokens bile must also be thicker than 
the watery fluid. For here, again, there is no 
argument which will demonstrate that bile is thinner 
than the serous superfluities. 

But when a man shamelessly goes on using circum- 
locutions, and never acknowledges when he has had 
a fall, he is like the amateur wrestlers, who, when 
they have been overthro\vn by the experts and are 
Ijing on their backs on the ground, so far from 
recognizing their fall, actually seize their victorious 
adversaries by the necks and prevent them from 
getting aAvay, thus supposing themselves to be the 
winners ! 

Why, then, says Galen, does not urine, rather than bile, enter 
the bile-ducts ? ^ Urine, or, more exactly, blood-serum. 




Α.ηρος ουν μακροί αττασα ττόρων viroOeaci tk 
φυσικην ivepyecav. el μη yap Βυναμίς τι<ζ σύμ- 
φυτος εκάστω των οργάνων ύττο της φύσεως 
ευθύς βξ άρχί^ς Βοθείη, 8ιαρκ€Ϊν ου Ζυνησεταί τα 
ζωα, μη οτί τοσούτον αριθμόν €τών αλλ' ουδ' 
ήμερων οΧι^ίστων άνετητρόττευτα yap εάσαντες 
αύτα καϊ τέχνης καϊ προνοίας έρημα μόναις ταΐς 
των ύΧών οίακιζόμβνα ροτταΐς, ούΒαμοϋ δυνάμεως 
ουδεμίας της μεν εΧκούσης το ττροσήκον εαυττ), 
της δ' άττωθούσης το αΚΚότριον, της δ' άΧλοιούσης 
τ€ καϊ ττροσφυούσης το θρεψον, ουκ ο2δ' οττως ουκ 
αν εϊημεν καταγελ,αστοι ττερί τε των φυσικών 
ivepyeicov ΒιαΧεγόμενοο καϊ ττολυ μα\\ον ετι ττερΙ 
81 των ψυ-χ^ικών καϊ \\ συμπάσης γε της ζωής. 

Ov8e yap ζην ούδε διαμενειν ούδενΐ των ζωών 
ούδ' εις εΧά'χ^ιστον γ^ρόνον εσται δυνατόν, εΐ 
τοσαΰτα κεκτημενον εν έαυτω μόρια και ούτω 
διαφέροντα μήθ^ ελκτική των οικείων γ^ρησεται 
δυνάμει μητ άττοκριτικτ} των άΧλοτρίων μήτ 
άΧλοιωτικη των θρεψόντων. καϊ μην εΐ ταύτας 
εχοιμεν, ούδεν ετι ττόρων μικρών ή μεγάΧων εζ 
υποθέσεως άναποδείκτου Χαμβανο μίνων εΙς ούρου 
καϊ χοΧής διάκρισιν δεόμεθα και τίνος επικαίρου 
θέσεως, εν ω μόνω σωφρονεΐν εοικεν 6 ^Ερασί- 
στρατος άπαντα καΧώς τεθήναί τε καϊ διαπΧασ- 

^ Or ducts, canals, conduits, i.e. morpholoqiral factors. 
2 Or artistic skill, "artistry." cf. Book I., chap. xii. 
' "Only"; cf. Introd., p. xxviii. 
•* Note how Galen, althou^i he has not yet clearly differ- 




Thus, every hypothesis of channels^ as an explana- 
tion of natural functioning is perfect nonsense. For, 
if there were not an inborn faculty given by Nature 
to each one of the organs at the very beginning, then 
animals could not continue to live even for a few- 
days, far less for the number of years which they 
actually do. For let us suppose they were under no 
guardianship, lacking in creative ingenuity ^ and fore- 
thought ; let us suppose they were steered only by 
material forces,•^ and not by any special JacultieJ^ ^ 
(the one attracting >vhat is proper to it, another j^ 
rejecting what is foreign, and yet another causing -^ 
alteration and adhesion of the matter destined to 
nourish it) ; if we suppose this, I am sure it would 
be ridiculous for us to discuss natural, or, still moi'e, 
psychical, activities — or, in fact, life as a whole.* 

For there is not a single animal which could live 
or endure for the shortest time if, possessing Λvithin 
itself so many different parts, it did not employ facul- 
ties Λvhich were attractive of what is appropriate, 
eliminative of what is foreign, and alterative of Avhat 
is destined for nutrition. On the other hand, if we 
have these faculties, we no longer need channels, 
little or big, resting on an unproven hypothesis, for 
explaining the secretion of urine and bile, and the 
conception of some favourable sUuation (in which 
point alone Erasistratus shows some common sense, 
since he does regard all the parts of the body as 

entiated physiological from physical processes (both are 
"natural") yet separates them definitely from the psychical. 
cf. p. 2, footnote. A psychical function or activity ia, in 
LetiDf actio animalis (from anima = psyche). 



θηναι τά, μόρια τον σώματος υττο της φύσεως 

Άλ-λ' el τταρακοΧουθησειεν εαυτω φύσιν ονο- 
μάζοντί τε'χ^υίκήν, ευθύς μεν εξ άργ^ης άπαντα 
«αλω? ΒιαττΧάσασάν τε καϊ Βιαθεΐσαν τον ζώου 
τα μόρια, μετά 8ε την τοιαύτην ενερ^ειαν, ως 
ούΖεν εΧειττεν, ετι ττροα'^α'^ουσαν εις φως αύτο 
συν τισι Βυνάμεσιν, ων άνευ ζην ουκ ηδύνατο, καϊ 
μετά, ταντα κατά, βραχεί/ ττροσαυξησασαν άχρι 
του ιτρεττοντος με'^εθονς, ονκ οΙΒα ττώς υπομένει 
82 πόρων σμικρότησιν || η μεΎεθεσιν ή τισιν άΧΧαις 
οΰτω \ηρώ8εσιν υποθεσεσι φυσικάς ενεργείας 
επιτρεπειν. η <γάρ ΒιαπΧάττουσα τα μόρια φύσις 
εκείνη καϊ κατά βραχύ προσαύξουσα πάντως 
8ηπου hi 6\ων αυτών εκτεταταΐ' καϊ yap οΧα 8ι 
οΧων ουκ έξωθεν μόνον αυτά ΒιαπΧάττει τε και 
τρέφει καϊ προσαύξει. ΐΙραξιτέΧης μεν yap ή 
ΦειΒίας ή τις άΧΧος ά^αΧματοποιος έξωθεν μόνον 
εκόσμονν τάς ΰΧας, καθά καϊ ψαύειν αυτών ηΒύ- 
ναντο, το βάθος δ' άκόσμητον καϊ apyov και 
άτεχνον καϊ άπρονόητον άπεΧιπον, ώς αν μη 
Βυνάμενοι κατεΧθεΐν εις αύτο καϊ καταΒΰναι καϊ 
θιyeΐv απάντων της νΧης τών μερών, ή φύσις δ' 
ούχ ούτως, άλλα το μ^ν όστον μέρος άπαν όστονν 
άποτεΧεΐ, το Βε σαρκός σάρκα, το Βε πιμεΧής 
πιμεΧην καϊ τών άΧΧων εκαστον ούΒεν yap εστίν 
άψαυστον αυτί) μέρος ούδ' άvεξεpyaστov ούΒ^ 
άκόσμητον. αΧΧά τον μεν κηρον ό ΦειΒίας ουκ 
ήΒύνατο ποιεΐν εΧεφαντα καϊ χρυσόν, αλλ' ούΒε 
τον χρυσον κηρόν εκαστον yap αυτών μενον, οίον 
Tjv εξ αρχής, έξωθεν μόνον ήμφιεσμενον εΙΒός τι 



having been well and truly placed and shaped by 


But let us suppose he remained true to his own 
statement that Nature is "artistic" — this Nature 
which, at the beginning, well and truly shaped 
and disposed all the parts of the animal,^ and, after 
carrying out this function (for she left nothing 
undone), brought it forward to the light of day, 
endowed with certain faculties necessary for its very 
existence, and, thereafter, gradually increased it 
until it reached its due size. If he argued con- 
sistently on this principle, I fail to see hoΛv he can 
continue to refer natural functions to the small ne&s 
or largeness of canals, or to any other similarly 
absurd hypothesis. For this Nature which shapes 
and gradually adds to the parts is most certainly 
extended throughout their whole substance. Yes 
indeed, she shapes and nourishes and increases them 
through and through, not on the outside only. For 
Praxiteles and Phidias and all the other statuaries 
used merely to decorate their material on the outside, 
in so far as they were able to touch it ; but its inner 
parts they left unembellished, unwrought, xinaffected 
by art or forethought, since they were unable to 
penetrate therein and to reach and handle all 
portions of the material. It is not so, however, with 
Nature. Every part of a bone she makes bone, every 
part of the flesh she makes flesh, and so with fat and 
all the rest; there is no part which she has not 
touched, elaborated, and embellished. Phidias, on the 
other hand, could not turn wax into ivory and gold, nor 
yet gold into wax : for each of these remains as it vras 
at the commencement, and becomes a perfect statue 

^ The stage of organogeneais or diaplati» ; </. p. 25, note 4. 



88 κα\ σχήμα τ^γνικόν, ά'γαΧμα riXeiov \\ yeyovev. η 
φύσΐί; δ' ούΒεμιάς €τι φυΧάττα των ν\ων την 
άρχαίαν iBiav αίμα <γαρ αν ην όντως ατταντα 
του ζώου τα μόρια, το τταρα τη<ζ κυονση<ί έπιρ- 
ρέον τω σττέρματί, 8[κην κηροΰ τίνος νΧη μία καΐ 
μονοεώης υττοβββΧημβνη τω τεχνίτΐ). jCyveTai 
δ' έξ αυτής ovSev των του ζώου μορίων οΰτ €ρυθ- 
ρον ούτως ούθ^ υηρόν. οστοΰν fyap και αρτηρία 
καΐ φΧεψ καΐ veOpov καΐ χόνδρος καϊ ττιμέλη καΐ 
άΒην καϊ ύμην καϊ μυεΧος αναιμα μβν, €ξ α'ίματος 
Be yeyove. 

Ύίνος άΧλοίώσαντος καϊ τίνος ττηξαντος και 
τίνος ΒιαττΧάσαντος ^Βεομην αν μοι τον ^Κρασί- 
στρατον αυτόν άττοκρινασθαι. ττάντως yap αν 
eiTTev ήτοι την φυσιν η το σττερμα, ταύτον μίν 
Xeyωv καθ' ίκάτβρον, Βιαφόροις δ' βττινοίαις €ρμη- 
νβύων ο yap ην ττρότερον σττερμα, τονθ\ όταν 
αρξηται φίιειν τβ καϊ ΒιαττΧάττειν το ζωον, φύσις 
τις yiyveTai. καθάττβρ yap ό ΦειΒίας βιχε μβν τας 
Βυνύμεις της τέχνης καϊ ττρϊν ψαύειν της νΧης, 
ivrjpyei δ' αύταΐς ττερί την νΧην — αττασα yap 
Βύναμις apyei άττο ρούσα της οικβίας ΰΧης — , οϋτω 

84 και το σττβρμα τας μβν || Βυνάμβις οϊκοθέν βκίκτητο, 
τας δ' ivepyeίaς ουκ €Κ της ϋΧης 'έΧαβεν, άΧΧα 
ττερί την ΰΧην eveBei^aTO. 

Κ.αΙ μην el ττοΧΧω μεν εττικΧύζοιτο τω αϊματι 
το σττερμα, Βιαφθβίρυΐτ άν el δ οΧως άποροίη 

* The s{)ermatozoon now becomes an " organism " proper. 
^ (Jalen attributed to the spermn or semen what we should 



simply by being clothed externally iu a form and 
artificial shape. But Nature does not preserve the 
original character of any kind of matter ; if she did 
so, then all parts of the animal would be blood — that 
blood, namely, which flows to the semen from the 
impregnated female and which is, so to speak, like 
the statuary's \vax, a single uniform matter, subjected 
to the artificer. From this blood there arises no part 
of the animal which is as red and moist [as blood is], 
for bone, artery, vein, nerve, cartilage, fat, gland, 
membrane, and marrow are not blood, though they 
arise from it. 

I would then ask Erasistratus himself to inform 
me what the altering, coagulating, and shaping 
agent is. He would doubtless say, " Either Nature 
or the semen," meaning the same thing in both 
cases, but explaining it by different devices. For 
that which was previously semen, when it begins 
to procreate and to shape the animal, becomes, so to 
say, a special nature.^ For in the same way that 
Phidias possessed the faculties of his art even before 
touching his material, and then activated these in con- 
nection with this material (for every faculty remains 
inoperative in the absence of its proper material), so it 
is with the semen : its faculties it possessed from the 
beginning,'-^ Avhile its activities it does not receive 
from its material, but it manifests them in connection 

And, of course, if it were to be overwhelmed 
with a great quantity of blood, it would perish, 
while if it were to be entirely deprived of blood 

to the fertilized ovam : to him the maternal contribution is 
purply passive — mere food for the sperm. Tlie epoch-making 
Ovum Theory was not developed till the seventeenth centurv 
'/. p. 19, note 3. 



τταντάττασιν apyovv, ουκ αν yevoiro φύσις, ϊν 
ονν μητ6 φθείρηταί καΧ ^ίγ/ηται φύσις άντΙ 
σπέρματος, oXtyov iinppeiv avajKatov αντω τον 
αίματος, μαΧλον δ ουκ oXiyov Xiyeiv χρη, άλλα 
σύμμ€τρον τω ττΧηθει του σπέρματος, τις ουν 
ο μέτρων αυτού το ττοσον της επιρροής; τις 6 
κωΧύων Ιεναι πΧεον; τις 6 προτρεπων, ϊν εν8ε- 
έστερον μη crj; τίνα ζητήσομεν ενταύθα τρίτον 
επιστάτην του ζώου της yεvεσεως, ος 'χopηyήσει 
τω σπέρματι το σύμμετρον αίμα; τί αν είπεν 
^Έ^ρασίστρατος, ει ζών ταύτ ήρωτηθη; το σπέρμα 
αύτο ΒηΧονότι• τούτο yap εστίν 6 τεχί'ΐττ;? 6 άνα- 
\oyS)v τω Φειδία, το δ' αίμα τω κηρω προσεοικεν. 
Οΰκουν πρέπει τον κηρον αύτον εαυτφ το 
μέτρον εξευρίσκειν, αλλά τον Φειδίαν. εΧξει 8η 
τοσούτον αίματος 6 Τ6χΐ'ΐτ779 εις εαυτόν, όπόσου 
85 Βεΐται. αλλ' εν\\ταύθα χρη προσεχειν ηΒη τον 
νουν καΐ σκοπεΐν, μη πως Χάθωμεν τω σπέρματι 
Xoyισμόv τίνα καΐ νουν χαρισάμενοι- ούτω yap 
αν ούτε σπέρμα ποίτ)σαιμεν ούτε φύσιν άλλ' η8ΐ] 
ζωον αυτό. καΧ μην εΐ φνΧάξομεν αμφότερα, 
την θ* όΧκην τού συμμέτρου καΧ το χωρΧς 
Xoyισμoύ, Βύναμίν τίνα, καθάπερ η Χίθος εΧκτι- 
κην είχε τού σιΒηρου, καΧ τω σπέρματι φησομεν 
ύπάρχειν αίματος επισπαστικην. ηvayκάσθημεv 
ουν πάΧιν κάνταύθα, καθάπερ ήδη πόΧΧάκις 
έμπροσθεν, εΧκτικην ηνα Βύναμιν όμοΧογησαι 
κατά το σπέρμα. 

1 i.e. we should be talking psychology, not biology ; cf. 
stomach, p. 307, note 3. 

- Attraction now described not merely as qualitativt but 
also as quantitative. <^. p. 85, note 3. 



it would remain inoperative and would not turn 
into a tialiire. Therefore, in order that it may not 
perish, but may become a nature in place of semen, 
there must be an afflux to it of a little blood — or, 
rather, one should not say a little, but a quantity 
commensurate with that of the semen. What is it 
then that measures the quantity of this afflux ? What 
prevents more from coming ? What ensures against 
a deficiency ? What is this third overseer of animal 
generation that we are to look for, which will furnish 
the semen with a due amount of blood ? What 
would Erasistratus have said if he had been alive, 
and had been asked this question } Obviously, the 
semen itself. This, in fact, is the artificer analogous 
with Phidias, whilst the blood corresponds to the 
statuary's wax. 

Now, it is not for the wax to discover for itself 
how much of it is required ; that is the business 
of Phidias. Accordingly the artificer ν>'ύ\ draw to 
itself as much blood as it needs. Here, however, 
we must f)ay attention and take care not unwit- 
tingly to credit the semen with reason and in- 
telligence ; if '\\'e were to do this, we would be 
making neither semen nor a nature, but an actual 
living animal.^ And if we retain these two princi- 
ples — that of projxtrtionate attraction 2 and that of the 
non-participation of intelligence — we shall ascribe to 
the semen a faculty for attracting blood similar to 
that possessed by the lodestone for iron.^ Here, 
then, again, in the case of the semen, as in so many 
previous instances, Ave have been compelled to 
acknowledge some kind of attractive faculty. 

' He still tends either to biologize physics, or to physicize 
biology — whichever way we prefer to look tX it. cf. Book I. , 
chap. xiT. j^^ 


Ύί δ' ^ν το σττέρμα; ή αρ'χτ) του ζφου 8η\ονότι 
η Βραστική' ή <γάρ ύΧικη το καταμήνων εστίν. 
eiT αυτής της ^ψχν'^ ττρώτΎ) ταύττ} ττ) Βυνάμβι 
γ^ρωμβνης, ίνα Ύβνηται των ύττ' αυτής τί Βεδη- 
μιουρΎημενων, άμοιρον elvai τής οΙκείας δυνάμεως 
ουκ ι/δεχεταί. ττως ουν ^Ερασίστρατος αύτην 
ουκ ol8ev, el Βη ττρώτη μεν αύτη του σττερματος 
ivipy ία το σύμμετρον αίματος εττισττάσθαι ιτρος 
εαυτό; σύμμετρον δ* αν είη το Χετττον ούτω καΐ 
άτμώΒες, ωστ ευθύς εις ττάν μόριον ελκόμενον του 
S(i σπέρματος ΒροσοειΒώς μηΒαμοΰ την || εαυτού 
τταρεμφαίνειν ΙΒεαν. οΰτω yap αυτού καϊ κρατή- 
σει /όαδιω? το σττέρμα καϊ ταχέως εξομοιώσει καϊ 
τροφην εαυτω ττοιησεται κάττείτ οΐμαι δεύτερον 
ετΓίσπάσεται καϊ τρίτον, ώς oyKov εαυτφ και 
ττΧήθος a^LoXoyov epyάσaσθaι τραφεντι. καϊ 
μην ηδη καϊ ή άΧλοιωτικη δύναμις εξεύρηται μηδ^ 
αύτη ττρος ^Ερασιστράτου yεypaμμεvη. τρίτη δ' 
αν η διαπλαστικη φανείη, καΘ^ ήν ττρώτον μεν 
οίον iTTLTrayov τίνα Χετττον ύμενα ττεριτίθησιν 
εαυτω το σπέρμα, τον ύφ" Ιπποκράτους επΙ τής 
εκταίας yovής, ην εκπεσεΐν εXεyε τής μoυσoυpyoύ, 
τω των ώων είκασθέντα χιτώνι• μετά δε τούτον 
ήδη καϊ τάΧΧ\ οσα προς εκείνου Xέyετaι δια τού 
περϊ φύσιος παιδιού συyy ράμματος. 

Αλλ,' εΐ των διαπΧασθύντων εκαστον ούτω 
μείνειε σμικρόν, ώς εξ άρχ^ής εyεvετo, τι αν εϊη 
πΧεον; αύξάνεσθαι τοίνυν αύτα χρη. πώς ουν 

* Aristotelian and Stoic dualitj' of an active and a passive 

" Note that early embryonic development is described as a 
process of nutrition, cf. p. 130, note 2. 



And Avliat is the semen ? Clearly the active prin- 
ciple of the animal, the material principle being the 
menstrual blood.^ Next, seeing that the active prin- 
ciple employs this faculty primarily, therefore, in order 
that any one of the things fashioned by it may come 
into existence, it [the principle] must necessarily be 
possessed of its own faculty. ΗοΛν, then, was Erasis- 
tratus unaAvare of it, if the primary function of the 
semen be to draw to itself a due proportion of blood? 
Now, this fluid would be in due proportion if it were 
so thin and vaporous, that, as soon as it Λvas drawn 
like dew into every part of the semen, it Avould 
everywhere cease to display its o\vn particular 
character ; for so the semen will easily dominate and 
quickly assimilate it — in fact, will use it as food. It 
will then, I imagine, draw to itself a second and a 
third quantum, and thus by feeding it acquires for 
itself considerable bulk and quantity.^ In fact, the 
alterative Jaculiy has ηοΛν been discovered as well, 
although about this also Erasistratus has not written a 
Avord. And, thirdly the shaping^ faculty will become 
evident, by virtue of which the semen firstly sur- 
rounds itself with a thin membrane like a kind of 
superficial condensation ; this is what was described 
by Hippocrates in the sixth-day birth, which, ac- 
cording to his statement, fell from the singing- 
girl and resembled the pellicle of an egg. And 
following this all the other stages will occur, such as 
are described by him in his work " On the Child's 

- But if each of the parts formed were to remain 
as small as Avhen it first came into existence, of what 
use Avould that be? They have, then, to groΛv. 

' On the alterative and shaping faculties cf. p. 18, note 1. 


ανζηθϊίσεται; ττάντη 8ιατ€ΐνόμ€Ρα θ^ αμα και 
τρεφόμενα, και μοι των βμττροσθζν βίρημβνων 
€7γΪ τή<; κνστ€ω<ζ, ην οΐ τταιδε? εμφυσώντα trpi- 

87 βον, άναμνησθά<; μαθηστ) μάΧΚον || κάκ των νυν 

^Κννόησον yap 8η την καρΒίαν οΰτω μεν μικράν 
elvai κατ αρχάς, ώ? Keyypov μηΕβν Βιαφερβιν η, 
el βονλει, κυάμον, Kca ζητησον, δττω? αν αΧλως 
αΰτη yevoiTo με^άΧη χωρίς του ττάντη Βιατεινο- 
μίνην τρέφεσθαι δ/.' δλ7;9 εαυτής, ως όλίγω ττροσ- 
θεν εΖείκνυτο το σττερμα τρεφόμενον. αλλ' ούδε 
τούτ ^Ερασίστρατος οΙΒεν 6 την τεχνην της 
φύσεως ΰμναιν, αλλ' οΰτως αϋξάνεσθαι τα ζωα 
νομίζει καθάττερ τινά κρησεραν η σειράν η σάκκον 
η τάλαρον, ων εκάστω κατά το ττερας εττιττΧεκο- 
μενων ομοίων έτερων τοις εξ αρχής αυτά συντι- 
θεΐσιν ή ττρόσθεσις ^ί^νεται. 

'Αλλά τοΰτό y ουκ ανξησίς εστίν άλλα 'γένε- 
σις, ω σοφώτατε' ηί^νεται yap ο θύΧακος ετι και 
ό σάκκος και θοΐμάτιον καϊ ή οικία κα\ το ττΧοΐον 
καΐ των αλΧων εκαστον, όταν μηΒβττω το προσ- 
ήκον είΒος, ου χάριν ύπο του τεχνίτου Βημιουρ- 
yεΐτaι, συμττεττΧηρωμενον rj. ττότ οΰν αυξάνεται; 
όταν ήΒη τέλειος ων 6 τάΧαρος, ώς εχειν ττυθμβνα 
τε τίνα καϊ στόμα καϊ οίον yaστepa καϊ τα 
τούτων μεταξύ, μείζων άττασι τούτοις yevητat. 

88 και -πώς \\ εσται τούτο; φήσει τις. πως δ' αΧΧως 
ν ει Κωον εξαίφνης ή φυτον 6 τάΧαρος ήμίν 
■γένοιτο; μάνων yap των ζώντων η αυςησις. συ 
δ' ϊσως οϊει την οίκίαν οΙκοΒομουμένην αυξάνε- 

ι ^6 


Now, how will they grow? By becoming extended 
in all directions and at the same time receiving 
nourishment. And if you will recall what I previously 
said about the bladder which the children blew up 
and rubbed,' you Λνϋΐ also understand my meaning 
better as expressed in what I am now about to say. 

Imagine the heart to be, at the beginning, so 
small as to differ in no respect from a millet-seed, 
or, if you will, a bean ; and consider how other\vise 
it is to become large than by being extended in all 
directions and acquiring nourishment throughout its 
whole substance, in the way that, as I shoΛved a short 
while ago, the semen is nourished. But even thif 
was unknown to Erasistratus — the man who sings the 
artistic skill of Nature ! He imagines that animals 
grow like webs, ropes, sacks, or baskets, each of 
which has, Avoven on to its end or margin, other 
material similar to that of which it was originally 

But this, most sapient sir, is not growth, but 
genesis ! For a bag, sack, garment, house, ship, or 
the like is said to be still coming into existence 
[undergoing genesis] so long as the appropriate form 
for the sake of which it is being constructed by the 
artificer is still incomplete. Then, when does it 
grow ? Only when the basket, being complete, Avith 
a bottom, a mouth, and a belly, as it Avere, as well 
as the intermediate parts, now becomes larger in all 
these respects. '•' And Ιιολν can this ha])pen l• " some- 
one will ask. Only by our basket suddenly becoming 
an animal or a plant ; for growiih belongs to living 
things alone. Possibly you imagine that a house 
grows when it is being built, or a basket when being 

» pp. 27-29. 

C 137 


σθαι κα\ τον τάλαρον ττΧεκόμβνον και θοΐμάτιον 
υφαινομβνον. ά\\ ούχ^ ώδ' e^ei* του μεν yap 
η8η σνμ7Γ€πΧηρωμβνου κατά, το είδο? η αΰζησί'ί, 
του δ έ'τί ηίηνομ'ενου η el'i το εΖδος όδο<? ουκ 
αΰξησις αλλά y€V€ai<i ονομάζεται' αυξάνεται μεν 
yap το ον, yiyveTai 8ε το ουκ 6ν. 


ΚαΙ ταΰτ ^Ερασίστρατος ουκ olSev, ον ού8εν 
\ανθάνει, εϊττερ όλως άληθεύουσιν οι αττ' αύτου 
φάσκοντβς ώμιΧηκεναι τοις εκ του ττεριττάτου 
φιΧοσόφοις αυτόν, α,χρι μεν οΐιν του την φύσιν 
ύμνεΐν ώς τεχνικην Kayco yvωpίζω τά του περί- 
ττάτου 8όyμaτa, των δ' άΧλων ού8εν ούδ' iyym. 
el yap τις όμιλησειε τοις ΆριστοτέΧους και 
Θεοφράστου ypάμμaσι, της Ίτητοκράτους αν 
αυτά 8όξειε φυσιo\oyίaς ΰττομνήματα συyκεlσθaι, 
89 το θερμον καΐ το ψυχρον || καΐ το ξηρον και το 
hypov εΙς αΚΧηΧα 8ρώντα και ττάσ^οντα καΐ 
τούτων αύτων 8ραστικώτατον μεν το θερμόν, 
8εύτερον 8ε τη 8υνάμεί το ψυχ^ρον Ιττποκράτους 
ταύτα σύμτταντα πρώτου, 8ευτερου 8 ^Αριστο- 
τέλους είττόντος. τρεφεσθαι 8ε 8ι 6\ων αυτών 
τά τρεφόμενα και κεράννυσθαι 8ι 6\ων τά 
κβραννύμενα καϊ άΧΧοιοϋσθαι 8ι 6\ων τα άΧΧ,οι- 
ούμενα, και ταΰθ' Ιττττοκράτειά θ άμα και 
^Αριστοτέλεια. καϊ την ττεψιν ίΧΧοιωσίν τιν 

* ef. lutroduction, p. xxvi. ^ cf. p. 15. 



plaited, or a garment when being woven ? It is not 
so, however. Growth belongs to that which has 
already been completed in respect to its form, whereas 
the process by Avhich that Λvhich is still becoming 
attains its form is termed not growth but genesis. 
That which u, grows, wliile that which u not, 


This also was unknown to Erasistratus, whom 
nothing escaped, if his folloΛvers speak in any way 
truly in maintaining that he -was familiar with the 
Peripatetic philosophers. Now, in so far as he 
acclaims Nature as being an artist in construction, 
even I recognize the Peripatetic teachings, but in 
other respects he does not come near them. For if 
anyone will make himself acquainted Avith the 
writings of Aristotle and Theophrastus, these will 
ap{>ear to him to consist of commentaries on the 
Nature-lore [physiology] ^ of Hippocrates — according 
to which the principles of heat, cold, dryness and 
moisture act upon and are acted up)on by one another, 
the hot principle being the most active, and the 
cold coming next to it in poΛver ; all this was stated 
in the first place by Hippocrates and secondly by 
Aristotle.2 Further, it is at once the Hippocratic 
and the Aristotelian teaching that the parts which 
are being nourished receive that nourishment 
throughout their whole substance, and that, similarly, 
processes of mingling and alteration involve the entire 
substance.^ Moreover, that digestion is a species of 

' For definitions of alteration and mingling [craeia, " tem- 
perament ") cf. Book I., chape. IL and UL 


υττάρ'χβΐν καϊ μβταβοΧην του τρέφοντας βίς την 
Οίκβίαν του τρεφομένου ττοώτητα, την δ' έζαι,- 
μάτωσιν άΧΧοίωσιν elvai κάϊ την θρέψιν ωσαύτως 
καϊ την αΰξησιν βκ της ττάντη διατάσεως και 
θρέψεως <yLjv€aeai, την δ' άΧλοίωσιν νττο τον 
θερμού μάΧιστα συντεΧεΐσθαι καϊ Βια τούτο καϊ 
την ττεψιν καϊ την θρέψιν καΐ την των 'χυμών 
άττάντων ηενεσιν, ηΒη δε καϊ τοις ττεριττώμασι 
τάς τΓΟίοτητας νττο της εμφύτου θερμασίας εγγί- 
yveaOai, ταύτα σύμπαντα καϊ ττρος τούτοις έτερα 
ΤΓοΧΧα τά τ€ των ττροειρη μένων Βυνάμεων καϊ 
90 τά II των νοσημάτων της 'γενέσεως καϊ τα των 
Ιαμάτων της ευρέσεως Ίτητοκράτης μεν ττρωτος 
άττάντων ων ϊσμεν ορθώς είττεν, ^ΑριστοτεΧης Βε 
Βεύτερος ορθώς εξη<γησατο. καϊ μην ει ταύτα 
σύμπαντα τοις εκ του περιπάτου Βοκεΐ, καθάπερ 
ουν Βοκεΐ, μηΒεν Β αυτών αρέσκει τω ^Ερασιστρά- 
τω, τί ποτ6 βούΧεται τοις Έρασιστρατείοις ή 
προς τους φιΧοσόφους εκείνους τον της αίρεσεως 
αυτών η'γεμόνος όμιΧία; θαυμάζουσι μεν yap 
αύτον ώς θεον καϊ πάντ άΧηθεύειν νομίζουσιν. 
ει δ' ούτως έχει ταύτα, πάμποΧυ Βι^που της 
άΧηθείας εσφάΧθαι χρη νομίζειν τους εκ του 
περιπάτου φιΧοσόφονς, οίς μηΒεν ων ^Ερασί- 
στρατος νπεΧάμβανεν αρέσκει, καϊ μην ώσπερ 
τιν εύ'γενειαν αύτω της φυσιοΧο<γίας την προς 
τους άνΒρας εκείνους σννουσίαν εκπορίζουσι. 

ΥίάΧιν ονν αναστρέψω μεν τον Xoyov ετερως ή 
ώς 6Xίyω πρόσθεν ετύχομεν είπόντες. εϊπερ yap 
οι εκ τον περιπάτον καΧώς εφυσιoXόyησav, 
ούΒεν αν εΐη ΧηρωΒεστερον ^Ερασιστράτου καϊ 
ΒίΒωμι τοις ^Ερασιστ ρατείοις αύτοΐς την α'ίρεσιν 



alteration — a transmutation of the nutriment into 
the proper quality of the thing receiving it ; that 
blood-production also is an alteration, and nutrition 
as well ; that growth results from extension in all 
directions, combined with nutrition ; that alteration 
is effected mainly by the warm principle, and that 
therefore digestion, nutrition, and the generation of 
the various humours, as well as the qualities of the 
surplus substances, result from the innate heal ; ^ all 
these and many other points besides in regard to the 
aforesaid faculties, the origin of diseases, and the 
discovery of remedies, were correctly stated first by 
Hippocrates of all >vriters whom Λve know, and were 
in the second place correctly expounded by Aristotle. 
Now, if all these vieΛvs meet with the approval of 
the Peripatetics, as they undoubtedly do, and if none 
of them satisfy Erasistratus, what can the Erasi- 
strateans possibly mean by claiming that their leader 
was associated Avith these philosophers ? The fact 
is, they revere him as a god, and think that every- 
thing he says is true. If this be so, then we must 
suppose the Peripatetics to have strayed very far 
from truth, since they approve of none of the ideas 
of Erasistratus. And, indeed, the disciples of the 
latter produce his connection with the Peripatetics 
in order to furnish his Nature-lore with a respectable 

Now, let us reverse our argument and put it in a 
different way from that which we have just employed. 
For if the Peripatetics were correct in their teaching 
about Nature, there could be nothing more absurd 
than the contentions of Erasistratus. And, I will 
leave it to the Erasistrateans themselves to decide ; 

' ».e. are associated with oxidation ? c/^ p. 41, note 3. 



91 ή yap τον ττρότβρον \oyov ή τούτον \\ ττροσησονται. 
\eyei ο ο μεν rrporepo^ ouSev ορθώς eyvwKevai 
irepl φύσεως τους ττεριττατητικονς, 6 8ε Βεύτερος 

Έίρασίστρατον. εμον μεν ουν ύττομνήσαί των 
8oyμάrωv την μάγ^ην, εκείνων δ' ή αίρεσις. 

Αλλ ουκ αν άτΓοσταΐεν του θαυμάζειν ^Έιρασί- 
στρατον ούκούν σιωττάτωσαν ττερί των εκ τοΰ 
ττερίττατου φιΧοσοφωτ. τταμττοΧλων yap όντων 
Boyμάτωv φυσικών ττερί τε yεvεσιv καΐ φθοραν 
των ζωών καΐ ΰyίεcav καΐ νόσους καΐ τας θερα- 
πείας αύτων εν μόνον εύρεθησεται ταύτον ^Έ-ρασι- 
στράτψ κάκεινοις τοις άνΒράσι, τό τίνος ένεκα 
ττάντα ττοιεΐν την φύσιν και μάτην μηδέν. 

Άλλα και αύτο τοΰτο με-χ^ρι λόγου κοινόν, 
epyω 8ε μυριάκις ^Έ,ρασίστρατος αύτο διαφθείρει- 
μάτην μεν yap 6 σττΧην εyεvετo, μάτην 8ε το 
εττίττΧοον, μάτην δ' αΐ εις τους νεφρούς άρτηρίαι 
καταφυόμεναι, σ'χεδον άττασων των αττο της 
μεyάXης αρτηρίας άττοβΧαστανουσών ούσαι 
μkyιστaι, μάτην δ' αΧΚα μυρία κατά ye τον 
^Κρασιστράτειον Xoyov άττερ ει μεν ουδ' δΧως 
yιyvώσκει, βρα-χ^εΐ μαηείρου σοφώτερός εστίν εν 
ταΐς άνατομαΐς, ει δ' ειΒως ου \εyει την 'χρείαν 

92 αυτών, οϊεται \\ 8η\ονότι τταραττΧησίως τω σττΧηνι 
μάτην αύτα yεyovέι•aι. καίτοι τι ταΰτ εττεξ- 
έρχομαι της irepl -χρείας μορίων 7Γpayμaτeίaς 
οντά μεΧΧούσης ήμΐν ιδία ττεραίνεσθαι; 

^ "Useless" organs; cf. p. 56, note 2. For fallacy of 
Erasistratns's view on the spleen v. p. 205. 



they must either advance the one proposition or the 
other. According to the former one the Peripatetics 
had no accurate acquaintance Avith Nature, and 
according to the second, Erasistratus. It is my task, 
then, to point out the opposition between the two 
doctrines, and theirs to make the choice. . . . 

But they certainly will not abandon their reverence 
for Erasistratus. Very Avell, then ; let them stop 
talking about the Peripatetic philosophers. For 
among the numerous physiological teachings regard- 
ing the genesis and destruction of animals, their 
health, their diseases, and the methods of treating 
these, there will be found one only which is common 
to Erasistratus and the Peripatetics — namely, the 
view that Nature does everything for some purpose, 
and nothing in vain. 

But even as regards this doctrine their agree- 
ment is only verbal ; in practice Erasistratus makes 
havoc of it a thousand times over. For, according 
to him, the spleen was made for no purpose, as 
also the omentum ; similarly, too, the arteries which 
are inserted into kidneys^ — although these are 
practically the largest of all those that spring from 
the great artery [aorta] ! And to judge by the 
Erasistratean argument, there must be countless 
other useless structures ; for, if he knows nothing 
at all about these structures, he has little more 
anatomical knowledge than a butcher, while, if he is 
acquainted with them and yet does not state their 
use, he clearly imagines that they were made for no 
purpose, like the spleen. Why, however, should I 
discuss these structures fully, belonging as they do 
to the treatise " On the Use of Parts," which I am 
personally about to complete ? 



ΤΙαλ,ιν οΐ)ν αναΧάβωμ,βν τον αντον \6yov 
€ί•πόντ€ς re η βραχύ ττρο? τους Έρασιστρατείους 
6TL των εφεξής β-χ^ώμβθα. Βοκοΰσι jap μοι μηΒεν 
άνβΎνωκέναι των ^ΑριστοτύΧονς ούτοι συγγραμ- 
μάτων, αλλ' άΧλων άκούοντ€<;, ώ? Beivo'i ην irepl 
φυσιν ο άνθρωτΓος καϊ ώ? οί άττό της στοάς κατ 
ίχνη της εκείνου φυσιοΧο^γίας βαδίζουσιν, eW 
εΐρόντες εν τι των ττεριφερο μένων δογμάτων 
KOLVOV αύτω ττρος ^Έ^ρασίστρατον άναττλάσαι τίνα 
συνουσίαν αύτοΰ ττρος εκείνους τους άνδρας. 
αλλ δτί μεν της ΆριστοτεΧονς φυσιοΧο'γίας 
ουδέν ^Ερασιστράτω μέτεστιν, 6 κατάλογος των 
Ίτροειρημενων ενδείκνυται δο'/μάτων, α πρώτου 
μεν Ιτητοκράτους ην, δευτέρου δ' Αριστοτέλους, 
τρίτων δε των Χτωϊκών, ενός μόνου μετατιθεμένου 
του τάς ποιότητας είναι σώματα. 

Τάχα δ' αν της \oyίκής ένεκα θεωρίας ώμιλη- 
κεναι φαΐεν τον Έρασίστρατον τοις εκ του 
περιπάτου φίλοσόφοις, ουκ είδότες, ώς εκείνοι 
93 μεν ψευ\\δείς καϊ απέραντους ουκ εΎραψαν \όyoυς, 
τα δ' ^Κρασιστράτεια βιβΧία παμποΧλους έχει 
τους τοιούτους. 

Τάχ &ν ουν ηδη τις θαυμάζοι καϊ διαποροίη, 
τι παθών ο Έιρασιστρατος εις τοσούτον των 
Ιπποκράτους δογμάτων άπετράπετο και δια 
τι των εν ηπατι πόρων των χοΧηδόχων, αλις 
yap ηδη νεφρών, άφεΧόμενος την εΧκτικην 
δύναμιν επίκαιρον αιτιάται θεσιν καϊ στομάτων 

* The Stoics. "^ The Peripatetics (Aristotelians). 

' Aristotle regarded the qualitative differences apprehended 
by our senses (the cold, the warm, the moist, and the dry) as 
fundamental, while the Stoics held the four corporeal elements 



Let us, then, sum up again this same argument, 
and, having said a fcAv Λvords more in answer to 
the Erasistrateans, proceed to our next topic. The 
fact is, these people seem to me to have read none 
of Aristotle's writings, but to have heard from 
others how great an authority he Avas on " Nature," 
and that those of the Porch ^ folloAv in the steps of 
his Nature-lore ; apparently they then discovered a 
single one of the current ideas which is common to 
Aristotle and Erasistratus, and made up some story 
of a connection between Erasistratus and these 
people.^ That Erasistratus, however, has no share in 
the Nature-lore of Aristotle is shown by an enumera- 
tion of the aforesaid doctrines, Avhich emanated first 
from Hippocrates, secondly from Aristotle, thirdly 
from the Stoics (>vith a single modification, namely, 
that for them the qualities are bodies).^ 

Perhaps, hoΛvever, they will maintain that it was 
in the matter of logic that Erasistratus associated 
himself Λvith the Peripatetic philosophers ? Here 
they show ignorance of the fact that these philoso- 
phers never brought forward false or inconclusive 
arguments, while the Erasistratean books are full of 

So perhaps somebody may already be asking, in 
some surprise, what possessed Erasistratus that he 
turned so completely from the doctrines of Hippo- 
crates, and why it is that he takes away the at- 
tractive faculty from the biliary •* passages in the 
liver — for >ve have sufficiently discussed the kidneys 
— alleging [as the cause of bile-secretion] a favour- 
able situation, the narro\vness of vessels, and a 

(earth, air, fire, and water) to be still more fundamental. 
cf. p. 8, note 3t * Lit. bile-receiving (choledochous). 



στενότητα καΙ "χωράν τίνα κοινήν, et? ην παρ- 
ayovai μεν αϊ άττο των ττυΚων το άκάθαρτον αίμα, 
μεταΧαμβάνονσι he ττρότεροι μεν οί ττοροι την 
χολην, Βεύτεραί δ' αϊ άττο της κοίλης φΧεβος 
το καθαρον αίμα. ττρος yap τω μηΒεν αν βΧα- 
βήναι την ολκην είττων αλΧων μυρίων εμεΧλεν 
αμφισβητουμένων άτταΧλάξεσθαν λόγων. 

'Ω,ς νυν ηε ττολεμος ου σμικρός εστί τοις 
'Ειρασιστρατειοις ου ττρος τους άΧλους μόνον 
άλλα και ττρός άΧλήΧους, ουκ εχουσιν, οττως 
εξ^Ί^ησωνται την εκ του ττρώτου των καθόΧον 
94 λόγωι» Χεξιν, εν y φησιν " ΈΙς το || αυτό δ' άνε- 
στομωμενων έτερων δύο αγγβίων των τ εττι την 
'χοΧη^ό'χον τεινόντων και των εττΙ την κοίΧην 
φΧεβα συμβαίνει της αναφερομένης εκ της 
κοιΧίας τροφής τα εναρμόξοντα εκατέροις των 
στομάτων εις εκάτερα των ayyeiwv μετα- 
Χαμβάνεσθαι και τά, μεν εττι την 'χοΧηΖόγον 
φερεσθαι, τα δ' εττι την κοίΧην φλέβα ττεραιου- 
σθαι." το yap " ^Ις το αυτό άνεστο μω μένων " 
ο κατ άρχας της Χέξεως yiypaiTTai, τι ττοτε χρη 
νοησαι, χάΧεττόν είττεΐΐ'. ήτοι yap ούτως εΙς 
ταύτόν, ώστε τω της εν τοις σιμοΐς φΧεβος 
ττέρατί συνάτΓτειν Βυο έτερα πέρατα, τό τ εν τοις 

1 Jecoria portae, the transverse fissure, by which the portal 
vein enters the liver. 



common space into which the veins from the gate- 
way [of the liver] ^ conduct the unpurified blood, and 
from Λvhich, in the first place, the [biliary] passages 
take over the bile, and secondly, the [branches] of 
the vena cava take over the purified blood. For it 
would not only have done him no harm to have 
mentioned the idea of attraction, but he would there- 
by have been able to get rid of countless other dis- 
puted questions. 

At the actual moment, however, the Erasi- 
strateans are engaged in a considerable battle, not 
only with others but also amongst themselves, and so 
they cannot explain the passage from the first book 
of the " General Principles," in which Erasistratus 
says, " Since there are two kinds of vessels opening ^ 
at the same place, the one kind extending to the 
gall-bladder and the other to the vena cava, the 
result is that, of the nutriment carried up from the 
alimentary canal, that part which fits both kinds of 
stomata is received into both kinds of vessels, some 
being carried into the gall-bladder, and the rest 
passing over into the vena cava." For it is difficult 
to say what we are to understand by the words 
" opening at the same place " Avhich are Λvritten 
at the beginning of this passage. Either they mean 
there is a junction ^ between the termination of 
the vein which is on the concave surface of the 
liver* and two other vascular terminations (that 
of the vessel on the convex surface of the liver ^ 

* Lit. "anastomosing." ' More literally, "synapse.' 

* The portal vein. • The hepatic vein or veins. 



κυρτοΐ<ί καΐ το του γοΚηΖό'χον πόρου, η, el μη 
ούτω, 'χωράν τίνα κοινην €7Γΐροήσαι 'χρη των 
τριών ά•γ^είων οίον Βεξαμενήν τίνα, ττΧηρουμένην 
μ€ν ύπο της κάτω φΧεβός, βκκβνουμίνην δ' eiV re 
τους χοΧ7;δοχοΐ'9 ττόρους καΐ τάς της κοίΧης 
άτΓοσχίΒας' καθ^ βκατβραν δε των έζη^ησεων 
ατοΊτα τΓοΧλά, irepl ων ei ττάντων Χβ'^/οιμι, Χάθοιμ 
αν βμαυτον εζη'^ήσβις Έιρασιστράτου γράφων, 
ουχ, 07Γ6ρ βξ αρχής ττρουθεμην, ττεραίνων. κοινον 
δ άμφοτβραις ταΐς €ξη~/7)σ€σίν άτοττον το μη || 
05 καθαίρβσθαί τταν το αίμα. χρη yap ώς εις 
ηθμόν τίνα το χοΧηΒόχον ayyelov εμττίτττβίν 
αυτό, ου τταρερχβσθαί καΐ τταραρρβίν ώκέως βίς 
το μβΐζον στόμα Ty ρνμτ} της άναΒόσεως φ€ρό- 

'A/j' ουν €v τούτοις μόνον άττορίαις άφύκτοις ό 
^Ερασιστράτου Xόyoς ενέχβται μη βουΧηθεντος 
χρησασθαι ταΐς εΧκτικαΐς Βννάμβσιν εις μηΒεν, η 
σφοδρότατα μεν εν τούτοις καΐ σαφώς ούτως, ώς 
αν μη8ε τταΐδα Χαθεΐν; 


Ει δ εττίσκοττοΐτό τις εττιμεΧώς, ούδ' ό ττερί 
θρεψεως αύτοΰ ΧοΎος, ον εν τω 8ευτερω των 
καθόλου Χό^ων Βιεζερχεται, τας αύτας άττορίας 
εκφεύ^ει. τη ηάρ ττρος το κενούμενον άκοΧουθία 
σνγχωρηθεντος ενός Χημματος, ώς ττρόσθεν 
εδείκνυμεν, εττεραινε τι ττερΙ φΧεβών μόνων και 
του κατ αύτας αίματος, εκρεοντος <γάρ τίνος 

' The portal vein. * ς/", p. 120, note 1. 



and that of the bile-duct), or, if not, then we must 
suppose that there is, as it were, a common space 
for all three vessels, which becomes filled from the 
lower vein,^ and empties itself both into the bile- 
duct and into the branches of the vena cava. Now, 
there are many difficulties in both of these explana- 
tions, but if I were to state them all, I should find 
myself inadvertently writing an exposition of the 
teaching of Erasistratus, instead of carrying out my 
original undertaking. There is, hoAvever, one diffi- 
culty common to both these explanations, namely, 
that the Λνΐιοΐο of the blood does not become 
purified. For it ought to fall into the bile-duct as 
into a kind of sieve, instead of going (running, in 
fact, rapidly) past it, into the larger stoma, by virtue 
of the impulse of anadosii. 

Are these, then, the only inevitable difficulties in 
which the argument of Erasistratus becomes involved 
through his disinclination to make any use of the 
attractive faculty, or is it that the difficulty is greatest 
here, and also so obvious that even a child could not 
avoid seeing it ? 


And if one looks carefully into the matter one 
will find that even Erasistratus's reasoning on the 
subject of niUrilion, which he takes up in the 
second book of his " General Principles," fails to 
escape this same difficulty. For, having conceded 
one premise to the principle that matter tends to fill 
a vacuum, as we previously showed, he was only 
able to draw a conclusion in the case of the veins 
and their contained blood.^ That is to say, when 



κατά τα στόματ αυτών καΧ Βιαφορονμβνον καΐ 
μητ αθρόως τόττον κβνοΰ Βυναμέυου jeveaOai 
μήτε των ήϊΧζβών συμττβσεΐν, τούτο yap ην το 
ΊταραΚβίττόμενον, avajKalov ην eireaOat το avve^et; 

96 άναττΧηροΰν του κ€νον^\\μβνου την βάσιν. αϊ μεν 
Βη φΧεβες ήμΐν ούτω θρεψονται τυΰ ττεριεχημίνου 
κατ αύτα<; αΐματο<ζ άττόΚαύουσαί' τα ?)ε νεΰρα 
ττω?; ου yap Βη καν τούτοις εστίν αίμα. ττρό- 
γειρον μεν yap ην είττεΐν, εΧκοντα τταρα των 
φΧεβών αλλ' ου βούΧεται. τι ττοτ οΰν κάν- 
ταΰθα ετΓίτεχναται; φΧεβας εχειν εν εαυτω 
καΐ αρτηρίας το νευρον ωσττερ τίνα σειράν εκ 
τριών Ιμάντων διαφερόντων τη φύσει ττβττλεγ- 
μένην. ωήθη yap εκ ταύτης της ύττοθέσεως 
εκφεύξεσθαι τω λόγω την οΧκήν ου yap αν ετι 
Βεησεσθαι το νευρον εν εαυτω ττεριεχ^ον αίματος 
ayy^ov εττιρρύτου τίνος έξωθεν εκ της τταρα- 
κειμενης φΧεβος της άΧηθινής αίματος έτερου, 
αλλ' ίκανόν αύτω ττρός την θρεψιν εσεσθαι 
το κατεψευσμενον άyyεΐov εκείνο το Xόyω θεω- 

Άλλα κάνταΰθα ττάΧιν αύτον όμοια τις άττορία 
ΒιεΒεζατο. τουτί yap το σμικρόν άyyεΐov εαυτό 
μεν θρέψει, το τταρακείμενον μεντοι νευρον εκείνο 
το άττΧοΰν ή την άρτηρίαν ούχ οΐόν τ εσται 
τρεφειν άνευ του σύμφυτόν τιν* ύττάρχ^ειν αύτοίς 

97 όΧκην της τροφής. \\ τη μεν yap ττρος το κενού- 
μενον άκοΧουθία ττως αν ετι 8ύναιτο την τροφην 
ετΓίσπάσθαι το άττΧοΰν νευρον, ωσττερ αι φΧεβες 

1 cf. ρ. 272, note 1. 

' i.e. one might assume an attraction. 



blood is running away through the stomata of 
the veins, and is being dispersed, then, since an 
absolutely empty space cannot result, and the veins 
cannot collapse (for this was what he overlooked), 
it Λvas therefore εΙιΟΛνη to be necessary that the 
adjoining quantum of fluid should flow in and fill 
the place of the fluid evacuated. It is in this way 
that we may suppose the veins to be nourished ; 
they get the benefit of the blood Λvhich they contain. 
But how about the nerves ? ^ For they do not also 
contain blood. One might obviously say that they 
draw their supply from the veins.^ But Erasistratus 
will not have it so. What further contrivance, then, 
does he suppose .'' He says that a nerve has within 
itself veins and arteries, like a rope woven by 
Nature out of three different strands. By means of 
this h3φothesis he imagined that his theory would 
escape from the idea of attraction. For if the ner\e 
contain within itself a blood-vessel it will no 
longer need the adventitious flow of other blood 
from the real vein lying adjacent ; this fictitious 
vessel, perceptible only in theory ,^ will suffice it for 

But this, again, is succeeded by another similar 
difficulty. For this small vessel will nourish itself, 
but it Λvill not be able to nourish this adjacent 
simple nerve or artery, unless these possess some 
innate proclivity for attracting nutriment. For how 
could the nerve, being simple, attract its nourishment, 
as do the composite veins, by virtue of the tendency 

' ».«. visible to the mind's eye as distinguished from 
the bodily eye. cf. p. 21, note 4. Thtoreton without quali- 
fication means merely visible, not theoretic ςΛ p. 205, 
not« 1. 


al σύνθετοι; κοίλότης μεν yap τίς iariv ev αύτω 
κατ αυτόν, αλλ ούχ αίματος αύτη y aWa 
7Γνενματο<ί yjrv^^iKoO μβστη. Βεόμβθα δ ημείς 
ουκ €69 την κοίΧότητα ταντην elaayeiv τω λόγω 
την τροφην αλλ' et9 το ττβρύχον αύτην ayyeiov, 
€Ϊτ ουν τρεφεσθαι μόνον etre κα\ αΰξεσθαι δεοιτο. 
ττως ουν είσάζομβν; οΰτω yap εστί σμικρόν εκείνο 
το άττΧοΰν ayyεlov καΧ μεντοι καΧ Twv άΧλων 
εκάτερον, ωστ\ el τη \ετττοτάτη βεΧόνη νύξειάς 
τί μερο<}, άμα Βιαιριίσεις τα τρία. τοττος ουν 
αΙσθητο<ί αθρόως κενός ουκ αν ττοτ εν αύτω 
yevocTO' λόγω δέ θεωρητός τόττος κενούμενος ουκ 
ην άvayκaστLκός της του συνεχούς άκοΧουθίας. 

^ΙΙβουΧόμην δ αύ τταΚιν μοί κανταύθα τον 
^Έιρασίστρατον αυτόν άττοκρίνασθαι περί, του 
στοιχειώδους εκείνου νεύρου του σμικρού, ττοτερον 
εν τι καΐ συνεχές ακριβώς εστίν η εκ ττοΧΧων 
και σμικρών σωμάτων, ων ^Κττίκουρος καΐ Αεύ- 
98 κιτητος καΐ Δημόκριτος ύττεθεντο, σύy\\κειτaL. 
καΐ yap και ττερί τούτου τους ^Κρασιστρατείους 
όρώ 8ιαφερομενους. οΐ μεν yap εν τι και συνεχές 
αυτό νομίζουσιν η ουκ αν άττλ,ούν είρησθαι ττρος 
αυτού φασί' τίνες 8ε και τούτο 8ια\ύειν εις έτερα 
στοιχειώδη τοΧμώσιν. αλλ' ει μεν εν τι καΐ 
συνεχές εστί, το κενούμενον έζ αυτού κατά την 
άΒηΧον ύττό των Ιατρών όνομαζομενην διαττνοην 

^ According to the Pneumatist school, certain of whose 
ideas were accepted by Erasistratus, the air. breath pneuma, 
or spirit was brought by inspiration into tlie left side of the 
heart, where it was converted into natural, vital, and 
psychic pneuma ; the latter then went to the brain, whence 
it was distributed through the nervous system ; practically 



of a vacuum to become refilled ? For, althouorh 
according to Erasistratus, it contains witliin itself 
a cavity of sorts, this is not occupied with blood, but 
with psychic pneiima,^ and we are required to imagine 
the nutriment introduced, not into this cavity, but 
into the vessel containing it, whether it needs 
merely to be nourished, or to grow as well. How, 
then, are we to imagine it introduced ? For this 
simple vessel [i.e. nerve] is so small — as are also the 
other two — that if you prick it at any part with 
the finest needle you will tear the Avhole three ot 
them at once. Thus there could never be in it a 
perceptible space entirely empty. And an emptied 
space which merely existed in theory could not 
compel the adjacent fluid to conie and fill it. 

At this point, again, I should like Erasistratus 
himself to answer regarding this small elementarv 
nerve, whether it is actually one and definitely con- 
tinuous, or whether it consists of many small bodies, 
such as those assumed by Epicurus, Leucippus, and 
Democritus.- For I see that the Erasistrateans are at 
variance on this subject. Some of them consider it 
one and continuous, for otherΛvise, as they say, he 
would not have called it simple ; and some venture 
to resolve it into yet other elementary bodies. But 
if it be one and continuous, then what is evacuated 
from it in the so-called insensible transpiration of the 

this teaching involved the idea of a psyche, or conscious vital 
principle. '* Psychic pneiima " is in Latin fpiritits avimalis 
{anima = psyche) ; cf. p. 126, note 4. Introduction, p. xxxiv. 
* Observe that Erasistratus's "simple nerve" may be 
almost looked on as an anticipation of the cell. The question 
Galen now asks is whether this vessel is a " unit mass of 
living matter," or merely an agglomeration of atoms subject 
to mechanical law. cf, Galen's "fibres," p. 329. 



ονΒβμιαν iv ίαυτω καταΧβίψβι 'χ^ώραν κενην. 
ούτω yap ούχ ev άλλα ττολλα ^βνήσεται, 8i€ipy6- 
μενα 8ήττου ταΐς κ€ναΐ<; χώραΐ'ς. el δ' βκ ττοΧλών 
avjKeiTai, rfj κητταία κατά την τταροιμίαν ττ/οό? 
ΑσκΧητΓΐάΒην άττζ'χωρησαμεν άναρμά τίνα στοι- 
χεία τιθέμενοι. ττάΧιν οΰν άτ€)(^νος ημΐν η φύσις 
Χε^εσθω' τοις yap τοιούτοις στοιγβίοις έξ avay- 
κης τονθ' επβται. 

Δίό 8η μοι καΐ Βοκοΰσιν άμαθώς -πάνυ την eh 
τα τοιαύτα στοιχ^εΐα των άττΧών ayyείωv elσάyeιv 
8ιάΧνσιν eviOL των ^Έιρασιστρατείων. εμοί yovv 
ov8ev 8ίαφέρεί. καθ" εκατβρους yap άτοττος ό 
της θρεψ-εως εσται X6yoς, εκείνοις τοΙς άττΧοΙς 
ayyείoις τοις σμικροΐς τοις συντιθεΐσι τα μeyάXa \\ 
99 re και αίσθ7]τά νεύρα κατά μεν τους συνεχί] 
φνΧάττοντας αυτά μη Βνναμενης yεvεσθaι της 
ττρος το κενούμενον άκοΧουθίας, οτι μη8εν εν τφ 
συνέχει yίyvετaι κενόν, καν airoppirj τι• συνέρ- 
χεται yap ττρος άΧΧηΧα τά καταΧειττόμενα μόρια, 
καθάττερ εττΐ του ΰ8ατο<ί οραται, και ττάΧιν εν 
y'lyveTai ττάντα την χώραν του Βιαφορηθεντος 
αυτά καταΧαμβάΐ'οντα• κατά 8ε τους έτερους, 
ΟΤΙ των στοιχείων εκείνων ού8εν Βεΐται της ττρος 
το κενού μενον άκοΧουθίας. εττϊ yap των αισθητών 
μόνων, ουκ εττΙ των λόγω θεωρητών έχει 8ύναμιν, 
ως αυτός 6 ^Ερασίστρατος oμoXoyεΐ 8ιαρρη8ην, 
ου ττερϊ του τοιούτον κενού φάσκων εκάστοτε 
τΓΟίεΐσθαι τον Xoyov, ο κατά βραχύ παρεστταρται 
τοις σώμασιν, άΧΧά ττερΙ τού σαφούς καΐ αΙσθητού 
και αθρόου καΐ μεyάλoυ καΐ εvapyoύς και οττως 
αν άΧΧως όνομάζειν εθεΚης. ^Ερασίστρατος μεν 
yap αυτός αίσθητον αθρόως ου φησι Βύνασθαι 



physicians will leave no empty space in it ; other- 
wise it would not be one body but many, separated 
by empty spaces. But if it consists of many bodies, 
then we have " escaped by the back door," as the 
saying is, to Asclepiades, seeing that we have 
postulated certain inharmonious elements. Once again, 
then, we must call Nature " inartistic " ; for this 
necessarily follows the assumption of such elements. 
For this reason some of the Erasistrateans seem to 
me to have done very foolishly in reducing the simple 
vessels to elements such as these. Yet it makes no 
difference to me, since the theory of both parties 
regarding nutrition will be shoΛvn to be absurd. Foi 
in these minute simple vessels constituting the large 
perceptible nerves, it is impossible, according to the 
theory of those who Λvould keep the former con- 
tinuous, that any " refilling of a vacuum " should 
take place, since no vacuum can occur in a con- 
tinuum even if anything does run away ; for the 
parts left come together (as is seen in the case 
of water) and again become one, taking up the 
whole space of that Λvhich previously separated them. 
Nor Avill any " refilling " occur if we accept the 
argument of the other Erasistrateans, since none of 
their elements need it. For this principle only holds 
of things which are perceptible, and not of those 
which exist merely in theory ; this Erasistratus 
expressly acknowledges, for he states that it is 
not a vacuum such as this, interspersed in small 
portions among the corpuscles, that his various 
treatises deal ^\^\t\\, but a vacuum which is clear, 
perceptible, complete in itself, large in size, evident, 
or however else one cares to term it (for, \vhat 
Erasistratus himself says is, that " there cannot be a 



Ύενεσθαι κενόν iyo) δ' €κ ττβριονσίας βυττορησας 
ονομάτων ταύτον 8η\οΰν βν γε τω νυν ττροκίΐμένίρ 
λόγω δυναμένων καΐ ταΧλα ττροσεθηκα. 

100 Κάλλίοΐ' ονν μοι 8οκ€Ϊ καΐ \\ ημάς τι avveiaeviy- 
κασθαί τοις Έρασιστρατείοις, €7Γ€ί8η κατά, τούτο 
'γβ'γόναμεν, καΐ σνμβουΧενσαι τοΐς το ττρωτον 
βκβίνο και άττΧοΰν ίιττ ^Ε,ρασιστράτου καΧούμενον 
ayyetov eh erep άττα σώματα στοιχ^βιώΒη 
ΒιαΧύονσιν άττοστήναι της ύττοΧηψεως, ώς "ττρο^ 
τω μηΒΐν e^eiv ττΧβον βτι και Βιαφερομβνοις 
Έρασίστρατω. οτι μεν ονν ovSev ε-χβι ττΧεον, 
€7Γ ιΒεΒεικται σαφώς• ούΒε yap ηΒυνηθη Sιaφυyeΐv 
την ττερί της θρεψεως άττορίαν ή ύττόθεσις' οτι δ' 
ούδ' ^Κρασιστράτω σύμφωνος εστίν, ο εκείνος 
άττΧονν καΐ πρώτον ονομάζει, σννθετον άττο- 
φαίνονσα, και την της φύσεως τεχνην αναιρούσα, 
ττρόΒηΧον καϊ τοΰτ είναί μοι 8οκεΐ• ει μη yap 
καν τοις άττΧοΐς τούτοις ενωσίν τίνα της ουσίας 
άτΓοΧείψομεν, αλλ' εΙς άναρμα καΐ αμέριστα 
καταβησόμεθα στοιχεία, τταντάττασιν άναιρήσομεν 
της φύσεως την τεχνην, ώσττερ και ττάντες οι εκ 
ταύτης ορμώμενοι της ύττοθεσεως ιατροί καΐ 
φιλόσοφοι. 8ευτερα yap τών του ζώου μορίων 
κατά την τοιαύτην ύττόθεσιν η φύσις, ου ττρωτη 

101 yίyvετaι. ΒιαιτΧήττειν he \\ καϊ Bημιoυpyεΐv ου 
του Βευτέρου yεyovoτoς, αΧ\ά του ττρονττ άρχοντος 
εστίν ώστ avayKalov εστίν ευθύς εκ σπερμάτων 
ύποθέσθαι τάς Βυνάμεις της φύσεως, αίς 8ια- 

* cf. Book I., chap xii. 

* i.e. in biology we must befiin with living substance — 
with something which is specifically alive — here with the 
" unit mass of living matter." cf. p. 73, note 3. 



perceptible space which is entirely empty " ; while I, 
tor my part, being abundantly equipped Avith terms 
which are equally elucidatory, at least in relation to 
llie present topic of discussion, have added them 
as well). 

Thus it seems to me better that we also should 
help the Erasistrateans with some contribution, since 
we are on the subject, and should advise those who 
reduce the vessel called primary and simple by 
Erasistratus into other elementary bodies to give 
up their opinion ; for not only do they gain nothing 
by it, but they are also at variance with Erasistratus 
in this matter. That they gain nothing by it hps 
been clearly demonstrated ; for this hypothesis 
could not escape the difficulty regarding nutrilion. 
And it also seems perfectly evident to me that this 
hypothesis is not in consonance Avith the view ot 
Erasistratus, Avhen it declares that Avhat he calls 
simple and primary is composite, and \vhen it destroys 
the principle of Nature's artistic skill.^ For, if we do 
not grant a certain unity of substance'^ to these simple 
structures as well, and if we arrive eventually at 
inharmonious and indivisible elements,2>ve shall most 
assuredly deprive Nature of her artistic skill, as do all 
the physicians and philosophers who start from this 
hypothesis. For, according to such a hypothesis. 
Nature does not precede, but is secondary to the 
parts of the animal.* Now, it is not the province of 
what comes secondarily, but of what pre-exists, to 
shape and to construct. Thus Ave must necessarily 
suppose that the faculties of Nature, by which she 

' " Ad eleraenta quae nee ccelescere possunt nee in partes 
dividi " (Linacre). On the two contrasted schools cf. p. 45. " 
* cf. loc. cit. 



ΤΓλάττεί τ€ καΐ αυζάνβν καΐ τρξφει το ζωον 
α\\ €Κ€ίνων των σωμάτων των άνάρμων καΐ 
άμβρών ovhev iv ίαντω ΒιαττΧαστικην βγει hvva- 
μιν Ύ) αύξητικην η θρετττικην η ολω? τεχνική ν 
άτταθβ^ yap καϊ άμετάβΧητον υπόκειται, των δ' 
είρημένων ovSev άνευ μεταβο\η^ και αλΧοιώσεως 
και της Βι οΧων κράσεων ηίηνεται, καθάττερ και 
Βιά των εμττροσθεν ενεΒειξάμεθα. καϊ 8ιά ταύτην 
την ανάγκην ουκ έχοντες, οττως τα άκόΧουθα τοις 
στοιχείοις, οίς ύττεθεντο, φυΧάττοιεν, οι άττο των 
τοιούτων αιρέσεων άτταντες άτεχνον ηνα^κάσθη- 
σαν άποφήνασθαι την φύσιν. καίτοι ταυτά η 
ου Trap ημών εχρην μανθάνειν τους ^Έιρασι- 
στρατειους, άλλ,ά τταρ αυτών των φιΧοσόφων, 
οΐς μάΧιστα Βοκεΐ ττρώτον εττισκοττεΐσθαι τα 
στοιχεία των όντων απάντων. 

Ούκουν ούδ' ^Ερασίστρατον αν τις ορθώς άχρι 
τοσαύτης άμαθίας νομίζοι προήκειν, ως μη8ε 
102 ταύτην <γνωρίσαι Βυνηθηναι την άκοΧουθίαν, 
αλλ' άμα μεν υποθεσθαι τεχνικην την φύσιν, 
άμα δ' εις απαθή και άναρμα καϊ άμετάβΧητα 
στοιχεία καταθραΰσαι την ούσ'ιαν. και μην 
εΐ Βώσει τιν εν τοις στοιχείοις άΧΧοιωσίν τε 
κα\ μεταβοΧην καϊ ενωσιν και συνέχειαν, εν 
άσύνθετον αύτω το άπΧονν άγγεΐον εκείνο, 
καθάπερ και αύτος ονομάζει, ^ενησεται. αλλ 
η μεν άπΧή φΧεψ εξ αυτής τραφήσεται, το 
νεΰρον Βε καϊ ή αρτηρία πάρα τής φΧεβός. 

» "Auxetic." cf. p. 26, note 1. 

• "At corponim quae nee una committi nee dividi 
possnnt nullum in se formatricem, auctriceni, nutricem, aut 



shapes the animal, and makes it grow and receive 
nourishment, are present from the seed onΛvards ; 
whereas none of these inharmonious and non-partite 
corpuscles contains within itself any formative, 
incremental,^ nutritive, or, in a word, any artistic 
power ; it is, by hypothesis, unimpressionable and 
untransformable,'- whereas, as we have previously 
shown,•'' none of the processes mentioned takes place 
Avithout transformation, alteration, and complete 
intermixture. And, owing to this necessity, those Λvho 
belong to these sects are imable to follo\v out the 
consequences of their supposed elements, and they are 
all therefore forced to declare Nature devoid of a^i;. 
It is not from us, however, that the Erasistrateans 
should have learnt this, but from those very 
philosophers who lay most stress on a preliminary 
investigation into the elements of all existing things. 
Now, one can hardly be right in supposing that 
Erasistratus could reach such a pitch of foolisliness 
as to be incapable of recognizing the logical con- 
sequences of this theory, and that, while assuming 
Nature to be artistically creative, he would at the 
same time break up substance into insensible, in- 
harmonious, and untransformable elements. If, hoAv- 
ever, he will grant that there occurs in the elements 
a process of alteration and transformation, and that 
there exists in them unity and continuity, then that 
simple vessel of his (as he himself names it) will turn 
out to be single and uncompounded. And the simple 
vein will receive nourishment from itself, and the 
nerve and artery from the vein. How, and in what 

in summa artificem facultatem habet; quippe quod im- 
patibile esse immutibileque praesumitur" (Linacre). 
' Book L, chaps, v.-xi. 


ττως και τίνα τροττον; iv τοντφ yap hrj και 
ττροσθεν 'γβνομβνοι τω λόγω της των ^Κρασιστρα- 
Τ€ίων Βιαφωνίας βμνημονβύσαμβν, eTreSei^apev Se 
και καθ €κατ€ρον<ί μ€ν άττορον elvai την των 
άττΧών εκβίνων ayyeirov θρβψιν, άλλα καΐ κρΐναι 
την μάγ^ην αυτών ουκ ώκν}']σαμ€ν καϊ τιμήσαι τον 
Έ^ρασιστρατον εις την βέΚτίονα μεταστήσαντβ'ζ 

Αΰθις ουν i-rn την %ν άττΧονν ηνωμίνον εαυτω 
τταντη το στοιχεκοΒες εκείνο vevpov ΰττοτιθε- 
μενην αϊρεσιν 6 λόγο? μεταβας βτησκοττβίσθω, 
ττώς τραφησβταΐ' το yap ευρβθεν ενταύθα κοινον 
αν η^η καΐ τή<; Ιττποκρύτους α/ρεσεως yivotTo. 
103 Κάλλίοΐ' δ άν μοι 8οκώ το ζητού\μενον εττϊ 
των νενοσηκοτων καϊ σφόΒρα καταΧεΧετττυσ- 
μενων βασανισθηναι. ττάντα yap τούτοις εναρ- 
γώ? φαίνεται τα μύρια του σώματος ατροφα 
καϊ ΧετΓτα και ττοΧΧης ττροσθηκης τε κηΧ άναθρε- 
ψεως Βεόμενα. και τοίνυν καϊ το νευρον τούτο 
το αίσθητόν, εφ' οΰττερ εξ άρχτ}? εττοιησάμην 
τον λόγοι', Ισγνον μεν Ικανώς yεyovε, Βεΐται Βε 
θρεψεως. εχ^ει δ' εν εαυτω μέρη ττάμττοΧΧα 
μεν εκείνα τα ττρώτα καϊ αόρατα νεύρα τα σμικρά 
και τινας αρτηρίας άττΧάς οΧί-,ας καΐ φΧεβας 
ομοίως, άτταντ ουν αυτού τα νεύρα τα στοι- 
'χειώΒη καταΧεΧετΓτυνται ΒηΧονότι καϊ αυτά, η, 
€1 μηΒ^ εκείνα, ούΒε το οΧον. και τοίνυν και 
θρεψεως ου το μεν οΧον Βεΐται νεύρον, εκαστον δ' 
εκείνων ου Βεΐται. και μην ει Βεΐται μεν άναθρε- 
ψεως, ούΒεν δ' ή ττρος το κενού μενον άκόΧουθία 



way ? For, when we were at this point before, we 
drew attention to the disagreement among the 
Erasistrateans,^ and we showed that the nutrition of 
these simple vessels was impracticable according to 
the teachings of both parties, although we did not 
hesitate to adjudicate in their quarrel and to do 
Erasistratus the honour of placing him in the better 

Let our argument, then, be transferred again to 
the doctrine which assumes this elementary nerve^ to 
be a single, simple, and entirely unified structure, 
and let us consider how it is to be nourished ; for 
what is discovered here will at once be found to be 
common also to the school of Hippocrates. 

It seems to me that our enquiry can be most rigor- 
ously pursued in subjects who are suffering from 
illness and have become very emaciated, since in these 
people all parts of the body are obviously atrophied 
and thin, and in need of additional substance and 
feeding-up ; for the same reason the ordinary 
perceptible nerve, regai'ding which we originally 
began this discussion, has become thin, and requires 
nourishment. Now, this contains within itself various 
parts, namely, a great many of these primary, 
invisible, minute nerves, a fevv simple arteries, and 
similarly also veins. Thus, all its elementary nerves 
have themselves also obviously become emaciated ; 
for, if they had not, neither would the nerve as a 
whole ; and of course, in such a case, the whole 
nerve cannot require nourishment vvithout each of 
these requiring it too. Now, if on the one hand 
they stand in need of feeding-up, and if on the 

1 cf. p. 153. 

^ On account of his idea of a simple tissue not susceptible of 
further analysis. * Or " cell " ; cf. p. 153, note 2. 



βοηθείν avTOi<i Svvarat 8ιά re τάς εμττροσθεν 
βίρημβνας άτΓορίας καΧ 8ια την urroyviov ισχνό - 
τητα, καθάττβρ Βείξω, ζητητέον ήμΐν εσην erepav 
αΐτίαν θρ€ψ€ως. 

Πω? ονν ή ΤΓ ρος το κενούμενου άκοΧουθία 
τρίφειν ahvvaTO<i iffrt, τον οντω Βιακείμβνον; 

104 ΟΤΙ τοσούτον άκόΧουθβΙν \\ άνα'^κάζβί των συν- 
εγων, οσον άττορρεΐ. τοΰτο δ' ίττΧ μβν των 
βύεκτούντων ίκανόν εστίν et9 την θρέψιν, ίσα 
<γαρ €π' αυτών είναι χρη τοις άττορρεονσι τα 
ττροστιθεμενα' εττΐ Βε των εσγάτως ισχνών καΧ 
7Γθλλ% άναθ ρέψεως Βεομενων el μη ττολλαττλά- 
σιον εϊη το ττροστιθεμενον του κενουρ,ενου, την 
εξ αρχή<ζ εξιν άναλαβεΐν ουκ αν ττοτε Βύναιντο. 
ΒηΚον ουν, ώ^ εΧκειν αύτα Βεήσει τοσούτω 
ττΧεΐον, οσφ καΐ Βεΐται ττΧείονος. Ερασίστρατος 
Βε κάνταυθα ττρότερον ττοιησας το Βεύτερον ουκ 
οΖδ' δττως ουκ αΙσθάνεται. Βιοτι ydp, φησί, 
ΤΓοΧΧη Ίτρόσθεσίς εις άνάθρεψιν <^ί'^,>νεται τοις 
νενοσηκοσι, Βια τοΰτο καΐ η ττρος ταύτην άκοΧου- 
θία τΓοΧΧη. ττώς δ' αν ττοΧΧη ττρόσθεσις yivoiTO 
μη Ίτροη^ουμενης άναΒόσεως ΒαψιΧοΰς; ει Be 
την Βια των φΧεβών φοράν της τροφής άνάΒοσιν 
καΧεΐ, την Β' εις εκαστον των άττΧών καϊ αοράτων 
εκείνων νεύρων καϊ αρτηριών μετάΧη'^ιν ουκ 
άνάΒοσιν άλλα ΒιάΒοσιν, ως τίνες ονομάζειν 

ΙΟδ ήξίωσαν, είτα \\ την Βια τών φΧεβών μόνη τη 

^ Tlie horror vacui. 

* Prosthesis of nutriment ; cf, p. 39, note 6. 


other the principle of the refilling of a vacuum^ can 
give them no help — both by reason of the difficulties 
previously mentioned and the actual thinness, as I 
shall show — we must then seek another cause for 

How is it, then, that the tendency of a vacuum 
to become refilled is unable to afford nourishment 
to one in such a condition ? Because its rule is 
that only so much of the contiguous matter should 
succeed as has flowed away. Now this is sufficient 
for nourishment in the case of those who are in 
good condition, for, in them, what is presented ^ 
must be equal to what has flowed aΛvay. But in 
the case of those Λvho are very emaciated and who 
need a great restoration of nutrition, unless what 
was presented were many times greater than what 
has been emptied out, they would never be able to 
regain their original habit. It is clear, therefore, that 
these parts will have to exert a greater amount of 
aitraction, in so far as their requirements are greater. 
And I fail to understand how Erasistratus does not 
perceive that here again he is putting the cart before 
the horse. Because, Ln the case of the sick, there 
must be a large amount of presentation ^ in order to 
feed them up, he argues that the factor of "re- 
filling"^ must play an equally large part. And how- 
could much presentation take place if it Λvere not 
preceded by an abundant delivery^ of nutriment? 
And if he calls the conveyance of food through 
the veins delivery, and its assumption by each 
of these simple and visible nerves and arteries not 
delivery but dislribution* as some people have 
thought fit to name it, and then ascribes conveyance 

3 A nadosis, ' ' absorption ** ; e/. p. 1 3, note 5. * Li t . diadosii. 



τΓ/οό? TO κενούμενου ακολουθία φησϊ yLyvea0ai, 
την εΙς τά Χό'γφ θεωρητα μεταλ,ηψιν ημΐν εξη^η- 
σάσθω. οτι μεν ya,p ούκέτ εττϊ τούτων η 7rpb<; 
το κενούμενον άκοΧουθία Χε^εσθαι δύναται καΧ 
μαΚιστ εττϊ των εσχ^άτως ισχνών, άττοΒέΒεικταί, 
τι 8έ φησιν επ αντων εν τω Βεντέρω των 
καθόλου Χό'γων 6 ^Ερασίστρατος, άξιον εττακου- 
σαι της Χέξεως• " Ύοΐς δ' εσγάτοι^ τε κα\ άττΧοΐς, 
ΧετΓτοΐς τε καϊ στενοΐς οΰσιν, εκ των τταρακει- 
μενων άγ^/είων η ττρόσθεσις συμβαίνει εις τα 
κενώματα των άττενεχ^θεντων κατά τα irXdyia 
των αγγείων εΧκομενης της τροφής καϊ κατα- 
'χωριζομενης" εκ ταύτης της λέξεως πρώτον 
μεν το κατά, τα TrXdyia ττροσίεμαί τε και 
άτΓοΒέχομαΐ' κατά μεν yap αύτο το στόμα το 
άττλοΰν νευρον ουκ αν Βύναιτο Βεχομενον την 
τροφην ούτως εις όλον εαυτό Βιανέμειν άνάκειται 
yap εκείνο τω Λίτυχικω ττνεύματί' κατά δε το 
irXayiov εκ της τταρακειμενης φλεβός της άττλής 
εγ)(ωρεΙ Χαβεΐν αυτό. δεύτερον δ' άττοΒέγ^ομαι 
των εκ της ^Ερασιστράτου Χέξεως ονομάτων το 
106 yεy ραμμενον εφεξής τω κατά τά irXdyia. \\ τι 
yap φησι; " Κατά τά irXdyia τών dyyείωv εΧκο- 
μενης τής τροφής.^^ οτι μβν ουν έλκεται, και ημείς 
όμoλoyoύμεv, οτι δ' ου τη ττρος το κενούμενον 
άκοΧουθία, 8έ8εικται ττροσθεν. 


^Έιξεύρωμεν ουν κοινή, ιτώς έλκεται, ττώς δ' 
αΧΧως ή ως 6 σίδηρος ύττο τής ήρακΧείας Χίθου 

1 i.e. let him explain the diadosia, 


through the veins to the principle of vacuuni- 
refiUing alone, let him explain to us the assumption 
of food by the hypothetical elements.^ For it 
has been shown that at least in relation to these 
there is no question of the refilling of a vacuum 
being in operation, and especially where the parts 
are very attenuated. It is worth while listening 
to Λvhat Erasistratus says about these cases in 
the second book of his "General Principles": "In 
the ultimate simple [vessels], which are thin and 
narroAv, presentation takes place from the adjacent 
vessels, the nutriment being attracted through the 
sides of the vessels and deposited in the empty spaces 
left by the matter which has been carried away." 
Now, in this statement firstly I admit and accept 
the words " through the sMes." For, if the simple 
nerve were actually to take in the food through its 
mouth, it could not distribute it through its whole 
substance ; for tlie mouth is dedicated to the 
psychic pneuraa.^ It can, however, take it in through 
its sides from the adjacent simple vein. Secondly, 
I also accept in Erasistratus' s stiitement the expression 
which precedes " through the sides." What does 
this say ? " The nutriment being attracted through 
the sides of the vessels." Now I, too, agree that 
it is attracted, but it has been previously shown that 
this is not through the tendency of evacuated 
matter to be replaced. 


Let us, then, consider together how it is attracted. 
ΗοΛΥ else than in the >vay that iron is attracted by 

- "Spiritus animalis" ; cf. p. 152, note 1. The nutriment 
wa3 for the loalls of the vessels, not for their cavities, c/. 
p. 319, note 3. jgr 


Βύναμιν €χούση<; ίλκτικην τοιαύτης ττοιότητος; 
αλλ,' et την μ^ν άρχην της άνα86σ€ως ή της 
κοιλίας βνθΧιψις τταρεχεται, την Be μβτα ταντα 
φοράν αττασαν αϊ τ€ φΧέββς ττεριστβΧλόμεναι και 
Ίτροωθοΰσαΐ καϊ των τρεφομένων εκαστον έτησττω- 
μενον εις εαυτό, της ττρος το κενού μενον ακο- 
λουθίας άτΓοστάντες, ως ου πρεττούσης άν8ρΙ 
τεχνικην υτΓοθεμενω την φύσιν, οΰτως αν η8η 
και την avTikcy'iav εϊημεν ττεφευγότες την 
*Ασκ\ηπιάΒου μη δυνάμενοι <γε Χύειν αυτήν, το 
<γαρ εις την άττόδειξιν τταραΧαμβανόμενον Χήμμα 
το Ζιεζευ'^ μενον ουκ εκ 8υοΐν αλλ' εκ τριών εστί 
κατά γε την αλήθειαν Βιεζευ'^μενον. ει μεν ουν 
107 ώ9 εκ Βυοΐν αύτω χρη\\σαίμ€θα, ψεΰΒος εσται τι 
των 649 την άττοΒειξιν τταρειλημμενων ει δ' ώ9 εκ 
τριών, απέραντος 6 λόγο9 Ύενήσεται. 


Και ταΰτ* ουκ εχρήν οιηνοείν τον ^Ερασίστρα- 
τον, εϊττερ καν οναρ ττοτε τοις εκ του ττεριττάτου 
συνετυγ^εν, ωσττερ ουν ούΒε τα ττερϊ της <^ενεσεως 
των -χυμών, ύττερ ών ουΒεν έχων ειπείν ούΒε 
μέχρι του μετρίου ττιθανον οϊεται τταρακρούεσθαι 
σκητΓτόμενος, ως ούΒέ χρήσιμος οΧως εστίν ή 
τών τοιούτων επίσκεψις. ειτ, ώ ττρος θεών, 
οττως μεν τα σιτία κατά την γαστέρα ττέττεται 
χρήσιμον εττίστασθαι, ττώς δ' εν ταΐς φΧεψιν ή 



the lodestone, the latter having a faculty attractive 
of this particular quality [existing in iron] ?i But if 
the beginning of anadosis depends on the squeezing 
action of the stomach/^ and the Λvhole movement 
thereafter on the peristalsis and propulsive action of 
the veins, as well as on the traction exerted by each 
of the parts which are undergoing nourishment, then 
we can abandon the principle of replacement of 
evacuated matter, as not being suitable for a man 
who assumes Nature to be a skilled artist ; thus we 
shall also have avoided the contradiction of Asclepi- 
ades^ though we cannot refute it: for the disjunctive 
argument used for the purp>oses of demonstration 
is, in reality, disjunctive not of two but of three 
alternatives ; now, if Λve treat the disjunction as a 
disjunction of ίλνο alternatives, one of the two 
propositions assumed in constructing our proof must 
be false ; and if as a disjunctive of three alternatives, 
no conclusion will be arrived at. 


Now Erasistratus ought not to have been ignorant 
of this if he had ever had anything to do with the 
Peripatetics — even in a dream. Nor, similarly, should 
he have been unacquainted with the genesis of the 
humours, about which, not having even anything 
moderately plausible to say, he thinks to deceive us 
by the excuse that the consideration of such matters 
is not the least useful. Then, in Heaven's name, is it 
useful to know how food is digested in the stomach, 
but unnecessary to know how bile comes into existence 

* Specific attraction ; cf. Book I. , chap. xiv. 

« <if. p. 100, note 2. «In Book Π., chap. L 



χοΧη jLyverai, 7Γ€ριττόν; και της κενώσεως αρα 
φρονηστεον αυτής μόνης, άμεΚητεον Be της 
/γενέσεως; ωσττερ ουκ άμεινον υττάρ-χον μακρω 
το κωΧύειν ευθύς εξ αρχής yevvaaOai ττΚείονα 
του ττρά'γματ εχειν εκκενοΰντας. θαυμαστον Be 
καΐ το ΒιατΓορεΐν, εϊτ^ εν τω σώματι, την /γενεσιν 
αυτής νττοθετεον εϊτ ευθύς έξωθεν ev τοΐς σιτίοις 
ττερίεχεσθαι φατεον. ει yap Βη τούτο κάΧώς 
ήτΓορηται, τί- ούχϊ καΐ ττερί του α'ίματος εττισκε- 
108 ψόμεθα, ττότερον εν τω σώματι \\ λαμβάνει την 
Ύενεσιν ή τοΐς σιτίοις τταρεστταρται, καθάττερ οι 
τάς όμοιομερείας υποτιθέμενοι φασι; καΐ μην 
ΤΓολλω γ' ν^ χρησιμώτερον ζητεΐσθαι, ττοΐα των 
σιτιων ομοΧο'γεΐ τγι τής αίματώσεως evepyeia καΐ 
•ποία Βιαφερεται, του ζητεΐν, τίνα μεν τη τής 
ιγαστρος evεpyεLa νικαται ραΒίως, τίνα δ' αντι- 
βαίνει καΐ μάχεται, τούτων μεν yap ή εκΧεξις 
εις ττεψιν μόνην, εκείνων δ' εις αίματος χρηστού 
Βιαφερει yεvεσιv. ούΒε yap ίσον εστίν ή μη 
κα\ώς εν τη yaστpl χυΧωθήναι την τροώην η 
μη χρηστον αίμα yεvvηθήvaι. ττώς δ' ούκ αΙΒεΙται 
τας μεν τής ττεψεως αποτυχίας Βιαιρούμενος, 
ώς ΤΓοΧΧαι τ εισΐ και κατά ττοΧλας yiyvovTai 
προφάσεις, ύπερ Βε των τής αίματώσεως σφαΧ- 
μάτων ούδ' άχρι ρήματος ενός ούδ' άχρι συΧΧαβής 
μιας φθeyξάμεvoς; καΐ μην ευρίσκεται γε και 
παχύ καΐ Χετττον εν ταΐς φΧεψΙν αίμα καΐ τοΐς 
μεν ερυθρότερον, τοΐς Βε ξανθότερον, τοΐς Βε 
μεΧάντερον, τοΐς Βε φXεyμaτωBeστεpov. ει δ' οτι 

^ Prevention better than cure. 

" e.(/. Anaxagoras ; ς/", p. 7, note 5 ; p. 20, note 3. 

3 Lit. haematoaie. * cf. p. 174, note 4. 

1 68 


in the veins ? Are we to pay attention merely to 
the evacuation of tliis humour, and not to its genesis ? 
As though it were not far better to prevent its 
excessive development from the beginning than to 
give ourselves all the trouble of expelling it! ^ And 
it is a strange thing to be entirely unaΛvare as to 
whether its genesis is to be looked on as taking 
place in the body, or whether it comes from without 
and is contained in the food. For, if it was right to 
raise this problem, why should we not make 
investigations concerning the blood as well — Avhether 
it takes its origin in the body, or is distributed 
througli the food as is maintained by those who 
postulate homceomenes ? - Assuredly it would be much 
more useful to investigate what kinds of food are 
suited, and Avhat kinds unsuited, to the process of 
blood-production 3 rather than to enquire into 
what articles of diet are easily mastered by the 
activity of the stomach, and what resist and contend 
with it. For the choice of the latter bears reference 
merely to digestion, while that of the former is of 
importance in regard to the generation of useful 
blood. For it is not equally important whether the 
aliment be imperfectly chylified ^ in the stomach or 
whether it fail to be turned into useful blood. 
Why is Erasistratus not ashamed to distinguish all 
the various kinds of digestive failure and all the 
occasions which give rise to them, whilst in reference 
to the errors of blood-production he does not utter a 
single word — nay, not a syllable ? Now, there is 
certainly to be found in the veins both thick and 
thin blood ; in some people it is redder, in others 
yellower, in some blacker, in others more of the 
nature of phlegm. And one who realizes that it 

Η l69 


Koi δασώδες ούχ eva τρόττον άλλ' iv ττολλαΐ? 

109 ττανν Βιαφοραΐ^ άρρήτοις μ,βν λόγω, σα|]φ€στάταί9 
δ' αίσθησζσι φαίνεται <^ι^νόμ€νον, εί^βίη τις, ουκ 
αν οΊμαι μετρίως ετι κατα^νώσεσθαι της *Ερα- 
σιστράτον ραθυμίας αύτον ούτω γ' avajKaiav 
€ΐς τα epya της τίχνης θεωρίαν τταραΧίΤτόντος. 

Έναρ-γή yap 8η και τα irepl των ύΒβρων αμαρ- 
τήματα ττ} ραθυαια ταύττ} κατά \6yov ηκοΚουθη- 
κοτα. το τ€ yap Trj στ€νοχ^ωρία των ό8ών 
κωΧυεσθαι νομιζβιν ττρόσω του ηττατος levai το 
αίμα καΐ μη^ίττοτ αν αΧλως ΰδερον Βύνασθαι 
συστήναι ττώς ουκ εσχάτην ένΒείκνυται ραθυμίαν; 
το τ€ μη Sia τον σττΧηνα μηΒβ δί' άΧλο τι μόριον, 
αλλ' ael Sia τον ev τω ηττατί σκίρρον uSepov 
οϊεσθαι yiyveaOai τέΚίως apyoO την 8ιάνοιαν 
άΐ'θρώτΓου και μηδενϊ των οσημίραι yLyvoμkvωv 
τταρακόΧουθοΰντος. eVt μεν ye -χ^ρονίαις αίμορ- 
ροισιν έτΓίσχ^βθεισαις η 8ια κβνωσιν άμετρον εΙς 
ψΰξιν €σχ^άτην άyayoύσaίς τον άνθρωττον ούχ 
ατταξ ούΒβ ΒΙς άλλα ττοΧλάκις ηΖη τεθβάμβθα 
συστάντας υΖίρους, ωσττερ ye και yυvaιξlv ή re 
της βφ εκάστω μηνϊ καθάρσεως άττώλεια τταν- 
τεΧης καΐ άμετρος κενωσις, 'όταν aίμoppayήσωσί 

110 Ίτοθ^ αΐ μητραι σφοΒρώς, εττεκαΧεσαντο 7Γθλ||λά/ίί9 
ΰΒερον και τισιν αυτών και ό yυvaικεloς ονομα- 
ζόμενος ρους εις τούτ ετεΧεύτησε το ττάθος, ϊνα 

* Erasistratus held the spleen to be useless, cf. p. 143. 

' Induration : Gk. skirros, Lat. scirrhus. The condition is 
now commonly known by Laennec's term cirrhone, from 
Gk. kirroH, meaning yellow or tawny. Here again we have an 
example of Erasistratus's bias towards anatomical or structural 
rather than functional explanations of disease, cf. p. 124, note 1. 



may smell offensively not in one way only, but in a 
great many different respects (which cannot be put 
into words, although perfectly appreciable to the 
senses), would, I imagine, condemn in no measured 
terms the carelessness of Erasistratus in omitting 
a consideration so essential to the practice of our 

Thus it is clear what errors in regard to the 
subject of dropsies logically follow this carelessness. 
For, does it not shoΛv the most extreme carelessness 
to suppose that the blood is prevented from going 
forward into the liver owing to the narrowness of the 
passages, and that dropsy can never occur in any 
other way ? For, to imagine that dropsy is never 
caused by the spleen ^ or any other part, but always by 
induration of the Uver,^ is the standpoint of a man 
whose intelligence is perfectly torpid and who is 
quite out of touch \vith things that happen every 
day. For, not merely once or tAvice, but frequently, 
we have observed dropsy produced by chronic 
haemorrhoids which have been suppressed,^ or 
which, through immoderate bleeding, have given 
the patient a severe chill ; similarly, in \vomen, the 
complete disappearance of the monthly discharge,* 
or an undue evacuation such as is caused by 
violent bleeding from the >vomb, often provoke 
dropsy ; and in some of them the so-called female 
flux ends in this disorder. I leave out of account 

' On the risks whicli were supposed to attend the checking 
of habitual bleeding from piles rf. Celsus (De Re Med. VI. 
xviii. 9), " Atque in quibusdam parum tuto supprimitur, qui 
sanguinis profluvio imbecilliores non fiunt ; habent enim 
purgationem banc, non morbum." (i.e. the habit was to be 
looked on as a periodical cleansing, not as a disease.) 

* Lit. cathamie. 



τονζ αττο των κενεώνων άρ'χομ.βνον^ η αΚ\ου τινός 
των επικαίρων μορίων ν^βρους τταραλίπω, σαφώς 
μεν καΐ αυτούς εζεΚβγχοντ ας την ^Ερασιστράτειον 
υπόΧηψιν, αλλ' ούχ^ οΰτως evap'yώς ως οι 8ιά 
κατάψνξιν σφοΒράν της 6\ης βξεως άττοτέλον- 
μενοι. ττρώτη yap αΰτη γενέσεως ΰΖερων αιτία 
8ια την άτΓοτυχ^ιαν της αίματωσεως <γι^νομ€νη 
τρόπον ομοιότατον ταΐς επΙ ττ} των σιτίων άπε- 
ψια Ζιαρροίαις. ου μην εσκίρρωταί <γε κατά τους 
τοιούτους ύΒερους ούδ' άλΧο τι σπΧά^χνον ούΒε 
το ήπαρ. 

Αλλ' ^Ερασίστρατος 6 σοφός υπερώων και 
καταφρονησας, ων ουθ' Ιπποκράτης οΰτε Αιο- 
κΧής οΰτε ΙΙραξα'γόρας οΰτε ΦιΧιστίων αλλ' ού8ε 
των αρίστων φιΧοσόφων ούΒεϊς κατεφρόνησεν 
οΰτε Πλάτων οΰτ * ΚριστοτεΧης οΰτε Θεόφραστος, 
οΧας ενεργείας υπερβαίνει καθάπερ τι σμικρόν 
και το τυχ^ον της τέ-χνης παραΧιπων μέρος ούδ' 
111 άντειπεΐν άξιο)σας, εϊτ ορθώς εϊτε και μη \\ σύμ- 
παντες ούτοι θερμω και ψυχ^ρώ καΐ ζηρώ και 
ύγρω, τοΙς μεν ως δρώσι, τοις δ' ώ9 πάσχ^ουσι, 
τα κατά το σώμα τών ζωών απάντων Βιοικεΐσθαί 
φασι και ώς το θερμον εν αύτοΐς εις τε τάς άΧΧας 
ενεργείας και μάΧιστ εΙς την τών χυμών <^ενεσιν 
το πΧεΐστον δύναται. άΧΧα το μεν μη πείθε- 
σθαι τοσούτοις τε και τηΧικούτοις άνδράσι και 
πΧεον αυτών οϊεσθαί τι ^ιηνωσκειν ανεμεσητον, 
το δε μητ άντιΧοηίας άξιώσαι μήτε μνήμης οΰτως 
ενΒοξον ΒοΎμα θαυμαστήν τίνα την ύπεροψίαν 

* Apparently some form of anaemia. 


the dropsy which begins in tlie flanks or in any 
other susceptible part ; this clearly confutes Erasi- 
stratus's assumption, although not so obviously as 
does that kind of dropsy which is brought about 
by an excessive chilling of the Λvhole constitution ; 
this, which is the primary reason for the occurrence 
of dropsy, results from a failure of blood-production,^ 
very much like the diarrhoea Avhich follows im- 
perfect digestion of food ; certainly in this kind of 
dropsy neither the liver nor any other viscus 
becomes indurated. 

The learned Erasistratus, however, overlooks — 
nay, despises — what neither Hippocrates, Diodes, 
Praxagoras, nor Philistion ^ despised, nor indeed any 
of the best philosophers, whether Plato, Aristotle, or 
Theophrastus ; he passes by whole functions as 
though it were but a trifling and casual department 
of medicine Λvhich he was neglecting, without 
deigning to argue whether or not these authorities 
are right in saying that the bodily parts of all 
animals are governed by the Warm, the Cold, the 
Dry and the Moist, the one pair being active and the 
other passive, and that among these the Warm has 
most power in connection with all functions, but 
especially with the genesis of the humours.^ Now, 
one cannot be blamed for not agreeing Λvith all these 
great men, nor for imagining that one knows more 
than they ; but not to consider such distinguished 
teaching worthy either of contradiction or even 
mention shows an extraordinary arrogance. 

2 Philistion of Locri, a contemporary of Plato, was one of 
the chief representatives of the Sicilian school of medicine. 
For Diodes and Praxagoras see p. 51, note 1. 

• cf. Book I., chap. iii. 



Και μην σμικρότατό^ Ιστι την 'γνώμην καϊ 
ταττανο'ζ εσχάτω? ev άττάσαι^; ταΓς avTiXoyiaK iv 
μεν Tot<? Trepl τή<; ττέψεως λόγοί? Tot9 σηττεσθαι 
τά σίτία νομίζουσι φιλοτίμως άντιΚί^ων, iv he 
τοις irepl της άναΒοσβως τοις 8ta την τταράθεσιν 
των αρτηριών άνα8ί8οσθαι το δίά των φΧεβών 
αίμα νομίζονσιν, ev δε τοΙς Trepl της άναττνοης 
τοις '7Γεριωθ€Ϊσθαι τον aepa φάσκουσιν. ουκ 
ωκιησε δ' ovSe τοις άτμοβώως et? την κύστιν 
ievai τα ουρά νομίζουσιν avTemelv oiSk τοις eh || 
112 τον πνεύμονα φέρεσθαι το ττοτόν. ούτως iv απασι 
τας ■χ^ειρίστας έ7Γΐλε<γόμενος Βοξας aydWeTai 8ία- 
τρίβων €τγΧ ττλέον iv ταΐς άντιΧο'γίαις' iirl 8e της 
του αίματος 'γενάσεως ούΒεν άτιμοτέρας ούσης της 
iv Ty ΎαστρΙ γυΧώσεως των σιτίων ούτ avTenretv 
τινι των πρεσβυτέρων ηξιωσεν ούτ αύτος είση- 
Ύησασθαί τιν έτερον ηνωμην iτoλ,μησεv, 6 ττερ] 
ττασων των φυσικών ενεργειών iv άργΐι των καθό- 
\ου Χό^ων υποσχόμενος ερεΐν, οττως τε yiyvovTai 
καϊ 8ι ωντίνων του ζώου μορίων, η της μεν 
ττεττειν τα σιτία ττεφυκυίας 8υνάμρως άρρωστου- 
σης άττετττησει το ζωον, της δ' αίματούσης τα 
ττεφθ^ντα ούΒεν εσται ττάθημα το τταράτταν, αλλ' 
αδαμαντίνη τις ημίν αύτη μόνη και άτταθης εστίν; 
η αλΧο τι της αρρώστιας αυτής εκ^ονον υττάρξει 

^ Gk. pepsis ; otherwise rendered coclion. 

• c/. p. 13, note 5. * e.g. Asclepiades. 

• Lit. chylosia; cf. p. 238, note 2. 

• That 13 to say, the haematopoietic function deserves 



Now, Erasistratus is thoroughly small-minded and 
petty to the last degree in all his disputations — 
when, for instance, in" his treatise " On Digestion," ^ 
he argues jealously with those λυΙιο consider that 
this is a process of putrefaction of the food ; and, 
in his work "On Anadosis," ^ with those who think 
that the anadosis of blood through the veins results 
from the contiguity of the arteries ; also, in his 
work "On Respiration," with those Λνΐιο maintain 
that the air is forced along by contraction. Nay, 
he did not even hesitate to contradict those who 
maintain that the urine passes into the bladder in a 
vaporous state,^ as also those who say that imbibed 
fluids are carried into the lung. Thus he delights 
to choose always the most valueless doctrines, and 
to spend his time more and more in contradicting 
these ; whereas on the subject of the ongin of blood 
(which is in no way less important than the chylifi- 
cation * of food in the stomach) he did not deign to 
dispute with any of the ancients, nor did he himself 
venture to bring forward any other opinion, despite 
the fact that at the beginning of his treatise on 
" General Principles " he undertook to say how all the 
various natural functions take place, and through 
what parts of the animal ! Now, is it possible that, 
when the faculty which naturally digests food is 
weak, the animal's digestion fails, whereas the 
faculty which turns the digested food into blood 
cannot suffer any kind of impairment ? * Are we to 
suppose this latter faculty alone to be as tough as 
steel and unaffected by circumstances? Or is it 
that weakness of this faculty wiU result in some- 

consideratioD as mueh u tbe digestive prooesaee which pre- 
cede it 



κα\ ούχ vSepo<;; 8ή\ος ουν ivapycu<i έστιν 6 ^Ερα- 
σίστρατος έξ ων ev μεν τοις άλλοις ούδε ταΐς 
)αυ\οτάταις Βόξαις avriXiyeiv ώκνησεν, €νταυθοΐ 
5 ούτ avTeiirelv τοΐς ττρόσθβν οντ αύτος elireiv 
τι καινον 6το\μησ€, το σφάλμα της €αυτοΰ γνωρί- 
ζων αίρβσεως. 

Ύί <γάρ αν καΐ \eyeiv εσ'χεν vrrep αίματος \\ 
113 άνθρωπος εις μηΒεν τω σνμφύτω θερμω χρω- 
μενος; τι he ττερί ξανθ?ις χολής η μέλαινης η 
φλέγματος; 'ότι νη Αία Βυνατόν εστίν άναμεμνγ- 
μένην τοΐς σιτίοις ευθύς έξωθεν τταραγίγνεσθαι 
την χολην. \e<yei jovv ώδε ττως αύτοίς ονόμασί' 
" ΐΐότερον δ' εν τη ττερί την κοιλίαν κατεργασία 
της τροφής γεννάται τοιαύτη υγρασία ή μεμιγ- 
μίνη τοΐς έξωθεν ττροσφερομενοίς τταραγίγνεται, 
ού8εν χρησιμον ττρος Ιατρικην εττεσκεφθαν^ καΐ 
μην, ω γενναιότατε, καΐ κενουσθαι χρήναι φάσ- 
κεις εκ του ζώου τον χυμον τούτον καΐ μεγάλως 
λνπεΐν, ei μη κενωθείη. ττώς ουν ούΒεν εξ αύτον 
χρηστον υττολαμβάνων γίγνεσθαι τοΧμάς άχρη- 
στον λέγειν εΙς ιατρικην είναι την ττερΙ τής γενέ- 
σεως αυτοί) σκέψιν; 

'ΎτΓοκείσθω γαρ εν μεν τοΐς σιτίοις ττερι- 
έχεσθαι, μη Βιακρινεσθαι δ' ακριβώς εν ήττατί' 
ταΰτα γαρ αμφότερα νομίζεις είναι Βυνατά. και 
μην ου σμικρόν ενταύθα το Βιαφέρον η ελαχίστην 
ή τταμττόλλην χολην εν εαυτοΐς ττεριέχοντα 
ττροσάρασθαι σιτία. τα μεν γαρ άκίνΒννα, τά Βε 
τταμττόλλην περιέχοντα τω μη Βύνασθαι πάσαν 

'^ i.e. Erasistratus could obviously say nothing about any 
of tbo humours or their origins, since he had not postulated 



thing else than dropsy ? The fact, therefore, that 
Erasistratus, in regard to other matters, did not 
hesitate to attack even the most trivial views, whilst 
in this case he neither dared to contradict his 
predecessors nor to advance any new view of his 
own, proves plainly that he recognized the faUacy 
of his own way of thinking.^ 

For Avhat could a man possibly say about blood 
who had no use for innate heat ? What could he say 
about yelloΛv or black bile, or phlegm? Well, of 
course, he might say that the bile could come 
directly from Λvithout, mingled with the food ! Thus 
Erasistratus practically says so in the followir.g 
words : " It is of no value in practical medicine to 
find out Avhether a fluid of this kind ^ arises from 
the elaboration of food in the stomach-region, or 
whether it reaches the body because it is mixed with 
the food taken in from outside." But, my very good 
Sir, you most certainly maintain also that this 
humour has to be evacuated from the animal, and 
that it causes great pain if it be not evacuated. 
How, then, if you suppose that no good comes from 
the bile, do you venture to say that an investigation 
into its origin is of no value in medicine ? 

Well, let us suppose that it is contained in the 
food, and not specifically secreted in the liver (for 
you hold these two things possible). In this case, 
it will certainly make a considerable difference 
whether the ingested food contains a minimum or 
a maximum of bile ; for the one kind is harmless, 
whereas that containing a large quantity of bile, 
owing to the fact that it cannot be properly purified ^ 

the four qualities (particularly the Warm — that is, innate 
heat). • ve. biie. • i.e. deprived of its bile. 



Ιϋαύτην €ν\\η7Γατι καθαρΘηναι, κάλώ<ί αϊτια κατα- 
στησεταί των τ αΧλων τταθών, ων αύτο? ο 
'Ερασίστρατο? eVi ττΧήθβι χοΧή<; yLyveaOai φησι, 
καΐ των ίκτερων ούχ ηκιστα. ττώς ουν ουκ 
αναηκαώτατον Ιατρω ηιηνωσκζίν, ιτρωτον μεν, 
ώ9 εν τοΓς σιτίοις αύτοΐ<; έξωθεν ή χοΧη ττερι- 
έ-χεται, δεύτερον δ', ώ<? το μεν τεντΧον, εΐ τύχοι, 
τταμττόΧλην, 6 δ' άρτος εΧαχίστην καΐ το μεν 
eXaiov ΊτΧείστην, 6 δ' οίνος όλίγιστί;ι/ εκαστόν 
re των αλΧων άνισον τψ ιτΧηθει ττεριεχει την 
γοΧην; Ίτως yap ουκ αν εϊη -γεΧοώτατος, ος αν 
εκών αίρήται τα τΓΧείονα χοΧην εν εαυτοΐς 'περι- 
έχοντα ττρο των ενάντιων; 

Ύί δ' ei μη -ττεριέχεται μεν εν τοις σιτίοις ή 
χοΧη, ηί^νεται δ' εν τοις των ζώων σωμασιν; η 
ούγΐ καΐ κατά τούτο γρησιμον εττίστασθαι,. τίνι 
μ€ν καταστασει σώματος εττεται ττΧειων αυτής η 
<Ίενεσις, τίνι δ' έΧάττων; άΧΧοιοΰν yap Ζηττου καΧ 
μεταβάΧΧειν οΙοί τ εσμεν καΐ τρεττειν εττΐ το 
βέΧτιον άεΐ τάς μοχθηρας καταστάσεις του σώ- 
ματος, αλλ' ει μη yιyvώσκotμεv, καθότι μοχθηραΐ 
καΐ οττη της Βεούσης εξίστανται, ττώς αν αύτας 

\\5εΊravάyειv οΙοί τ εϊημεν εττΐ το || κρύττον; 

Οΰκουν άχρηστόν εστίν εις τας ιάσεις, ώς 
^Ερασίστρατος φησιν, εττίστασθαι τάΧηθες αυτό 
ττερι yεvέσεως χοΧης. ου μην ούδ' άδύι^ατοί' ούδ' 
ασαφές έξευρείν, οτι μη τω ττΧείστην εν εαυτω 
ττεριεχειν το μεΧι την ξανθην χοΧην αλλ' εν τω 
σώματι μεταβαΧΧόμενον εις αυτήν άΧΧοιοΰται τε 
και τρεττεται. ττικρόν re yap αν ην yεvoμevoις, 
ei χοΧην έξωθεν ευθύς εν εαυτω ττεριεΐχεν άττασί 
τ αν ωσαύτως τοις άνθρώττοις ίσον αυτής εyεvva 



in the liver, will result in the various affections — 
particularly jaundice — which Erasistratus himself 
states to occur Avhere there is much bile. Surely, . 
then, it is most essential for the piiysician to knoAv \| 
in the first place, that the bUe is contained in the y 
food itself from outside, and, secondly, that for 
example, beet contains a great deal of bile, and 
bread very little, while olive oU contains most, and 
wine least of all, and all the other articles of diet 
different quantities. Would it not be absurd for 
any one to choose voluntarily those articles •which 
contain more bile, rather than those containing less? 

What, however, if the bile is not contained in the 
food, but comes into existence in the animal's body ? 
Will it not also be useful to know Λvhat siaie of the 
body is followed by a greater, and what by a smaller 
occurrence of bile .'' ^ For obviously it is in our 
p>ower to alter and transmute morbid states of the 
body — in fact, to give them a turn for the better. 
But if we did not know in what respect they Avere 
morbid or in Λvhat way they diverged from the 
normal, how should we be able to ameUorate them ? 

Therefore it is not useless in treatment, as 
Erasistratus says, to kno\v the actual truth about 
the genesis of bile. Certainly it is not impossible, 
or even difficult to discover that the reason why 
honey produces yelloAv bile is not that it contains a 
large quantity of this within itself, but because it 
[the honey] undergoes change, becoming altered 
and transmuted into bile. For it would be bitter 
to the taste if it contained bile from the outset, 
and it would produce an equal quantity of bile 

' Here it is rather the living organism we consider than 
the particular food that is put into it. 



το ττΧηθοζ. αλλ' ουγ^ ώδ' βχ^βί τάληθβς. iv μ€ν 
yap TOt? άκμάζουσι καΙ μάΧιστ el φύσ€ί θερμό- 
τεροι καΐ βίον elev βωΰντβς ταΧαίττωρον, άτταν 
et9 ξανθην χοΧην μεταβάΧλεί το μέλι• τοΐ^ 
yepouai δ' ίκανώ<{ εστίν βττιτήΒειον, ως αν ουκ eh 
χοΧην αλλ €ΐς αίμα την άΧΧοίωσιν iv εκείνοι^; 
Χαμβάνον. Έρασ/στρατο9 δε 7rpo<i τω μηδέν 
τούτων yiyvcoaKeiv ovSe ττερί την διαίρεσιν του 
Xoyov σωφρονεΐ, ττοτβρον εν τοΐ<ζ σιτίοις η χοΧη 
ττεριεχεται εύθύ^ εξ αρχής ή κατά, την εν τη 
κοιΧια κaτεpyaσιav iyiveTo, μηδέν είναι χρήσι- 
116 μον εις ιατρικην εττεσκεφθαι Xεyωv. εχρήν \\ yap 
δητΓον ττροσθεΐναί τι καΐ ττερΙ της εν ήττατι και 
φΧεψϊ y ενέσεως αυτής, εν τοΐσδε τοις όpyάvoις 
yεvvάσθaι την χόΧην άμα τω αίματι των τταΧαιων 
ιατρών τε και φιΧοσοφων άττοφηναμενων. αλλά 
τοις ευθύς εξ αρχής σφαΧεΐσι καϊ διαμαρτάνουσι 
τής ορθής οδού τοιαύτα τε Χηρεΐν avayKaiov εστί 
και ττροσετι των χρησιμωτάτων εις την τεχνην 
τταραΧιττεΐν την ζήτησιν. 

Ηδεω9 δ' αν ενταύθα του Xayou yεyovώς 
ηρομην τους ομιΧήσαι φάσκοντας αύτον εττϊ 
ττΧεΙστον τοις εκ του ττεριττάτου φιΧοσόφοις, ει 
yιyvώσκoυσιv, οσα ττερι του κεκράσθαι τά σώμαθ^ 
ημών εκ θερμού καϊ ψυχρού καϊ ξηροΰ καϊ iypou 
προς ^ΑριστοτεΧους εϊρηταί τε καϊ άττοδεδεικται, 
καϊ ώς το θερμον εν αύτοΐς εστί το δραστικώτατον 
καϊ ώς των ζωών οσα μεν θερμότερα φύσει, ταύτα 
πάντως εναιμα, τά δ' επϊ πΧεον -ψυγρότερα 
πάντως αναιμα και οια τούτο του χειμωνος apya 

1 8ο 


in every person λυΗο took it. The facts, ΗοΛνενβΓ, 
are not so.^ For in those who are in the prime 
of life, especially if they are warm by nature and 
are leading a life of toil; the honey changes entirely 
into yellow bile. Old people, however, it suits well 
enough, inasmuch as the alteration which it under- 
goes is not into bile, but into blood. Erasistratus, 
however, in addition to knowing nothing about this, 
shows no intelligence even in the division of his 
argument ; he says that it is of no practical impor- 
tance to investigate whether the bile is contained 
in the food from the beginning or comes into exist- 
ence as a result of gastric digestion. He ought 
surely to have added something about its genesis in 
liver and veins, seeing that the old physicians and 
philosophers declare that it along with the blood is 
generated in these organs. But it is inevitable that 
people who, from the very outset, go astray, and 
wander from the right road, should talk such 
nonsense, and should, over and above this, neglect 
to search for the factors of most practical importance 
in medicine. 

Having come to this point in the argument, I 
should like to ask those Avho declare that Erasistratus 
was very familiar with the Peripatetics, whether 
they know what Aristotle stated and demonstrated 
Avith regard to our bodies being compounded out of 
the Warm, the Cold, the Dry and the Moist, and 
how he says that among these the Warm is the most 
active, and that those animals which are by nature 
warmest have abundance oi blood, whilst those that 
are colder are entirely lacking in blood, and con- 
sequently in winter lie idle and motionless, lurking 

1 Supreme importance of the "soil." c/. Introduction, 
pp. xii. and xxxi. _. 



καϊ ακίνητα κείται φω\€ύοντα 8ίκην νεκρών, 
εϊρηταί 8e καϊ ττερί τ?}9 χροιάς του αίματος ουκ 
^ΑριστοτέΧβί μόνον, αλλά καϊ ΐΙΧάτωνι. και, 

ΐη ημβΐς νυν, οττβρ ή8η καϊ ττρόσθβν είττον, \\ ου τα 
καΧώς άττοδβ^βΐ'γμβνα τοις τταΧαιοΐς Xiyeiv ττρού- 
θάμβθα, μήτε τγι Ύνώμτ) μήτε τή Χεξει τους αν8ρας 
εκείνους υττερβαΧεσθαι δυνάμενοι' τά δ' ήτοι 
χωρίς άτΓοΒείξεως ώς εναργή ττρος αυτών ειρημενα 
8ια το μη8^ υττονοησαι μοχθηρούς ούτως εσεσθαί 
τινας σοφιστάς, ο'ί καταφ ρονήσουσι της εν αύτοΐς 
αληθείας, η και τΓαραΧεΧειμμενα τεΧεως υττ 
εκείνων άξιοΰμεν εύρίσκειν τε καϊ άττοΒεικνύναι. 

ΐίερϊ 8ε της των χυμών γενέσεως ουκ οί8,εί 
έχει τις έτερον ττροσθεΐναι σοφώτερον ων Ιττπο- 
νράτης είττε καϊ ^Αριστοτέλης καϊ ΐΐραξαγορας 
καϊ ΦιΧότιμος καϊ aXTwi ττοΧΧοϊ τών τταΧαιών. 
ά'πο8ε8εικται yap εκείνοις τοις αν8ράσιν άΧΧοιου- 
μενης της τροφής εν ταΐς φΧεψϊν ύπο της έμφυτου 
θερμασίας αίμα μεν υττο της συμμετρίας της κατ 
αυτήν, οι δ' άΧΧοι χνμοϊ 8ια τας άμετριας <γι- 
γνόμενοί' καϊ τούτω τω Χόγω ττάνθ^ ομοΧογεΐ τα 
φαινόμενα, καϊ γαρ τών ε8εσμάτων οσα μεν εστί 
θερμότερα φύσει, χοΧω8εστερα, τα 8ε ψυχρότερα 
φΧεγματικώτερα• καϊ τών ήΧικιών ωσαύτως χο- 

η8Χω8εστε\\ραι μεν αϊ θερμότεραι φύσει, φΧεγμα- 
τω8εστεραι δ' ai ψυχρότεραι- καϊ τών εττιτηΒευ- 
μάτων 8ε καϊ τών χωρών καϊ τών ωρών και ττοΧυ 
8ή ττρότερον ετι τών φύσεων αυτών αι μεν ψυ- 
χρότεραι φΧεγματω8έστεραι, χο\ω8εστεραι δ' αι 

ι Aristotle, Hitt. Animal., iu. xix. ; Plato, Timaeua, 80ε. 


in holes like corpses. Further, the question of the 
colour of the blood has been dealt with not only by 
Aristotle but also by Plato.^ ΝοΛν I, for my part, 
as I have already said, did not set before myself 
the task of stating what has been so Avell demon- 
strated by the Ancients, since I cannot surpass 
these men either in my views or in my method of 
giving them expression. Doctrines, however, which 
they either stated without demonstration, as being 
self-evident (since they never suspected that there 
could be sophists so degraded as to contemn the 
truth in these matters), or else which they actually 
omitted to mention at all — these I propose to dio- 
cover and prove. 

Now in reference to the genesis of ike humours, I 
do not know that any one could add anything wiser 
than what has been said by Hippocrates, Aristotle, 
Praxagoras, Pliilotimus '^ and many other among the 
Ancients. These men demonstrated that when the 
nutriment becomes altered in the veins by the innate 
heat, blood is produced when it is in moderation, 
and the other humours Avhen it is not in proper 
proportion. And all the observed facts ^ agree with 
this argument. Thus, those articles of food, which 
are by nature warmer are more productive of bile, 
Avhile those which are colder produce more phlegm. 
Similarly of the periods of life, those Λvhich are 
naturally warmer tend more to bile, and the colder 
more to phlegm. Of occupations also, localities and 
seasons, and, above all, of natures * themselves, the 
raider are more phlegmatic, and the warmer more 

' Philotimus succeeded Diocles and Praxagoras, who were 
successive leaders of the Hippocratic echooL ς/", p. 51, note 1. 

• Lit. j'htnomena. 

* i.e. liTing organisma ; cf. p. 47, note 1. 



θβρμότεραΐ' καΐ νοσημάτων τα μ€ν ψυχ^ρα του 
φλεγ/ζατο? eKjova, τα δε θβρμα της ξανθΡ^ς χοΧής• 
καΐ δλω? ouSev βστιν eupetv των ττάντων, ο μη τούτω 
τω λόγω μαρτυρβΐ. ττω? δ' ου μέΧΧεί; Βιά yap την 
eK των τβττάρων ττοιαν κράσιν εκάστου των μορίων 
ώ8ΰ ττω? ivepyovvTo<i ανάγκη ττάσα καΧ 8ια την 
βΧάβην αυτών ή Βιαφθβίρβσθαι τελεω? -η εμττο- 
8ίζ€σθαί ye την ivipyeiav καΐ οΰτω νοσεΐν το 
ζωον ή οΧον η κατά τα μόρια. 

Και τα ττρώτά ye καϊ yevLKclciTaTa νοσήματα 
τέτταρα τον αριθμόν ύττάρχεί θβρμότητι καϊ 
ψυχρότητι και ξηρότητί καϊ ύypότητι Βιαφβροντα. 
τούτο δε καϊ αυτός ο ^Ειρασίστρατος 6μoXoyeΐ 
καίτοι μη βουΧόμβνος. όταν yap ev τοις ττυρετοΐς 
χβίρους των σίτίων τάς ττάψεις yίyveσθaL Xeyrj, 
119yu,i) 8ίότι της εμφύτου \\ θερμασίας η συμμετρία 
8ιεφθαρται, καθάττερ οι ττρόσθεν ύττεΧάμβανον, 
αλλ' οτί ττεριστεΧΧεσθαί καϊ τρίβειν ή yaaTrjp 
ούχ ομοίως Βύναταί βεβΧαμμενη την ivepyeiav, 
ερεσθαι Ζίκαιον αυτόν, ΰττο τίνος η της yaστpoς 
ivipyeia βεβΧαττται. 

Τενομενου yap, ει τύγοι, βουβώνος εττϊ ττροσ- 
ΤΓταίσματι, ττρϊν μεν ττυρεξαί τον άνθρωττον, 
ουκ αν χείρον η yaστηp ττεψειεν ου yap 
ικανον ην ούΒέτερον αυτών οΰθ^ ό βουβών 
ούτε το εΧκος εμττοΒίσαί τι καϊ βΧάψαι την 
ivipyeiav της κοιλίας' el δε ττυρεξειεν, ευθύς μεν 
αΐ ττεψεις yiyvovTat χείρους, ευθύς δε καϊ την 
ενεργειαν της yaστpoς βεβΧάφθαι φαμεν ορθώς 
Xεyoι'τες. αλλ' ύττο τίνος εβΧάβη, ττροσθεΐναι 

^ Erasistratus rejected the idea of innate heat ; he held 
that the heat of the body was introduced from outside. 


bilious. Also cold diseases result from phlegm, and 
warmer ones from yellow bile. There is not a single 
thing to be found Avhich does not bear \vitness to 
the truth of this account. How could it be other- 
wise .'' For, seeing that every part functions in its 
own special Λvay because of the manner in which 
the four qualities are compounded, it is absolutely 
necessary that the function [activity] should be 
either completely destroyed, or, at least hampered, 
by any damage to the qualities, and that thus the 
animal should fall ill, either as a whole, or in certain 
of its parts. 

Also the diseases which are primary and most 
generic are four in number, and differ from each 
other in warmth, cold, dryness and moisture. Now, 
Erasistratus himself confesses this, albeit uninten- 
tionally ; ^ for when he says that the digestion of food 
becomes worse in fever, not because the innate heat 
has ceased to be in due proportion, as people pre- 
viously supposed, but because the stomach, with its 
activity impaired, cannot contract and triturate as 
before — then, I say, one may justly ask him what 
it is that has impaired the activity of the stomach. 

Thus, for example, when a bubo develops following 
an accidental wound "^ gastric digestion does not 
become impaired until after the patient has become 
fevered; neither the bubo nor the sore of itself 
impedes in any Λvay or damages the activity of the 
stomach. But if fever occurs, the digestion at 
once deteriorates, and we are also right in sa\ing 
that the activity of the stomach at once be- 
comes impaired. We must add, however, by what 

' As a hiiho is a swelling in the groin, we must suppose that 
the WQund referred to would be in the leg or lower abdomen. 



χρί) τω Χόγω. το μ€ν jap βΧκος ούχ οΙόν τ ^ν 
αυτήν βλάτττβιν, ωσττβρ ούδ' 6 βουβών η <γαρ αν 
εβΧαψβ καΐ ττρο του ττυρβτού. el δε μ,η ταύτα, 
8ήΧον, ως ή της θβρμασιας nXeove^ia. 8ύο yap 
ταύτα nrpoaeyeveTO τω βουβώνι, η της κατΰί τα? 
αρτηρίας τε καΐ την καρΒίαν κινήσεως άΧΚοίωσις 
κάΙ η της κατά φύσιν θερμασίας ττΧεονεξία. 
ά\\ ή μβν της κινήσεως άΧΚ,οίωσις ου μόνον ούΒεν 
\20 βλάψει την ivepyeiav της <γα\\στρ6ς, αλλά και 
ττροσωφεΧησει κατ εκείνα των ζωών, Ιν οίς εις 
την ττεψιν ύπεθετο ττΧεΐστον Βύνασθαι το 8ιά των 
αρτηριών εις την κοιλ,ίαν εμττΐτττον ττνεΰμα. Βιά 
Χοιττην ουν ετι καϊ μόνην την άμετρον θερμασίαν 
η βλάβη της ενεργείας τη γαστρι. το μεν yap 
ττνεΰμα σφοΒρότερόν τε καϊ συνεχεστερον καϊ 
ττΧεον εμττίτΓτει νυν ή ττρότερον. ώστε ταύτη 
μεν μάΧλον ττεψει τα 8ια το ττνεΰμα καλώς 
ττέττοντα ζφα, 8ια Χοιττην δ' ετι την τταρα φνσιν 
θερμασίαν άττετϊτησει. το yap καϊ τω ττνεύματι 
φάναι τιν υττάρ-χειν ιδιότητα, καθ* ην ττέττει, 
καττειτα ταύτην ττυρεττοντων διαφθείρεσθαι καθ^ 
έτερον τρόττον εστίν 6μoλoyησaι το άτοπον, 
ερωτηθέντες yap αύθις, ύττο τίνος ηΧΧοιώθη το 
ττνεΰμα, μόνην εξουσιν άττοκρίνεσθαι την τταρα 
φνσιν θερμασίαν καϊ μάΧιστ εττϊ τοΰ κατά την 

^ i.e. fever as a cause of disease, 

* As we should say, "circulatory" changes. 

• This is the "vital spirit" or pneuma which, according 
to Erasistratus and the Pneuniatist school, was elaborated in 
the left ventricle, and thereafter carried by the arteries all 
over the body, there to subserve circulatory processes. It 



it has been impaired. For the wound was not 
capable of impairing it, nor yet the bubo, for, if they 
had been, then they would have caused this damage 
before the fever as well. If it was not these that 
caused it, then it was the excess of heat ' (for these 
t\vo symptoms occurred besides the bubo — an altera- 
tion in the arterial and cardiac movements ^ and an 
excessive development of natural heat). Now the 
alteration of these movements will not merely not 
impair the function of the stomach in any way : it 
will actually prove an additional help among those 
animals in which, according to Erasistratus, the 
pneuma, Avhich is propelled through the arteries and 
into the alimentary canal, is of great service in 
digestion ; ^ there is only left, then, the dispropor- 
tionate heat to account for the damage to the gastric 
activity. For the pneuma is driven in more vigorously 
and continuously, and in greater quantity now than 
before ; thus in this case, the animal whose digestion 
is promoted by pneuma will digest more, whereas 
the remaining factor — abnormal heat — Avill give them 
indigestion. For to say, on the one hand, that the 
pneuma has a certain property by virtue of which it 
promotes digestion, and then to say that this property 
disappears in cases of fever, is simply to admit the 
absurdity. For when they are again asked what it 
is that has altered the pneuma, they will only be 
able to reply, " the abnormal heat," and particularly 
if it be the pneuma in the food canal which is in 

has some analogy with oxygen, but this is also the case with 
the ^'natural spirit "or pneuma, whose seat was the liver 
and which was distriliuted by the veins through the body ; it 

Ϊ resided over the more vegttcUivt processes, ς/", p. 152, note 1 ; 
Qtroduction, p. xxxir. 



κοιΧίαν ovhe yap πΧησιάζβί κατ ovBev τούτο τω 

Καίτοί τι των ζωών εκείνων, iv oh η του πνεύ- 
ματος ΙΒιότης μί^α Βνναται, μνημονεύω, τταρον 
67γ' άνθρώτΓΟίς, iv 0Γ9 ή ovSev ή τταντάττασίν 

121 άμυ\\Βρόν τί κα\ μικρόν ώφβΧεΐ, ττοιεΐσθαί τον 
\oynv; αλλ' οτί μεν εν τοις ττυρετοΐς ούτοι κακώς 
ττεττουσιν, 6μo\oyεΐ κα\ αυτό? καΧ την y αΐτίαν 
ττροστιθείς βεβλάφθαι φησί της γαστρος την 
€vεpyειav. ου μην αλΧην yε τίνα ττρόφασιν της 
βλάβης είττείν εχ^ει ττλην της τταρά φύσιν 
θερμασίας. αλλ' εΐ βΧάτττει την εvεpyειav η 
•πάρα φύσιν θερμασία μη κατά τι συμβεβηκός, 
αλλά Βια την αυτής ούσιαν τε καϊ Βύναμιν, εκ 
των πρώτων αν εϊη νοσημάτων καϊ μην ουκ 
ενΒεχεται των πρώτων μεν είναι νοσημάτων την 
άμετρίαν της θερμασίας, την δ' €vεpyείav ύπο της 
ευκρασίας μη yίyveσθaι. ούΒε yap Βι* άΧ\ο τι 
Βυνατον yίyveσθaι την Βυσκρασίαν αΐτίαν των 
πρώτων νοσημάτων αλλ' η Βια την εύκρασίαν 
Βιαφθειρομενην. τω yap ύπο ταύτης yίyvεσ θ αι 
τας εvepyείaς άvάyκη καϊ τας πρώτας αυτών 
βΧάβας Βιαφθειρομενης yίyvεσθaι. 

"Οτι μεν ουν καϊ κατ αύτον τον Κρασιστρα- 
τον η ευκρασία του θερμού τών εvεpyeιώv αίτια, 
τοις θεωρεΐν το άκόΧουθον Βυναμενοις ίκανώς 
άποΒεΒεΐχθαι νομίζω. τούτου δ' ύπάρχ^οντος 

]22ημΐν ούΒεν ετι -χ^αΧεττον \\ εφ' εκάστης εvεpyeίaς 

^ Even leaving the pneuma out of account, Galen claims 
that he can still prove his thesis. 

^ In other words : if dyi^rrada is a first principle in path- 
ology, then eucrasia must be a first principle in physiology. 

1 88 


question (since this does not come in any way near 
the bubo). 

Yet why do I mentiou those animals in which the 
property of the pneuma plays an important part, 
when it is possible to base one's argument upon 
human beings, in whom it is either of no importance 
at all, or acts quite faintly and feebly ? ^ But 
Erasistratus himself agrees that human beings digest 
badly in fevers, adding as the cause that the activity 
of the stomach has been impaired. He cannot, how- 
ever, advance any other cause of this impairment 
than abnormal heat. But if it is not by accident 
that the abnormal heat impairs this activity, but by 
virtue of its own essence and poΛveΓ, then this 
abnormal heat must belong to the primary diseases. 
But, indeed, if disproporlion of heat belongs to the 
primary diseases, it cannot but be that a proportionate 
blending [eucrasia] of the qualities produces the 
normal activity.^ For a disproportionate blend 
[dyscrasia] can only become a cause of the primary 
diseases through derangement of the eucrasia. That 
is to say, it is because the [normal] activities arise 
from the eucrasia that the primary impairments of 
these activities necessarily arise from its derange- 

I think, then, it has been proved to the satis- 
faction of those people who are capable of seeing 
logical consequences, that, even according to Erasi- 
stratus's own argument, the cause of the normal 
functions is eucrasia of the Warm.^ Now, this being 
so, there is nothing further to prevent us from saying 

• The above is a good instance of Galen's "logical" method 
as applied to medical questions ; an appeal to those who are 
capable of following '"logical sequence. cf. p. 209, note 1. 



rfj μίν ευκρασία το βεΧτιον ^Trcadat Xeyetv, rff 
Be 8υσκρασία τα γξίρω. καΐ τοίνυν eiTrep ταϋθ^ 
όντως exei, το μεν αίμα της συμμέτρου θερ- 
μασιας, την δε ξανθην 'χοΧην της άμετρου νομι- 
στεον υττάργ^ειν εηηονον. ούτω 'yap καΐ ήμΐν 
εν τε ταΐς θερμαΐς ήΧικίαις καΐ τοις θερμοΐς 
γωρίοίς καϊ ταΐς ωραις του έτους ταΐς θερμαΐς 
καΐ ταΐς θερμαΐς καταστύσεσιν, ωσαύτως δε καΐ 
ταΐς θερμαΐς κράσεσι των άνθρώττων καϊ τοις 
εττίτηΒ^ύμασι, τε καϊ τοις Βιαιτήμασι καϊ τοΐς 
νοσημασί τοΐς θερμοΐς εύΧό^ως ή ξανθή χοΧη 
ττΧείστη φαίνεται 'γί'γνομενη. 

Το δ' άτΓορεΐν, etV εν τοΐς σώμασι των άνθρώ- 
ττων ο χυμός οντος έχει την 'γενεσιν etr' εν τοΐς 
σιτίοις ττεριέχεται, μηΒ^ οτι τοΐς ϋ^ιαίνουσιν 
άμέμτττως, όταν άσιτησωσι τταρα το εθος ύττό 
τίνος ττεριστάσεως ττρα'^μάτων άνα'^κααθεντες, 
ττικρον μεν το στόμα '^ίηνεται, χοΧώδη Βε τα 
ονρα, Βάκνεται δ' ή ηαστηρ, εωρακότος εστίν 
αλλ' ωσττερ εξαίφνης νυν εΙς τον κόσμον εΧη- 
Χνθότος καϊ μήττω τα κατ αυτόν φαινόμενα 
Ύΐ^νώσκοντος. εττεί τις ουκ οΙΒεν, ως εκαστον 
των εψομένων εττΐ ττΧεον άΧυκώτερον μεν το 
123 ττρώτον, ύστερον \\ Be ττικρότερον 'yίyvετaι; καν 
ει το μέλι βουΧηθείης αντο το ττάντων ^Χυκύτα- 
τον εττϊ ττΧεΐστον εψειν, άττοΒείξεις καϊ τούτο 
ττικρότατον ο yap τοΐς άΧΧοις, οσα μη φύσει 
θερμά, τταρα της εψησεως εyyίyvετaι, τούτ εκ 
φύσεως ύττάρχει τω μεΧιτι. Βιά τούτ ονν εψό- 
μενον ου ηί^νεται ^Χυκύτερον όσον yap εχρήν 
είναι θερμότητος εις yεvεσιv yXvκύτητoς, ακριβώς 
αύτω τούτο πάν οίκοθεν ύττάρχει. b τοίννν 



that, in the case of each function, eucrasia is followed 
by the more, and dyscrasia by the less favourable 
alternative. And, therefore, if this be the case, we 
must suppose blood to be the outcome of propor- 
tionate, and yellow bile of disproportionate heat. So 
we naturally find yellow bile appearing in greatest 
quantity in ourselves at the warm periods of life, in 
warm countries, at warm seasons of the year, and 
when we are in a warm condition ; similarly in 
people of Λvarm temperaments, and in connection 
with warm occupations, modes of life, or diseases. 

And to be in doubt as to whether this humour has 
its genesis in the human body or is contained in the 
food is what you would expect from one who has — I 
will not say failed to see that, when those who are 
perfectly healthy have, under the compulsion of 
circumstances, to fast contrary to custom, their 
mouths become bitter and their urine bile-coloured, 
while they suffer from gnawing pains in the stomach — 
but has, as it Avere, just made a sudden entrance 
into the world, and is not yet familiar with the 
phenomena which occur there. Who, in fact, 
does not know that anything which is overcooked 
grows at first salt and afterwards bitter? And if 
you will boil honey itself, far the sweetest of all 
things, you can demonstrate that even this becomes 
quite bitter. For what may occur as a result of 
boiling in the case of other articles which are not 
>varm by nature, exists naturally in honey ; for this 
reason it does not become sweeter on being boiled, 
since exactly the same quantity of heat as is needed 
for the production of sweetness exists from before- 
hand in the honey. Therefore the external heat. 



βξωθεν τοΐ'ζ ελλ^ττω? θβρμοΐς ην ώφέλιμον, τοΰτ' 
έκβίνω βΧάβη re και άμετρία yiyverat καϊ δίά 
τούτο θατΎον των άΧΧων ίψόμβνον άττοΒβίκνυται 
πικρόν. Βι αύτο he τούτο καϊ τοις θβρμοΐς 
φύσ€ΐ καϊ τοις άκμάζονσιν βίς -χοΚην ίτοιμως 
μεταβάΧλβται. θβρμω jap θβρμον ττΧησιάζον 
eh άμΒτρίαν κράσεως ετοίμως έξισταται κα\ 
φθάνει χοΧη ^ι^νόμενον, ούχ αίμα. Βεΐται τοι- 
νυν ψύχρας μεν κράσεως άνθρώττον, ψύχρας δ' 
ηΧίκίας, ϊν εΙς αίματος άηηται φνσιν. ουκουν 
άτΓΟ τρότΓου συνεβοΰΧευσεν Ίτητοκράτης τοις 
φύσει ΤΓίκροχοΚοις μη Ίτροσφερειν το μέ\ι, ώς 
124 αν θερμοτερας \\ ΒηΧονότι κρασεως νττάρχουσιν. 
ούτω Βε και τοις νοσημασι τοις ττικροχοΧοις 
ττόΧεμιον είναι το μεΧι καϊ ττ} των γερόντων 
ηΧικία φίΧιον ονχ Ίτητοκράτης μόνον άΧΧά καϊ 
ττάντες ιατροί Χέ^ονσιν, οι μεν εκ της φύσεως 
αυτού την Βνναμιν ένΒει^αμενης ενρόντες, οι δ' 
εκ της ττείρας μόνης. ούΒε yap ovBe τοις άττο 
της εμπειρίας ιατροΐς ετερόν τι τταρα ταύτα 
τετηρηται ^ΐ'γνόμενον, άΧΧα χρηστον μεν <^εροντι, 
νεω S' ου χρηστόν, καϊ τφ μβν φύσει ττικροχοΧω 
βΧαβερόν, ωφεΧιμον Βε τω φΧε'γματώΒεΐ' καϊ 
των νοσημάτων ωσαύτως τοις μεν ττικροχοΧοις 
εχΘρόν, τοις Βε φΧε^ματώΒεσι φίΧιον ενι Βε 
λόγω τοις μεν θερμοΐς σώμασιν ή Βιά φύσιν ή Βια 
νόσον η Βι ηΧικίαν η Βι ώραν η Βιά χώραν η 
Βι ετΓίτηΒευμα χοΧής ^εννητικόν, αίματος Be τοΙς 

Καϊ μην ουκ ενΒεχεται ταύτον εΒεσμα τοις μεν 
χόΧην yevvav, τοις δ' αίμα μη ουκ εν τφ σώματι 



which would be useful for insufficiently \varm 
substances, becomes in the honey a source of damage, 
in fact an excess ; and it is for this reason that honey, 
when boiled, can be demonstrated to become bitter 
sooner than the others. For the same reason it is 
easily transmuted into bile in those people λυΊιο are 
naturally warm, or m their prime, since Avarm Λvhen 
associated with warm becomes readily changed into 
a disproportionate combination and turns into bile 
sooner than into blood. Thus we need a cold tem- 
perament and a cold period of life if we would have 
honey brought to the nature of blood.^ Therefore 
Hippocrates not improperly advised those Λvho Λν6Γ6 
naturally bilious not to take honey, since they were 
obviously of too warm a temperament. So also, not 
only Hippocrates, but all physicians say that honey 
is bad in bilious diseases but good in old age ; some 
of them having discovered this through the indications 
afforded by its nature, and others simply through 
experiment,^ for the Empiricist physicians too have 
made precisely the same observation, namely, that 
honey is good for an old man and not for a young 
one, that it is harmful for those who are naturally 
bilious, and serviceable for those >vhoare phlegmatic. 
In a word, in bodies which are warm either through 
nature, disease, time of life, season of the year, 
locality, or occujjation, honey is productive of bile, 
whereas in opposite circumstances it produces blood. 
But surely it is impossible that the same article of 
diet can produce in certain persons bile and in others 
blood, if it be not that the genesis of these humours is 

* The aim of dietetics always being the production of 
moderate heat — i.e. blood. 

* Note contrasted methods of Rationalists and Empiricists. 


τ?)? 76ΐ'εσ€ω9 αυτών €τητ€\ονμ€νη^, el y^p Βη 
οϊκοθεν ye και πταρ eavrov των βΒβσμάτων 
βκαστον βχον καΐ ουκ iv τοις των ζωών σώμασί || 

125 μεταβαλΧόμενον iyevva την 'χοΧην, iv αττασιν 
αν ομοίως αύτην τοις σώμασιν eyevva καϊ το 
μίν τΓίκρον βξω yeυoμevoίς ην αν οΐμαί χοΧης 
ποιητικον, el he τί y\υκύ καϊ χρηστόν, ουκ αν 
odSe το βραγύτατον έξ αυτού χοΧής iyevvaTO. καϊ 
μην ου το μέΧί μόνον, άλΧα καϊ των άΧΧων €καστον 
των yXυκeωv τοις ιτροειρημίνοις σώμασι τοις δί.' 
οτίοΰν των είρημένων θερμοΐς ουσιν eh χοΧην 
ίτοίμως εξίσταται. 

Καίτοι ταΰτ ουκ οίδ' οττως εξηνέχθην elrrecv 
ου TTpoeXo μένος αλλ' ύττ' αυτής του Xoyou της 
άκοΧουθίας avayKaadeh. είρηται δ' eVl nrXel- 
9Ύον inrep αυτών ^ΑριστοτεΧβι τε καΐ Ylpa^ayopa 
fffv ΊτΓΤΓοκράτους καΙ ΤΙλάτωνος yvώμηv ορθώς 


Μ^ τοίνυν ώς αττοΖείζεις υή> ημών είρησθαι 
νομίζειν τα τοιαύτα μάΧΧον η ττερί της τών 
αλλω9 yιyvωσκόvτωv αναισθησίας ενΖείζεις, οι 
μη8ε TCL ττρος άττάντων 6μoXoyoύμeva και καθ' 
εκάστην ημεραν φαινόμενα yιyvώσκoυσιv' τ ας 
δ' αποδείξεις αυτών τάς κατ εττιστημην εξ 
εκείνων χρη Χαμβάνειν τών αρχών, ων ηΒη 

126 καϊ ττρόσθεν \\ εϊττομεν, ώς το 8ραν καϊ ττάσχειν 
εις άλΧηΧα τοις σώμασιν ύττάρχει κατά, το 
θερμον καϊ ψυχρον καϊ ξηρον και xjypov. και 

^ Lit. anaesthesia. Linacre renders it indocilitae. 


accomplished in the body. For if all articles of food 
contained bile from the beginning and of themselves, 
and did not produce it by undergoing change in the 
animal body, then they would produce it similarly 
in all bodies ; the food which was bitter to the taste 
would, I take it, be productive of bile, Avhile that 
which tasted good and sweet would not generate 
even the smallest quantity of bile. Moreover, not 
only honey but all other sweet substances are readily 
converted into bile in the aforesaid bodies >vhich are 
warm for any of the reasons mentioned. 

Well, I have somehow or other been led into this 
discussion, — not in accordance with my plan, but 
compelled by the course of the argument. This 
subject has been treated at great length by Aristotle 
and Praxagoras, Λvho have correctly expounded the 
view of Hippocrates and Plato. 


For this reason the things that we have said 
are not to be looked upon as proofs but rather as 
indications of the dulness ^ of those Λvho think 
differently, and who do not even recognise what is 
agreed on by everyone and is a matter of daily 
observation. As for the scientific proofs of all this, 
they are to be drawn from these principles of which 
I have already spoken - — namely, that bodies act 
upon and are acted upon by each other in virtue of 
the Warm, Cold, Moist and Dry. And if one is 
« p. 16. 



eiVe φ\€βα<; eW^ ητταρ etr άρτηρία<; e'ire καρΒίαν 
etre κοιΧιαν εϊτ άΧ\ο τι μόριον ivepyetv τις 
φήσ€ΐ€ν ηνηνονν ivepyetav, άψύκτοις άνά'γκαΐ'; 
άνα^κασθησβται Βια την €Κ των τ€ττάρων ττοιαν 
κράσιν opokoyrjaai την evepyeiav ύττάρχειν αύτω. 
δίά τι yap ή yaaTrjp ττερίστβΧΧβται τοις σιτίοις, 
δια τι δ' αί φΧβββς αίμα yevvcoai, τταρα των 
'Έιρασιστρατβίων βδξόμην άκουσαι. το yap οτι 
ΤΓ€ριστ€Χλ€ται μόνον αύτο καθ^ eavTo yiyvataKeiv 
ούδεττω "χρηστόν, el μη καΐ την αΐτίαν ίίδβίημεν 
οντω yap αν οΐμαι καΐ τα σφάλ,ματα depa- 
7Γ€ύσαιμ€ν. ου μέΧει, φασίν, ημΐν ουδέ ττοΧυ- 
^rρayμovoΰμev βτι τας τοιαύτας αίτιας' ΰττίρ 
Ιατρον yap elai και τω φνσικω ττροσηκουσι. 
TTOTepov ουν ουδ' άντερεΐτβ τω φάσκοντι την μβν 
βύκρασίαν την κατά φύσιν αΐτίαν eivai της ivep- 
y€Laς βκάστω των 6pyάvωv, την δ αυ δυσκρασίαν 
127 νόσον τ ηδη καΧεΐσθαι καΐ πάντως νττ' αύ\\τής 
βΧάτΓΤβσθαι την ivepyeiav; η ττζίσθήσξσθβ ταΐς 
των τταΧαιων ά'ποδ€ίζ€σιν; η τρίτον τι και μέσον 
βκατβρου τούτων Trpa^ere μήθ' ώς άΧηθέσι τοις 
Xόyoις ef άvάyκης ττειθόμβνοι μητ άvτιXeyovτeς 
ώς ψενδέσιν, αλλ' άττορητικοί τίνες εξαίφνης και 
Τίυρρώνείοι y6vησeσθε; καϊ μην ει τούτο δράσετε, 
την εμττειρίαν avayKaiov ύμΐν ττροστησασθαι. τω 
yap αν ετι τρόττω και των ιαμάτων εύττοροιητε 
την ούσίαν εκάστου των νοσημάτων άyvooΰvτες ; 
τί ουν ουκ εξ άρχ^ής εμττειρικούς υμάς αυτού•; 
εκαΧεσατε; τί δε irpaypaU' ημΐν τταρεχετε φυ- 

^ latros: lit. " hea'er." 

^ Lit. "physicist" or "physiologist," the student of the 
physis. ς/", p. 70, note 2. 



speaking of any activity, wliellier it be exercised by 
vein, liver, arteries, heart, alimentary canal, or any 
part, one will be inevitably compelled to acknowledge 
that this activity depends upon the way in Avhich the 
four qualities are blended. Thus I should like to 
ask the Erasistrateans Λvhy it is that the stomach 
contracts upon the food, and Avhy the veins generate 
blood. There is no use in recognizing the mere fact 
of contraction, without also knowing the cause ; if we 
know this, we shall also be able to rectify the failures 
of function. "This is no concern of ours," they say ; 
•' wQ do not occupy ourselves with such causes as 
these ; they are outside the sphere of the practitioner,^ 
and belong to that of the scientific investigator." ^ Are 
you, then, going to oppose those who maintain that 
the cause of the function of every organ is a natural 
eucrasia,3 that the dyscrasia is itself known as a 
disease, and that it is certainly by this that the 
activity becomes impaired .'' Or, on the other hand, 
Avill you be convinced by the proofs which the 
ancient writers furnished ? Or will you take a 
midway course bet\veen these two, neither perforce 
accepting these arguments as true nor contradicting 
them as false, but suddenly becoming sceptics — 
Pyrrhonists, in fact .'' But if you do this you will 
have to shelter yourselves behind the Empiricist 
teaching. For how are you going to be successful 
in treatment, if you do not understand the real 
essence of each disease } Why, then, did you not 
call yourselves Empiricists from the beginning? 
Why do you confuse us by announcing that you are 


' That is, a blending of the four principles in their natiir ι 
roportion ; Lat. temperiea. Oyacraeia =intemperie», "dis 



σικας eVepyeta? e-na'yyeXko^evoi ζητείν Ιάσβως 
€V€K6v: ft yap ά8ύνατος ή αγαστή ρ €στί τινι 
7Γ€ριστ€ΧΧ€σθαί, καϊ τρίββίν, ττώς αυτήν et? το 
κατά φνσιν επανάξομεν ayvoovvre^ την αΐτίαν 
της aSwapiwi ; εγώ μεν φημι την μίν υττερτβθερ- 
μασμβνην έμψυκτίον ημίν elvai, την δ' έψνγ- 
μίνην θερμαντέον οΰτω Be καϊ την έξηρασμύνην 
vypavTiov, την δ' ύypaσμevηv ξηραντβον. άλλα 
128 καΧ II κατ^ συζυyίav, el θερμότερα του κατά, φύσιν 
άμα καϊ ξηρότερα τύγρι yey€vημίvη, κεφάΧαιον 
eivai της Ιάσεως εμψύχειν θ^ άμα καϊ vypaLveiv' 
ei Κ αϊ) ψυχ^ροτερα τε καϊ bypoTepa, θερμαίνειν 
τε καϊ ξηραίνειν καττΧ των άΧΧων ωσαύτως* οΐ δ' 
ίΙτΓ 'Έιρασιστράτου τι ττοτε καϊ ττράζουσίν ούδ' 
ολω? ζητεΐν των εvεpyeιωv τά<ζ αίτιας όμοΧογούν- 
τες; ο yap τοι καρπός της ττερί των εvepyειώv 
ζητήσεως ούτος εστί, το τας αίτιας των Ζυσκρα- 
σιών εΙΒοτα εΙς το κατά φύσιν ε'πavάyεLv αύτάς, 
ως αυτό ye μόνον το yvoivai την εκάστου των 
οργάνων εvepyειav ήτις εστίν οΰττω ■χρηστον εις 
τάς ιάσεις. 

'Ειρασιστρατος 8ε μοι Βοκεΐ καϊ αυτό τοΰτ 
άyvoεΐv, ώς, ήτις αν εν τω σώματι Βιάθεσις βΧά- 
τΓττ] την evkpyeiav μη κατά τι συμβεβηκος άΧΧά 
ττρώτως τε καϊ καθ^ εαυτήν, αΰτη το νόσημα 
εστίν αυτό. ττώς οΰν ετι Bιayvωστικός τ€ καϊ 
Ιατικος εσται των νοσημάτων ayvooiv οΧως αυτά 
τίνα τ εστϊ καϊ ττόσα και ττοΐα; κατά μεν 8η την 
yaffTepa το ye τοσούτον ^Έιρασίστρατος ηζίωσβ 


investigating natural activities with a view to treat- 
ment ? If the stomach is, in a particular case, unable 
to exercise its peristaltic and grinding functions, how 
are we going to bring it back to the normal if we 
do not know the cause of its disability ? What I 
say is ^ that we must cool the over-heated stomach 
and warm the chilled one ; so also Λve must moisten 
the one which has become dried up, and conversely ; 
so, too, in combinations of these conditions ; if the 
stomach becomes at the same time Avarmer and drier 
than normally, the first principle of treatment is at 
once to chill and moisten it ; and if it become 
colder and moister, it must be warmed and dried; 
so also in other cases. But how on earth are the 
followers of Erasistratus going to act, confessing as 
they do that they make no sort of investigation 
into the cause of disease? For the fruit of the 
enquiry into activities is that by knowing the 
causes of the dyscrasiae one may bring them back 
to the normal, since it is of no use for the purposes 
of treatment merely to knoAv what the activity of 
each organ is. 

Now, it seems to me that Erasistratus is unaware 
of this fact also, that the actual disease is that 
condition of the body which, not accidentally, but 
primarily and of itself, impairs the normal function. 
ΗοΛν, then, is he going to diagnose or cure diseases 
if he is entirely ignorant of what they are, and of 
Avhat kind and number ? As regards the stomach, 
certainly, Erasistratus held that one should at least 

* Thie ie the orthodox Hippocratic treatment, that of 
oppoaiU» by opposites. Contrast the homoeopathic principle 
which is the basis of our modem methods of immunisation 
{iimilia similibut curentur, Hahnemann). 



129 ζητεΐσθαι το ττώ? ττέττεται τα σιτία• \\ το δ' ητί(; 
ττρώτη Τ6 και άρχ^η'γο<; αίτια τούτου, ττω? ουκ 
έιτεσκβψατο; κατά, δε τα<? φΧββα^; καϊ το αίμα 
και αυτό το ττω? irapeXnrev. 

Αλλ, οϋθ ΙτΓΤΤοκράτης ουτ' άλλο? Τί9 ών 
ο\ί<γω 7Γ ρόσθερ έμνημόνβυσα φιλοσόφων ή ιατρών 
αζιον ψ€τ elvai τταραΧιτιβΐν άλλα την κατά 
φύσιν iv εκάστω ζωω θερμασ'ιαν εΰκρατόν τε και 
μετρίως iypav οΰσαν αίματος eival φασι ^εννη- 
τικην και Si αυτό ye του το καϊ το αίμα θβρμον 
καΧ xjypov eiva'i φασι ttj δυνάμει 'χυμόν, ώσττερ 
την ξανθην χοΧην θερμην καΐ ξηράν elvai, el 
καϊ ΟΤΙ μάλισθ υγρά φαίνεται, διαφβρειν yap 
αύτοΐς Βοκ€Ϊ το κατά φαντασίαν hypov του κατά 
Βνναμιν. η τίς ουκ olSev, ώ? αΚμη μεν καϊ 
θάΧαττα ταριχεύει τά κ pea καΧ άσητττα Βιαφυ- 
Χάττει, το δ' άλΧο τταν ν8ωρ το ττότιμον ετοίμως 
διαφθείρει τ€ καΧ σηττει; τί<; δ' ουκ olSev, ώς 
ξανθής χο\ή<; εν τη yaστpX ττεριεχομενη'; ττολλτ}? 
άπαύστω Βίψει συνεχόμεθα και ώς εμεσαντε<ζ 
αυτήν εύθνς α,Βιψοι yιyvoμεθa μαΧλον η ει 

130 ΊτάμτΓολν ΤΓΟτον ττροσηράμεθα; || θερμο<ζ ουν 
eύXόyω<i 6 χυμός οΰτος εϊρηται καΧ ξηρός κατά 
Ζύναμιν, ώσττερ yε και το φXέyμa ψυχρό ν 
και vypov. ivapyεΐς yap καΧ ττερΧ τούτου 
ττίστεις ΊτΓττοκράτει τ€ καΧ τοις αΧΧοις εϊρηνται 

ΤΙρόδικος δ' iv τω ττερΧ φύσεως ανθρώπου 
ypάμμaτι το συyκεκaυμεvov και οίον ύττερω-πτη- 
μένον εν τοις χυμοΐς ονομάζων φ\εyμa τταρά το 
ττεφΧεχθαι τη Χέζει μεν ετερως χρήται, φυΧάττει 



investi^^^ate horn it digests the food. But why was not 
investigation also made as to the priman' originative 
cause of this ? And, as regards the veins and the 
blood, he omitted even to ask the question '^ how ?" 

Yet neither Hippocrates nor any of the other 
physicians or philosophers Avhom I mentioned a 
short while ago thought it right to omit this ; 
they say that Avhen the heat which exists naturally 
in every animal is well blended and moderately 
moist it generates blood ; for this reason they also 
say that the blood is a virtually Λvarm and moist 
humour, and similarly also that yellow bile is warm 
and dry, even though for the most part it appeavs 
moist. (For in them the apparently dry would seem 
to differ from the virtually dry.) Who does not know 
that brine and sea-water preserve meat and keep it 
uncorrupted,^ whilst all other Λvater — the drinkable 
kind — readily spoils and rots it ? And Λvho does not 
know that Avhen yellow bile is contained in large 
quantity in the stomach, we are troubled with an un- 
quenchable thirst, and that when we vomit this up, 
we at once become much freer from thirst than if we 
had drunk very large quantities of fluid .' Therefore 
this humour has been very properly termed >varm, 
and also virtually dry. And, similarly, phlegm has 
been called cold and moist ; for about this also clear 
proofs have been given by Hippocrates and the other 

Prodicus ^ also, when in his book " On the Nature 
of Man" he gives the name "phlegm" (from the verb 
τΓίφλίχθαι) to that element in the humours which has 
been burned or, as it were, over-roasted, while using 

* Lit. nseptic, 

' rrodicuf. of C«oe, • Sophist, contemporary of Socrate*. 

. 20I 


μέντοι το ττ/οαγμα κατά, ταύτο roi<i αλΧοι^. την 
δ' ev τοις υνόμασι τάνΕρος τούτου καινοτομίαν 
Ικανώ<; βν^βίκνυται και Πλάτων. aXka τούτο 
ye το ττρός• άττάντων άνθρώττων ονομαζόμβνον 
φΧβΎμα το XevKov την γ^ρόαν, ο βΧίνναν ονομάζει 
ΠρόδίΑΓΟ?, 6 ψνχ^ρος καΐ vypo<; 'χούμος έστιν ούτος 
καΐ ττλεΓστο? τοις τ€ yepovai καΐ τοις όττωσδη- 
7Γ0Τ6 -yjrvyeiaiv αθροίζεται καΐ ούδεί? ovhe μαινό- 
μενος αν άΧλο τι ή ψνχ^ρον καΐ vjpov cittoi αν 

^Αρ ουν θερμός μβν τις εστί κα\ ΰ^ρος χυμός 
καΐ θερμός και ξηρός έτερος και ύ'γρος και 
ψυχρός αΧλος, ούΒεΙς δ' εστί ψυχρός και ξηρός 
την Βύναμιν, αλλ' ή τετάρτη συζυγία των κρά- 
131 σεων \\ εν άττασι τοΐς αΧΚοις ύττάρχουσα μόνοις 
τοις χυμοΐς ούχ νττάρχει; και μην η <γε μεΧαινα 
χοΧη τοιούτος εστί χυμός, ον οΊ σωφρονούντες 
ιατροί και φιΧόσοφοι ττΧεονεκτεΐν εφασαν των 
μεν ωρών του έτους εν φθινοττώρω μάΧιστα, 
των δ' ηΧικιων εν ταΐς μετά την άκμην. ούτω 
8ε καΐ Βιαιτηματα καΐ χωρία και καταστάσεις 
και νόσους τινας ψύχρας καΐ ξηράς εΙναί 
φασιν ου yap Βη χωΧην εν ταύτη μοντ) τη 
συζυyίa την φύσιν είναι νομίζουσιν αλλ' ωσττ^ρ 
τας άΧΧας τρεις ούτω καΐ τήνΒε 8ια ττάντων 

ϋύξάμην oiv κάνταύθ^ ερωτησαι δννασθαι τον 
*Ερασίστρατον, ει μη^εν opyavov η τεχνική φύσις 
εBημιoύpyησε καθαρτικόν του τοιούτου χυμού, 
άλλα των μεν ούρων άρα της διακρίσεως εστίν 
opyava Βύο καϊ της ξανθής χοΧής έτερον ου 



a different terminology, still keeps to the fact just 
as the others do ; this man's innovations in nomencla- 
ture have also been amply done justice to by Plato.^ 
Thus, the white-coloured substance \vhich everyone 
else calls phlegm, and Λvhich Prodicus calls blenna 
imucus],^ is the well-known cold, moist humour 
Avhich collects mostly in old people and in those who 
have been chilled^ in some way, and not even a 
lunatic could say that this was anything else than 
cold and moist. 

If, then, there is a \varm and moist humour, and 
another which is warm and dry, and yet another 
Λvhich is moist and cold, is there none which is virtually 
cold and dry ? Is the fourth combination of tempera- 
ments, which exists in all other things, non-existent 
in the humours alone .'' No ; the black bile is such a 
humour. This, according to intelligent physicians 
and philosophers, tends to be in excess, as regards 
seasons, mainly in the fall of the year, and, as regards 
ages, mainly after the prime of life. And, similarly, 
also they say that there are cold and dry modes of 
life, regions, constitutions, and diseases. Nature, 
they suppose, is not defective in this single combina- 
tion ; like the three other combinations, it extends 

At this point, also, I would gladly have been able 
to ask Erasistratus whether his " artistic " Nature 
has not constructed any organ for cleanng away a 
humour such as this. For whilst there are two 
organs for the excretion of urine, and another of 
considerable size for that of yellow bile, does the 

^ Platx), Tiniaeus, 83-86, pasaim. 

• cf. the term blennorrhoea, which is still used. 

• cf. the Scotch term "colded" for "affected with a 
cold " ; Germ. erkcUtet. 



σμικρόν, 6 δε τούτων κακοηθίστβρο<ί χνμο^ 
άΧάται Βία τταΐ'τος ev ταΐς ψλεψίν αναμεμιγ- 
μένος τω α'ίματι. καίτοι " Ανσβντβρίη,^ φησι 
ΤΓον Ίτητοκράτης, " ην αττό %ολ^9 μέλαινης <^ρζν~ 

132 ται, θανάσιμον," ου μην ή <y άττό της ξαν^\θης 
χολϊ}? άρχ^ομενη ττάντως ολέθριος, άλλ' οί ττλειονς 
εξ αυτής Βιασωζονται. τοσούτω κακοηθέστερα 
τε και Βριμυτερα την Βύναμιν ή μέλαινα χο\η 
της ξανθής εστίν. αρ ουν ούτε των άλλων 
άνέ'γνω τι των του Ίτητοκράτονς ιγραμματων ο 
^Ερασίστρατος ού8εν ούτε το ττερι φύσεως ανθρώ- 
που βιβλίον, ϊν ούτως άρ<^ως τταρέλθοι την ττερι 
των χυμών έττίσκεψιν, ή 'γΐ'^νώσκει μέν, εκών 
δε Ίταραλείττει καΧλίστην της τέχνης θεωρίαν; 
εχρήν ουν αύτον μηΒε ττερϊ του σιτληνος ειρη- 
κέναι τι μηΒ^ άσχημονεϊν υττο της τεχνικής φύ- 
σεως opyavov τηλικούτον μάτην ήηονμενον κατε- 
σκευάσθαι. κσΧ μην ούχ Ίτητοκράτης μόνον 
η Πλάτων, ούΒέν τι χείρους ^Ερασιστράτου ττερΙ 
φύσιν άνδρε^;, εν τι των καθαιροντων το αίμα 
καϊ τοΰτ εΙναί φασι το σττΧά'γχνον, άλλα καΐ 
μύριοι συν αύτοΐς άλλοι των τταλαιών ιατρών 
τε κάϊ φιλοσόφων, ων άττάντων ττροσττοιησαμενος 
υττερφρονείν 6 ηενναίος ^Ερασίστρατος οΰτ άν- 
τείττεν οΰθ' οΧως τής Βόξης αυτών εμνημόνευσε. 
καϊ μην οσοις <γε το σώμα θάλλει, τούτοις ο 
σττλην φθίνει, φησίν Ιπποκράτης, και οι απο 

133 τής II εμπειρίας ορμώμενοι πάντες όμόλο^οΰσιν 
Ιατροί. καϊ οσοις γ' αυ μέ^ας και ύπουλος 



humcnr which is more pernicious than these wander 
about persistently in the veins mingled with the 
blood ? Yet Hippocrates says, " Dysentery is a fatal 
condition if it proceeds from black bile " ; while that 
proceeding from yellow bile is by no means deadly, 
and most people recover from it ; this proves how 
much more pernicious and acrid in its potentialities 
is black than yellow bile. Has Erasistratus, then, 
not read the book, " On the Nature of Man," any 
more than any of the rest of Hippocrates's writings, 
that he so carelessly passes over the consideration of 
the humours ? Or, does he know it, and yet volun- 
tarily neglect one of the finest studies ^ in medicine ? 
Thus he ought not to have said anything about the 
spleen,' nor have stultified himself by holding that 
an artistic Nature would have prepared so large an 
organ for no purpose. As a matter of fact, not only 
Hippocrates and Plato — Λvho are no less authorities 
on Nature than is Erasistratus — say that this viscus 
also is one of those which cleanse the blood, but there 
are thousands of the ancient physicians and philoso- 
phers as well who are in agreement with them. Now, 
all of these the high and mighty Erasistratus affected 
to despise, and he neither contradicted them nor 
even so much as mentioned their opinion. Hippo- 
crates, indeed, says that the spleen wastes in those 
people in Λvhom the body is in good condition, and 
all those physicians also who base themselves on ex- 
perience ^ agree Avith this. Again, in those cases in 
which the spleen is large and is increasing from 

^ The word theoria used here is not the same as our theory. 
It is rather a "contemplation," the process by which a 
theory is arrived at. cf. ρ 226, note 2. 

- Erasistratus on the uselessness of the spleen, ς/", p. 143. 

• The Empirical schooL ςΛ p. 193. 



αυξάνεται, τούτοις καταφθείρει τε καϊ κακόχυμα 
τα σώματα τιθησιν, ώ? κα\ τοντο τταλιν ουχ 
ΙτττΓοκράτης μόνον αλλά καϊ ΤΙΧάτων άΧλοι τε 
ΤΓολλοΙ και οι άτΓΟ τ^9 εμτΓ€ίρία<; όμοΧο'γονσιν 
ιατροί, και οι άττο σ'ττΧηνο'ζ Βε κακοττρα'^οΰντος 
ίκτεροι μεΧάντεροι καϊ των ελκών αϊ ούΧαΙ 
μεΧαιναι. καθόΧου yap, όταν ενΖεεστερον η 
ττροσήκεν εις εαυτόν εΧκτ) τον μεΧα'γχρΧικον 
'χυμόν, άκάθαρτον μεν το αίμα, κακόγ^ρουν h\ 
το τταν η'ιηνεται σώμα. ττότε δ' ενίεεστερον 
εΧκει; η ΒήΧον οτι κακώ<ζ Βιακείμενος; ωσττερ 
οΰν τοις νεφροΐ<; ενεργείας ούσης ελκειν τα 
ουρά κακώς εΧκειν υττάρ'χει κακοττ ρα'γουσιν, 
ούτω και τω σττΧηνϊ ττοιότητος μεΧαγχοΧικης 
εΧκτικην εν εαυτώ Βύναμιν ε'χοντι σύμφυτον 
άρρωστησαντι ττοτε ταύτην ανα^καΐον εΧκειν 
κακώς καν τωδε τταγυτερον ή8η καϊ μεΧάντερον 
ηί^νεσθαι το αίμα. 

Ύαΰτ ονν άτταντα ττρός re τάς Βια'γνώσεις 
τών νοσημάτων καϊ τάς ιάσεις με'γίστην ιταρεγ^ο- 
134 μένα χρείαν || ύττερεττήΒησε τεΧέως 6 Έρασί- 
στρατος καϊ καταφρονεΐν ιτροσεττοιησατο τηΧι- 
κούτων άνΒρών ό μη8ε τών τυχόντων καταφρονών 
άΧΧ' άεϊ φιΧοτίμως άντιΧε^ων ταΐς ήΧιθιωτάταις 
Βόξαις. ω καϊ ΒήΧον, ώς ούΒεν έχων οΰτ^ 
άντειπεΐν τοις ττρεσβυτεροις υττερ ων άττεφηναντο 
ττερϊ σττΧηνος ενεργείας τε καϊ χρείας οΰτ αύτος 
εξευρίσκων τι καινόν εις το μηΒεν οΧως είττεΐν 
άφίκετο. αλλ' ημείς ye πρώτον μεν εκ τών 
αιτίων, οίς ατταντα Βιοικεΐται τα κατά, τάς 

^ Enlargement and suppuration (?) of spleen associated 
with toxaemia or "cacochymy." • Lit. "melancholic." 



internal suppuration, it destroys the body and fills it 
with evil humours ; ^ this again is agreed on, not only 
by Hippocrates, but also by Plato and many others, 
including the Empiric physicians. And the jaundice 
which occurs Avhen the spleen is out of order is 
dai'ker in colour, and the cicatrices of ulcers are 
dark. For, generally speaking, when the spleen is 
drawing the atrabiHary ^ humour into itself to a less 
degree than is proper, the blood is unpurified, and 
the whole body takes on a bad colour. And when 
does it draw this in to a less degree than proper ? 
Obviously, >vhen it [the spleen] is in a bad condition. 
Thus, just as the kidneys, Avhose function it is to 
attract the urine, do this badly when they are out 
of order, so also the spleen, which has in itself a 
native poAver of attracting an atrabiliary quality,^ if 
it ever happens to be weak, must necessarily exercise 
this attraction badly, with the result that the blood 
becomes thicker and darker. 

Now all these points, affording as they do the 
greatest help in the diagnosis and in the cure of 
disease were entirely passed over by Erasistratus, 
and he pretended to despise these great men — he 
who does not despise ordinary people, but always 
jealously attacks the most absurd doctrines. Hence, 
it was clearly because he had nothing to say against 
the statements made by the ancients regarding the 
function and utility of the spleen, and also because 
he could discover nothing new himself, that he 
ended by saying nothing at all. I, however, for my 
part, have demonstrated, firstly from the causes by 
which ever^i;hing throughout nature is governed (by 

' i.e. the combination of sensible qualities which we call 
hia'jk bile. </. p. 8, note 3. 



φύσβις, του θερμού λέγω καϊ ψυχρού καΐ ξηρον 
κα\ vypov, hevrepov δ' ef αυτών των ivapyco^ 
φαινομένων κατά το σώμα -ψυχρον καΐ ζηρον 
elvai τίνα χρηναι χυμον άττεΖβίξαμεν. έξης δ', 
δτί καΐ μ€\αγχο\ίκο<; οΰτος ύττάρχ^ει καΐ το 
καθαίρον αυτόν σττΧάγχνον ο σττΧην έστιν, Sia 
βραχέων ως evi μάλιστα τών τοις τταΧαιοΐς άττο- 
heheiy μένων άναμνησαντβς εττι το Χεΐττον ετι τοις 
•παρούσι Χό^οις άφιξόμβθα. 

Ύί δ' άν €Ϊη XeiTTOv αΧΧο γ' ή εζη^ησασθαι 
135 σαφώς, οΙόν τι βούΧονταί τε || καΧ άττοζεικνύουσι 
ττερί την τών χυμών ^ένεσιν οι τταΧαιοΙ συμ- 
βαίνειν. εναρ^εστερον δ' αν ιγνωσθείη δίά τταρα- 
^εί^ματος. οινον Βη μοι νοεί ^Χεύκινον ου προ 
ΤΓοΧΧοΰ τών σταφυΧών εκτεθΧιμμενον ζέοντά τε 
καΐ άΧΧοιούμενον ϋττο της εν αυτω θ ερ μασιάς• 
έπειτα κατά, την αυτού μεταβοΧην δύο γεννώμενα 
•περιττώματα το μεν κουφότερον τε καΐ άερω- 
Βεστερον., το Βε βαρύτερόν τε και ^εωΒεστερον, 
ών το μεν άνθος, οΐμαι, το Βε τρύγα καΧούσι. 
τούτων τω μεν ετερω την ζανθην χοΧην, τω δ' 
ετέρω την μεΧαιναν εΐκάζων ουκ αν άμάρτοις, ου 
την αύτην εχόντων ΙΒέαν τών χυμών τούτων εν 
τώ κατά φύσιν Βιοικεΐσθαι το ζώον, ο'ίαν και 
•πάρα φύσιν έχοντος εττιφαίνονται ττοΧΧάκις. 
η μεν yap ξανθή ΧεκιθώΒης yiy νεται• καϊ yap 
ονομάζουσιν ούτως αυτήν, οτι ταΐς τών ωών 
Χεκίθοις όμοιούται κατά τε χρόαν καϊ πάχος, 
η δ' αύ μεΧαινα κακοηθέστερα μεν ποΧύ και 



the causes I mean the Warm, Cold, Dry and Moist) 
and secondly, from obvious bodily phenomena, that 
there must needs be a cold and dry humour.^ And 
having in the next place drawn attention to the fact 
that this humour is black bile [atrabiliary] and that 
the viscus Λvhich clears it away is the spleen — having 
pointed this out by help of as few as possible of the 
proofs given by ancient Avriters, I shall ηοΛν proceed 
to \vhat remains of the subject in hand. 

What else, then, remains but to explain clearly 
what it is that happens in the generation of the 
humours, according to the belief and demonstration 
of the Ancients ? This Λνϋΐ be more clearly under- 
stood from a comparison. Imagine, then, some new 
Λvine which has been not long ago pressed from the 
grape, and which is fermenting and undergoing 
alteration through the agency of its contained heat.-^ 
Imaghie next two residual substances produced 
during this process of alteration, the one tending to 
be light and air-like and the other to be heavy and 
more of the nature of earth ; of these the one, as I 
understand, they call the flaiver and the other the 
lees. Now you may correctly compare yellow bile to 
the first of these, and black bile to the latter, 
although these humours have not the same appear- 
ance when the animal is in normal health as that 
\vhich they often show \vhen it is not so ; for then 
the yellow bile becomes vitelline,^ being so termed 
because it becomes like the yolk of an egg, both in 
colour and density ; and again, even the black bile 
itself becomes much more malignant than Λvhen in 

^ Thus Galen has demonstrated the functions of the spleen 
both deductively and inductively. For another example of 
the combined method cf. Book III., chaps, i. and ii. ; cf. also 
Introd. p. zxxii » ».«. its innate heat. * Lit. kcifhoid. 



αΰτη της κατά φύσιν όνομα δ' ovBev iSiov κείται, 
τω τοιούτω χυ/χω, ττΧην ei ττοΰ τίνες η ξυστικον 
η οζωΒη κεκΧηκασιν αύτον, οτι καϊ Βριμύς ομοίως 

136o'fei yiyveTUt καϊ \\ ξύει ^ε το σώμα του ζώου 
καϊ την <γήν, εΐ κατ αυτής εκγυθείη, και τίνα 
μετά ΐΓομή>ο\υ^ων οίον ζύμωσυν τε καϊ ζεσιν 
εργάζεται, σηττεΒόνος επίκτητου ιτροσεΧθ ούσης 
εκείνω τω κατά φύσιν εγοντί χυμω τω μελανί, 
και μοι Βοκοΰσίν οΐ ττΧεΐστοί των τταΧαιών 
ιατρών αύτο μεν το κατά φύσιν έχον τοΰ τοιούτου 
χυμού και Βιαχωρούν κάτω καϊ ττοΧΧάκις εττι- 
■ποΧάζον άνω μεΧανα καΧεΐν χυμόν, ου μεΧαιναν 
χοΧην, το δ' εκ συηκαύσεως τίνος και σηττεΒόνος 
εις την o^eiav μεθιστάμενον ποιότητα μεΧαιναν 
ονομάζειν χοΧην. άΧΧά ττερί μεν τών ονομά- 
των ου χρη Βιαφερεσθαι, το δ' άΧηθες ώδ' έχον 

Κατά την τοΰ α'ίματος ηενεσιν όσον αν Ίκανώς 
τταχύ και ^εώΒες εκ της τών σιτίων φύσεως 
εμφερόμενον τη τροφή μη Βεξηταΐ καΧώς την 
εκ της εμφύτου θερμασίας άΧΧοίωσιν, 6 σττΧην 
εις εαυτόν εΧκει τούτο, το δ' οπτηθεν, ώς αν 
τις εϊττοι, καϊ συ^καυθεν της τροφής, εΐη δ' αν 
τούτο το θερμοτατον εν αύτη καϊ ^Χυκντατον, 
οίον τό τε μεΧι καϊ η τημεΧή, ξανθή ηενόμενον 
χοΧη Βιά τών χοΧηΒόχων ονομαζόμενων αγγείων 

\2Π εκκαθ αίρεται. \\ Χετττον δ' εστϊ τούτο καϊ ύ-γρον 
καϊ ρυτον ούχ ώσττερ οταν οτττηθεν εσχάτως 
ξανθον και ττυρώΒες και παχύ ηενηται ταΐς τών 

^ Note that there can be " normal " black bile. 
2 The term food here means the food as introduced into 
the Btomach; the term nutriment {trophi) means the same 



its normal condition,^ but no particular name has 
been given to [such a condition of] the humour, 
except that some people have called it corrosive or 
acetose, because it also becomes sharp like vinegar 
and corrodes the animal's body — as also the earth, if 
it be poured out upon it — and it produces a kind of 
fermentation and seething, accompanied by bubbles — 
an abnormal putrefaction having become added to 
the natural condition of the black humour. It seems 
to me also that most of the ancient physicians give 
the name black humour and not black bile to the 
normal portion of this humour, Avhich is discharged 
from the bowel and Λvhich also frequently rises to the 
top [of the stomach-contents] ; and they call black 
bile that part Avhich, through a kind of combustion 
and putrefaction, has had its quality changed to acid. 
There is no need, however, to dispute about names, 
but Λνε must realise the facts, which are as follow : — 
In the genesis of blood, everything in the nutri- 
ment ^ which belongs naturally to the thick and 
earth-lLke part of the food,^ and which does not 
take on >vell the alteration produced by the innate 
heat — all this the spleen dra>vs into itself. On the 
other hand, that part of the nutriment Avhich is 
roasted, so to speak, or burnt (this Λνϋΐ be the 
warmest and sweetest part of it, like honey and 
fat), becomes yellow bile, and is cleared aAvay 
through the so-called biliary ^ vessels ; now, this 
is thin, moist, and fluid, not like what it is 
when, having been roasted to an excessive degree, it 
becomes yellow, fiery, and thick, like the yolk of 

food in the digested condition, as it is conveyed to the 
tissues. <•/. pp. 41^.3. Note idea of imperfectly oxidized 
n\aterial being absorbed by the spleen, cf. p. 214, note 1. 
• Lit. choUdochmu, bile-receiving. 



ωών ομοιον Χεκίθοις. τούτο μίν yap η8η τταρα 
φύσιν θάτβρον δέ το ττρότβρον είρημένον κατά 
φύσίν εστίν ώσττερ y€ καΐ του μέλανος 'χυμού 
το μίν μηττω την οίον ζέσιν τε καΐ ζύμωσιν της 
<γης βρΎαζόμβνον κατά φύσιν ίστυ, το ο €69 
τοιαύτην μεθιστάμενον iBeav τε καϊ Βύναμιν η8η 
τταρα φύσιν, ώς αν τ^ν βκ της σν^καύσεως τού 
τταρα φύσιν θερμού ττροσειΧηφος δριμύτητα και 
οίον τέφρα τις η8η γεγοι^ό?. ώδε ττως και ή 
κεκαυμένη τρύξ της άκαύστου Bl7']veyκε. θερμον 
<yap τι γρημα αΰττ) <y ίκανώς εστίν, ώστε καιειν 
re και τηκειν και όιαφσειρειν την σάρκα, ttj ό 
έτερα τύ} μηττω κεκαυμενρ τους Ιατρούς εστίν 
εύρ^ΐν χρωμενους εΙς οσαπερ καϊ τη yfj τη καΧου- 
μενη κεραμίτί8ι καϊ τοις άΧλοις, οσα ξηραίνειν θ 
άμα και ψύχειν ττεφυκεν. 

Είς την της ούτω σνγκαυθείσης μεΧαίνης 
χοΧής ihiav καϊ ή \εκιθώ8ης εκείνη μεθίσταται 
ΤΓοΧλάκις, όταν καϊ αύτη ττοθ* οίον ότττηθείσα 
138 τύχη ττυρώΒει θερμασία. τα δ' αΧΚα || των χοΧών 
εϊδη σύμτταντα τα μεν εκ της των είρημενων 
κράσεως ηίηνεται, τα δ' οΧον οδοί τίνες είσι της 
τούτων Ύενέσεώς τε καϊ εις άΧΧηΧα μεταβοΧης. 
Βιαφερουσι Βε τφ τας μεν ακράτους είναι και 
μάνας, τα δ' οίον ορροΐς τισιν εξυι^ρασμενας. αΧΧ 
οι μεν ορροί των χυμών άτταντες ττεριττωματα 
καϊ καθ άρον αυτών είναι Βεΐται τού ζώου το σώμα. 
τών δ' ειρημίνων χυμών εστί τις χρεία τη φύσει 
και τού τταχεος και τού Χετττού και καθαιρεται 
ττρός τε τού σττΧηνος καϊ της εττΐ τφ ηττατι 
κύστεως το αίμα καϊ άττοτίθεται τοσούτον τε καΐ 
τοιούτον εκατερου μέρος, όσον καϊ οίον, εϊττεο εις 



eggs ; for this latter is already abnormal, while the 
previously mentioned state is natural. Similarly 
with the black humour : that which does not yet 
produce, as I say, this seething and fermentation on 
the ground, is natural, while that Λνΐιΐοΐι has taken 
over this character and faculty is unnatural ; it has 
assumed an acridity owing to the combustion caused 
by abnormal heat, and has practically become trans- 
formed into ashes.^ In someAvhat the same way 
burned lees differ from unburned. The former is a 
warm substance, able to burn, dissolve, and destroy 
the flesh. The other kind, Λvhich has not yet under- 
gone combustion, one may find the physicians 
employing for the same purposes that one uses the 
so-called potter s earth and other substances which 
have naturally a combined drying and chilling action. 
Now the vitelline bile also may take on the appear- 
ance of this combusted black bile, if ever it chance 
to be roasted, so to say, by fiery heat. And all the 
other forms of bile are produced, some from a blend- 
ing of those mentioned, others being, as it ΛveΓe, 
transition-stages in the genesis of these or in their 
conversion into one another. And they differ in 
that those first mentioned are unmixed and unique, 
while the latter forms are diluted with various kinds 
of serum. And all the serums in the humours are 
waste substances, and the animal body needs to be 
purified from them. There is, hoAvever, a natural 
use for the humours first mentioned, both thick and 
thin ; tiie blood is purified both by the spleen and 
by the bladder beside the liver, and a part of each of 
the two humours is put away, of such quantity and 

^ Thus ovtr-roa^ting—uisW we sa\- excessive oxidation ?— 
produces the abnormal forme of both black and yellow bile. 



6\ov ηνβ'χθη τον ζώου το σώμα, βΧάβην αν τιν 
elpyaaaro. το 'yap ίκανώ'ζ ττα'χ^ύ καϊ γεώδες καΐ 
τέλέως δλαπβφευγό? την iv τω ήττατί μεταβοΧην 
6 σπΧην ei9 kavTov eXKcr το δ' α\Χο το μετρι,ως 
τΐα'χυ συν τω κατ^ιρ-^άσθαι ττάντη φβρεται,. Ββΐται 
yap iv ττολλοΐ? τον ζώου μορίθί<; τταγυτητο'ί Tivo<i 
139 το αϊμα καθάττβρ οΐμαι καϊ των \\ βμφβρομβνων 
Ινών. καϊ είρηται μίν καϊ ΥΙλάτωνί irepl της 
•χ^ρβίας αυτών, είρησεταί δε καϊ ημΐν iv iKetvoi^ 
τοις "γράμμασιν, iv οίς αν τας -χρείας τών μορίων 
Βιβρχώμβθα' helTai δ' ου% ήκιστα καϊ του ξανθού 
•χυμού τού μηττω ττυρώΒους βσχάτως ^ε^βνημβνου 
το αίμα καϊ τίς αυτω καϊ η τταρά τούΒε χρβία, 
Βι iκeίvωv βίρήσεται. 

ΦΧε'γματος δ' ούΒβν i'πoίησev η φύσις opyavov 
καθαρτικόν, δτί ψυχρον καϊ {jypov εστί καϊ οίον 
ήμίτΓ€τττός τις τροφή. Βεΐται τοίνυν ου κενούσθαι 
το τοιούτον αλλ' iv τω σώματι μβνον άΧΧοιούσθαι. 
το δ' ε^ Ι^κβφάΧου καταρρβον ττβρίττωμα τάχα 
μεν αν ού^ε φΧε^μα τις ορθώς άλλα βΧενναν τε 
καϊ κόρυζαν, ώσπερ ουν και ονομάζεται, καΧοιη. 
ει δε μη, αλλ' oTi γε της τούτου κενώσεως ορθώς 
η φύσις ττρουνοησατο, καϊ τούτ iv τοις ττερϊ 
χρείας μορίων είρήσεται. καϊ yap ουν καϊ το 
κατά τε την yaστεpa καϊ τα έντερα συνιστάμενον 
φXeyμa οττως αν iκκεvωθf| καϊ αυτό τάχιστα τε 
καϊ κάΧΧιστα, το τταρεσκευασμενον τη φύσει 
μηχάνημα 8ι iκείvωv είρήσεται καϊ αύτο τών 

1 cf. ρ. 277, note 2. 

2 Timaevs, 82 c-D. 

* cf. p. 90, note 1. The term "catarrh" refers to this 
•• running down," which was supposed to take place through 



quality that, if it were carried all over the body, it 
would do a certain amount of harm. For that which 
is decidedly thick and earthy in nature, and has 
entirely escaped alteration in the liver, is drawn by 
the spleen into itself^ ; the other part which is only 
moderately thick, after being elaborated [in the 
liver], is carried all over the body. For the blood in 
many parts of the body has need of a certain amount 
of thickening, as also, I take it, of the Jibres which 
it contains. And the use of these has been discussed 
by Plato,2 and it will also be discussed by me in such 
of my treatises as may deal with the use of parts. 
And the blood also needs, not least, the yellov/ 
humour, which has as yet not reached the extreme 
stage of combustion ; in the treatises mentioned it 
will be pointed out what purpose is subserved by this. 
Now Nature has made no organ for clearing away 
phlegm, this being cold and moist, and, as it were, 
half-digested nutriment ; such a substance, there- 
fore, does not need to be evacuated, but remains in 
the body and undergoes alteration there. And per- 
haps one cannot properly give the name of phlegm 
to the surplus-substance which runs doΛvn from 
the brain,^ but one should call it mucus [blennaj 
or coryza — as, in fact, it is actually termed ; in any 
case it will be pointed out, in the treatise " On the 
Use of Parts," how Nature has provided for the 
evacuation of this substance. Further, the device 
provided by Nature which ensures that the phlegm 
which forms in the stomach and intestines may be 
evacuated in the most rapid and effective way 
possible — this also will be described in that com- 

the pores of the cribriform plate of the ethmoid into the 



140 ΰ7Γομνη\\μάτων. όσον ουν βμφβρβται ταΐ<; φΧεψΙ 
φΧέΎμα 'χ^ρησιμον υπάρχον τοις ζωοί<;, ουδεμιάς 
δζΐταί κενώσεως, ττροσέχβιν δε -χ^ρη κάνταυθα 
τον νουν καΐ <^ί'^νά)σκειν, ωσττερ των 'χοΧών 
εκατερας το μεν τι -χ^ρι^σιμόν εστί καϊ κατά φύσιν 
τοις ζωοις, το δ' άχ^ρηστόν τε καϊ τταρα φύσιν, 
ούτω καϊ του φΧεγματος, όσον μεν αν η <γ\υκύ, 
'χ^ρηστον είναι τούτο τω ζωω και κατά φυσιν, όσον 
δ' οξύ καϊ αΚ,μυρον εγεί'βτο, το μεν οξυ τεΧεως 
ηττεπτήσθαι, το δ' άΧμυρον Βιασεσήφθαί. τεΧείαν 
δ' άττεψίαν φΧε^ματος άκουειν χρη την της 
δευτέρας ττέψεως δηΧονοτι της εν φΧεψίν ου 
yap Βη της ye -πρώτης της κατά την κοιΧίαν 
ή ούδ' αν εyεy ενητο την αργιών γυμος, εΐ καΐ 
ταύτην 8ιε^τεφeύyει. 

Ύαΰτ άρκεΐν μοι δοκεΐ ττερί yevεσeώς τε καϊ 
διαφθοράς 'χυμών υττομνήματ είναι των Ίτττγο- 
κράτει τε καϊ ϊΐΧάτωνι καϊ ^ΚριστοτέΧει κα\ 
Ώpaξayόpa και ΑιοκΧεΐ καϊ ττοΧΧοις άΧΧοις των 
τταΧαιών είρημενων ου yap εδικάιωσα ττάντα 
μεταφέρειν εις τόνδε τον Xoyov τα τεΧεως εκίίνοις 
yεypaμμεva. τοσούτον δε μόνον ύττερ εκάστου 

141 εΙτΓον, όσον εξορμήσει τε τους \\ εvτυy χάνοντας, 
ει μη τταντάττασιν εΐεν σκαιοί, τοις των τταΧαιών 
ομιΧησαι ypάμμaσι καϊ την εις το ραον αύτοΐς 
συνεΐναι βοηθειαν τταρεξει. yiypairrai δε ττου 
καϊ δι ετέρου X6yoυ ττερΙ των κατά Ώpaξay6pav 
τον Νικάρχου χυμών, ει yap καϊ οτι. μάΧιστα 



mentary. As to that portion of the phlegm \vhich 
is carried in the veins, seeing that this is of service 
to the animal it requires no evacuation. Here too, 
then, we must pay attention and recognise that, 
just as in the case of each of the two kinds of bile, 
there is one part Λvhicll is useful to the animal and 
in accordance Avith its nature, Avhile the other part 
is useless and contrary to nature, so also is it >vith 
the phlegm ; such of it as is sweet is useful to the 
animal and according to nature, Avhile, as to such of 
it as has become bitter or salt, that part which is 
bitter is completely undigested, Avhile that part 
which is salt has undergone putrefaction. And the 
term *•' complete indigeslion " refers of course to the 
second digestion — that which takes place in the 
veins ; it is not a failure of the first digestion — that 
in the alimentary canal — for it would not have 
become a humour at the outset if it had escaped 
this digestion also. 

It seems to me that I have made enough reference 
to what has been said regarding the genesis and 
destruction of humours by Hippocrates, Plato, Aris- 
totle, Praxagoras, and Diodes, and many others 
among the Ancients ; I did not deem it right to 
transport the whole of their final pronouncements 
into this treatise. I have said only so much regard- 
ing each of the humours as will stir up the reader, 
unless he be absolutely inept, to make himself 
familiar Avith the writings of the Ancients, and will 
help him to gain more easy access to them. In 
another treatise ^ I have Avritten on the humours 
according to Praxagoras, son of Nicarchus ; although 
this authority makes as many as ten humours, not 
^ Now lost. 



Βέκα TToiel χωρϊς rov αίματος, €ν8έκατο<ί ηαρ &ν 
εϊη χνμος αύτο το αίμα, τή'ζ Ίτητοκράτονί ουκ 
άτΓογωρβΙ ΒιΒασκαλίας. αλλ' eh εϊ8η τίνα καΐ 
διαφοράς τέμνει τους ύττ εκείνου ττρώτον ττάντων 
άμα ταΐς οίκείαις άποΒείξεσίν είρη μένους χυμούς. 

^Έιτταινεΐν μεν ονν χρη τους τ εξηγησαμενους 
τα καΧώς είρημενα καϊ τους εϊ τί τταραΧέΧειττται 
ττροστίθεντας' ου yap οΙόν τε τον αύτον άρ^ασθαί 
τε καϊ τεΧειώσαΐ' μεμφεσθαι hi τους ούτως 
άταΧαιττώρονς, ώς μηΖεν ύττομένειν μαθείν των 
ορθώς είρημένων, καϊ τους εΙς τοσούτον φιλότι- 
μους, ώστ ετΓίθυμία νεωτέρων Νοημάτων άε\ 
ττανουρΎεΐν τι καϊ σοφίζεσθαι, τα μεν εκόντας 
τταραΧητόντας, ωσττερ ^Ερασίστρατος εττΐ των 
142 χυμών εττοίησε, τα Βε 7Γa\\voύpyως αντιλέγοντας, 
ωσττερ αυτός θ ούτος και αλ\οι ττοΧλοΙ τών 

'Αλλ' ούτος μεν 6 λόγο? εντανθοΐ τβλευτάτω, 
το δ' ύττόΧοιτΓον άπαν εν τφ τρίτφ ττροσθησω. 



including the blood (the blood itself being an 
eleventh), this is not a departure from the teaching 
of Hippocrates ; for Praxagoras divides into species 
and varieties the humours Avhich Hippocrates first 
mentioned, with the demonstration proper to each. 

Those, then, are to be praised who explain the 
jwints Avhich have been duly mentioned, as also 
those Λvho add what has been left out ; for it is not 
possible for the same man to make both a begin- 
ning and an end. Those, on the other hand, deserve 
censure >vho are so impatient that they Λvill not wait 
to learn any of the things which have been duly 
mentioned, as do also those Λνΐιο are so ambitious 
that, in their lust after novel doctrines, they are 
always attempting some fraudulent sophistry, either 
purposely neglecting certain subjects, as Erasistratus 
does in the case of the humours, or unscrupulously 
attacking other people, as does this same writer, as 
well as many of the more recent authorities. 

But let this discussion come to an end here, and I 
fehall add in the third book all that remains. 




143 "Οτί μβν ονν η θρ€ψι<; υΧΚοιουμίνου re και 
όμοι,ονμάνου ηίην€Ύαι του τρέφονται τω τρβφο- 
μένω καΐ ώς iv €κάστω των του ζώου μορίων 
€στί τί? Βύναμις, ην άττο τή<; ivepyeiaf άΧλοιω- 
τίκην μ€ν κατά, <yevo^, όμοιωτικην δε καΐ θρε- 
ΤΓΤίκην κατ εΙΒος ονομάζομβν, iv τω ττρόσθεν 
δεδί/λωταί λόγω. την δ' εύπορίαν της ΰΧης, ην 
τροφην €αυτω TrotetTat το τρεφόμβνον, έξ ετβρας 
τίνος 'έ'χβιν εΒείκνυτο δυνάμεως ετησττασθαί 
ττεφυκυίας τον οίκβΐον 'χυμον, είναι δ' οίκεΐον 

144 εκάστω των μορίων γυμόν, ος αν \\ ετητηΖειος 
εΙς την εζομοίωσιν η, καΐ την ελκονσαν αυτόν 
Ζύναμιν άττο της ενέργειας ελκτικην τε τίνα καΐ 
εττιστταστίκην ονομάζεσθαι. ΒεΒεικται Βε και, ώς 
ττρο μεν της ομοίώσεως η ττρόσφυσίς εστίν, 
εκείνης δ' έμπροσθεν η ττρόσθεσις '^ί'^νεται, τεΚος, 
ως αν εϊττοι τις, ούσα της κατά την ετηστταστίκην 
Βύναμιν ενεργείας, αυτό μεν <γάρ το τταρά'^ίσθαί 
την τροφην εκ των φΧεβων εΙς εκαστον των 
μορίων της ελκτικής ενεργούσης ηί'^νεται Βννά- 

^ "Of food to feeder," i.e. of the environment to the 
organism, cf. p. 39, chap. xi. 
■' " Drawing" ; cf. p. 116, note 2. 

22 2 

BOOK 111 

It has been made clear in the preceding discussion 
that nutrition occurs by an alleration or asmnilation of 
that which nourishes to that Avhich receives nourish- 
ment/ and that there exists in every part of the animal 
a faculty which in view of its activity Λνε call, in 
general terms, alterative, or, more specifically, assimi- 
lative and nutritive. It was also sho\vn that a sufficient 
supply of the matter Avhich the part being nourished 
makes into nutriment for itself is ensured by virtue 
of another faculty which naturally attracts its proper 
/li/ce [humour] that that juice is proper to each part 
which is adapted for assimilation, and that the faculty 
which attracts the juice is called, by reason of its 
activity, attractive or epispastic.^ It has also been 
shown that assimilation is preceded by adhesion, 
and this, ajjain, by presentation,^ the latter stage 
being, as one might say, the end or goal of the 
activity corresponding to the attractive faculty. 
For the actual bringing up of nutriment from the 
veins into each of the parts takes place through 
the activation of the attractive faculty,^ \vhilst to 

* For these terms {prosthesis and prosphysis in Greek) ef. 
p. 39, notes 5 and 6. 

* Lit. "through the energizing (or functioning) of the 
attractive faculty " ; the faculty {ζΰναμί!) in operation is an 
activitj' {it/ipytia). cf. p. 3, note 2. 



μ€ω<;, το δ' η8η τταρηχθαί re και Ίτροστίθεσθαι 
τφ μορίω ro τβλος eajiv αυτό, Si ο καΙ τη<; τοιαύ- 
τη<ζ ivepyeLa<i έδβηθημεν ίνα yap ττροστβθτ), 8ία 
τοΰθ^ €\κ€ται. γ^ρόνου δ' ivTevOev η8η ττλείοΐΌς 
6i9 την θρέψιν τοΐι ζώου hel• ίΧγ^θήναι μεν yap 
κα\ 8ta ταχέων τί Βνιαται, ττροσφύναι δε κα\ 
άΧΚοιωθηναι κα\ τ^λεω? ομοιωθήναι τω τρεφο- 
μβνω καΐ μέρος αύτον η&νέσθαι -παραχρήμα μβν 
ούχ οΐόν τ€, χρόνω δ' αν πΧα,ονι συμβαινοι 
καΧώς. αλλ' el μη μένοί κατά το μέρο^ 6 ττροσ- 
TcdeU οντος χυμό';, et? 'έτερον δε τί μβθίσταιτο 
κα\ τταραρρέοί δίά τταντος αμείβων τε και ύπα\- 
145 \άττων τα χωρία, κατ ού8εν αυτών \\ ούτε ττρόσ- 
φυσί<ί οΰτ εξομοίωσίς εσται. 8εΐ δε κάνταΰθά 
τίνος τ^ φύσει Βννάμεως ίτερας el<i ποΧνχρονιον 
μονην του ττροστεθέντος τω μορίω χυμοί) και 
ταύτης; ουκ εξωθέν ττοθεν εττιρρεουσης αλλ εν 
αύτώ τω θρεψομένω κατωκισμένης, ην άττο της 
ενεργείας ττάΧιν οι ττρο ημών ηνα^κάσΟησαν ονο- 
μάσαι καθεκτικην. 

Ό μεν Βη λόγο? ηΒη σαφώς ενεΒείξατο την 
ανάγκην της γενέσεως της τοιαύτης Βυνάμεως καΐ 
όστις άκοΧουθίας σύνεσιν εχεί, ττέττεισται βε- 
βαίως εξ ων εΐπομεν, ό)ς ύττοκειμένου τε καΐ 
ττροατΓοΒεΒει^μένου του τεχνίκην είναι την φύσιν 
καϊ τοΰ ζώου κηΒεμονικην avajKaiov ίητάρχειν 
αύτ^ καϊ την τοιαύτην Βύναμιν. 



have been finally brought up and presented to the 
part is the actual end for which we desired such 
an activity ; it is attracted in order that it may be 
presented. After this, considerable time is needed 
for the nutrition of the animal ; whilst a thing may 
be even rapidly attracted,, on the other hand to 
become adherent,, altered, and entirely assimilated to 
the part which is being nourished and to become a 
part of it, cannot take place suddenly, but requires a 
considerable amount of time. But if the nutritive 
juice, so presented, does not remain in the part, but 
withdraΛvs to another one, and keeps ΑοΛνίησ away, 
and constantly changing and shifting its position, 
neither adhesion nor complete assimilation will take 
place in any of them. Here too, then, the [animal's] 
nature has need of some other faculty for ensuring a 
prolonged stay of the presented juice at the part, and 
this not a faculty Λvhich comes in from somewhere 
outside but one which is resident in the part which 
is to be nourished. This faculty, again, in view of 
its activity our predecessors were obliged to call 

Thus our argument has clearly shown ^ the neces- 
sity for the genesis of such a faculty, and whoever 
has an appreciation of logical sequence must be 
firmly persuaded from Avhat we have said that, if it 
be laid doΛvn and proved by previous demonstration 
that Nature is artistic and solicitous for the animal's 
vvelfare, it necessarily follows that she must also 
possess a faculty of this kind. 

1 This chapter is an excellent example of Galen's methcxl 
of reasoning α priori. The complementary inductive method, 
however, is employed in the next chapter, ς/", p. 209, 
note 1. 




Αλλ' ημ€Ϊ<ί ου τούτω μόνω τώ yivei της άττο- 
Β€ίξ€ως είθίσμβνοι ■χρήσθαι, ττροστιθερτβς δ' αύτω 
και τας i/c των evapy(o<; φαινομένων άνα^καζούσας 
τ€ και, βιαζομβνας ττίστβίς iirl τα? τοιαύτας καΐ 
νυν αφίξόμεθα καΐ Βζίξομεν eVt μέν τίνων μορίων 
του σώματος ούτως ivapyfj την καθεκτικην διί- 
146 ναμιν, ώς αύταΐς ταΐς αίσθήσεσι || δίαγίγνώ- 
σκεσθαι την ivepyeiav αυτής, έττϊ δε τίνων "ήττον 
μ€ν ivapyώς ταΐς αίσθήσβσι,, λόγω δε κάνταύθα 
φωραθήναί Βυναμβνην. 

^ Αρξώμβθ ουν της 8ί8ασκα\ίας απ' αυτού του 
τίως ττρώτον μβθόΒω τίνΐ ττρογβιρίσασθαι μόρι 
άττα του σώματος, ε'φ' ων ακριβώς βστι βασανί- 
σαι τ€ και ζητήσαι την καθβκτικην Βύναμιν όττοία 
ττοτ εστίν. 

Άρ' ουν άμ€ΐνον αν τις ίτέρωθεν η άττο των 
μeyίστωv τε κα\ κοιΧοτάτων 6pyάvωv ύττάρξαιτο 
της ζητήσεως; βμοί μβν ουν ουκ αν 8οκ€Ϊ βέΧτιον. 
€vapyeΐς youv είκος βττΐ τούτων φανήναι τας ivep- 
yeίaς 8ια το μeyeθoς• ώς τά ye σμικρά τά^ αν, 
€1 και σφο8ράν έχει την τοιαύτην 8ύναμιν, αλλ' 
ουκ αίσθήσει y βτοίμην hιayιyvώσκeσθaι την 
evepyeiav αυτής. 

Άλλ' 'ίστιν iv τοις μάλιστα κοικότατα και μέ- 
yιστa των του ζώου μορίων ή τε γαστί)/) καΐ <αί> 
μήτραί τε και υστίραι καΧούμεναι. τι ουν κωΧύει 
ταύτα ττρώτα ττρο-χβιρισαμενους έττισκέψασθαι 
τας iv€pyeίaς αυτών, οσαι μβν κα\ ττρο της ανατομής 

^ The deductive. 

- The logos is the argument or " theory '' arrived at by tne 



Since, however, it is not our habit to employ 
this kind of demonstration ^ alone, but to add 
thereto cogent and compelling proofs dra^-n from 
obvious facts, we will also proceed to the latter kind 
in the present instance : we will demonstrate that in 
certain parts of the body tfre retentive faculty is so 
obvious that its operation can be actually recognised 
by the senses, whilst in other parts it is less obvious 
to the senses, but is capable even here of being 
detected by the argument.'^ 

Let us begin our exposition, then, by first dealing 
systematically for a >vhile with certain definite parts 
of the body, in reference to which we may accurately 
test and enquire what sort of thing the retentive 
faculty is. 

Now, could one begin the enquiry in any better 
way than Avith the largest and hollowest organs ? 
Personally I do not think one could. It is to be ex- 
pected that in these, owing to their size, the 
activities Avill shoAv quite clearly, Avheieas \vith 
respect to the small organs, even iS they possess a 
strong faculty of this kind, its activation will not at 
once be recognisable to sense. 

Now those parts of the animal which are especially 
hollow and large are the stomach and the organ 
which is called the womb or uterus.^ What prevents 
us, then, from taking up these first and considering 
their activities, conducting the enquiry on our ohti 

process of \oyiKT) Ofupia or "theorizing " ; cf. p. 151, note 3 ; 
p. 205, note 1. 

• The Greek worda for the uterns (metrae and hyuterat) 
probably owe their plural form to the belief that the organ 
was bicomuate in the human, as it is in some of the lower 
species* 2 2 '^ 


οηλαι, την έξέτασιν εφ' ημ,ων αυτών ττοίονμένους, 
οσαι δ' άμυΒρότ€ραΰ, τα παραπΧησια Βιαιροΰντα<$ 
147 άνθρώττω ζωα, || ούχ ώς ουκ αν Ικανω<ί το γε 
καθολ,ου 7Γ€ρΙ τή<ί ζητονμενη<; Βυνάμεω'ζ καΙ των 
ανόμοιων ivBei ξομενων, αλλ' ώ? ΐν άμα τω κοινώ 
κα\ το ϊΒιον έή> ημών αυτών i'yvωκότe<i et? re τάς 
BLayvcaaei^ τών νοσημάτων καϊ τάς ιάσεις βύ- 
ΤΓορώτεροι '^ΐ'•^νώμεθα. 

Tlepl μίν ουν αμφοτέρων τών ορ'^άνων άμα 
Xijeiv άΒύνατον, iv μέρβι δ' ύττερ βκατβρου 
τΓοιησομεθα τον \6yov άττο του σαφβστβρον 
ένΒβίξασθαι Βυναμίνου την καθεκτίκην Βύναμιν 
άρξάμενοι. κατίχβι μεν yap καϊ ή ^αστηρ τα 
σιτία, μέχρι ττερ αν εκττεψτ}, κατέχουσι Be καϊ 
οι μήτραι το εμβρυον, εστ αν τελειώσωσιν άλλα 
ΤΓολλαττλασίος εστίν ο της τών εμβρύων τεΧειώ- 
σ€ως χρόνος της τών σιτίων ττέψεως. 


Έΐκος ουν καΧ την Βύναμιν εναρ^εστερον εν 
ταΐς μητραις φωράσειν ημάς την καθεκτικήν, 
δσω και ττοΧυχρονιωτεραν της ^αστρος την 
ενερ'γειαν κέκτηται, μησϊ yap εννέα ττου ταΐς 
ττΧείσταις τών yυvaικώv εν αυταΐς τεΧειουται 
τα κυήματα, μεμυκυίαις μεν άτταντι τφ αύγενι, 
ττεριεχούσαις Βε ττανταχόθεν αυτά συν τω χορίω. (| 
148 καϊ ττερας γε της του στόματος μύσεως καϊ της 
του κυου μενού κατά τ ας μήτρας μονής η χρεία 
της ενεργείας εστίν ου yap ώς ετυχεν ονΒ' 
άXόyως Ικανάς περιστεΧΧεσθαι και κατίζχειν το 



persons in regard to those activities which are obvious 
Avithout dissection, and, in the case of those which 
are more obscure, dissecting animals which are near 
to man ; ^ not tliat even animals unUke him vnil 
not show, in a general way, the faculty in question, 
but because in this manner we may find out at once 
what is common to all and >vhat is peculiar to our- 
selves, and so may become more resourceful in the 
diagnosis and treatment of disease. 

Now it is impossible to speak of both organs at 
once, so we shall deal with each in turn, beginning 
with the one which is capable of demonstrating the 
retentive faculty most plainly. For the stomach 
retains the food until it has quite digested it, and 
the uterus retains the embryo until it brings it to 
completion, but the time taken for the completion of 
the embryo is many times more than that for the 
digestion of food. 


We may expect, then, to detect the retentive 
faculty in the uterus ruore clearly in proportion to 
the longer duration of its activity as compared with 
that of the stomach. For, as we know, it takes nine 
months in most women for the foetus to attain 
maturity in the womb, this organ having its neck 
quite closed, and entirely surrounding the embryo 
together with the chorion. Further, it is the utility 
of the function which determines the closure of the os 
and the stay of the foetus in the uterus. For it is 
not casually nor without reason that Nature has made 

^ Note this expression. For Galen's views on the origin 
of species, cf. Introduction, p. xxii., footnote. 


εμβρυον ή φύσί<; άττβίρ^ασατο τάς υστέρας, αλλ' 
ΐν ei9 το ττρβττον άφίκηται /ι.6γ€^09 το κυούμβνον. 
όταν ουν, ου χάριν ένήρΎουν τγι καθεκηκτ} δυνά- 
μει, συμττ€7Γ\ηρωμ^νον y, ταύτην μεν άνετταυσάν 
re καΐ et? ηρβμίαν Ιττανηηαηον , άντ αυτής δ' 
€Τ€ρα χρωνται Ty τβως ησυχαζούστ), Tfi ττροωσ- 
TiKy. ην δ' άρα καϊ της εκείνης ησυχίας ορός ή 
χρεία καϊ της y* ενερ'^είας ωσαύτως η χρεία' 
καΧούσης μεν yap αυτής ivepyei, μη καΧούσης δ' 
ησυχάζει. ^ ^ , ^ 

Κ at χρη τταΧιν κάνταυθα καταμαθεΐν της 
φύσεως την τεχνην, ως ου μόνον εvεpyeιώv χρη- 
σίμων δυνάμεις ενεθηκεν έκάστω των οργάνων, 
αλλά καϊ τον των ήσυχιών τ€ καϊ κινήσεων 
καιρού προύνοησατο. καΧώς μεν yap άττάντων 
yιyvoμεvωv των κατά την κύησιν η άττοκριτικη 
δύναμις ησυχάζει τεΧεως ωσττερ ουκ ούσα, κα- 
K07Γpayίaς Βε τίνος yevoμεvης η ττερΧ το χορίον η 
149 ττερί τίνα των άΧΧων \\ υμένων ή ττερί το κυου- 
μενον αντο καϊ της τεΧειωσεως αύτοΰ ττανταττασιν 
άτΓογνωσθείσης ούκετ άναμενουσι τον εννεαμηνον 
αι μητραι χρόνον, αλλ' ή μεν καθεκτικη Βύναμις 
αύτίκα Βη ττετταυται καϊ παραχωρεί κινεΐσθαι Trj 
ττρότερον άpyoύσrJ, ττράττει δ' ηΒη τι και ^Γpayμa- 
τεύεται χρηστον ή άττοκριτικη τε και ττροωστικη' 
καϊ yap ουν καϊ ταύτην ούτως εκάΧεσαν άττο των 
ενεργειών αύττ] τά ονόματα θεμενοι καθάττερ καϊ 
ταΐς άΧΧαις. 

Και ττως 6 λόγο? εοικεν ύττερ αμφοτέρων 
άτΓοΒείξειν άμα• καϊ yap τοι καϊ ΒιαΒεχομενας 
αύτάς άΧΧήΧας καϊ τταραχωροΰσαν άεϊ την 
έτεραν ττ) Xonry, καθότι αν ή χρεία κεΧεύτ], καϊ 



the uterus capable of contracting upon, and of re- 
taining the embryo, but in order that the latter may 
arrive at a proper size. When, therefore, the object 
for which the uterus brought its retentive faculty 
into play has been fulfilled, it then stops this faculty 
and brings it back to a state of rest, and employs 
instead of it another faculty hitherto quiescent — the 
propulsive faculty. In this case again the quiescent 
and active states are both determined by utility ; 
when this calls, there is activity ; when it does 
not, there is rest. 

Here, then, once more, Λve must observe well 
the Art [artistic tendency] of Nature — how she has 
not merely placed in each organ the capabilities 
of useful activities, but has also fore-ordained the 
times both of rest and movement. For when every- 
thing connected Avith the pregnancy proceeds pro- 
perly, the eliminalive faculty remains quiescent as 
though it did not exist, but if anything goes wrong 
in connection either with the chorion or any of 
the other membranes or with the foetus itself, and 
its completion is entirely despaired of, then the 
uterus no longer awaits the nine-months period, but 
the retentive faculty forthwith ceases and allows the 
heretofore inoperative fjiculty to come into action. 
Now it is that something is done — in fact, useful 
Avork effected — by the elminative or propulsive faculty 
(for so it, too, has been called, receiving, like the 
rest, its names from the corresponding activities). 

Further, our theory can, I think, demonstrate both 
together ; for seeing that they succeed each other, 
and that the one keeps giving place to the other 
according as utility demands, it seems not unreason- 

's » 


την 8ι8ασκα\ίαν κοινην ουκ άττβίκό^ €στί δε'χε- 
σθαι. τή<! μίν ονν καθεκηκής Βννάμ€ω<; epyov 
irepiareTkai τα<; μήτρας τω κυουμενω τταντάχό- 
θεν, ώστ εύλογω? άτττομβναίς μεν rai<i μαιευ- 
τρίαί<ί το στόμα μεμνκος αυτών φαίνεται, ταΐς 
κυούσαις δ' αύταΐ<; κατά τά<ί ττρώτας ημέρας καΐ 
μάλιστα κατ αυτήν εκείνην, εν ^ττερ αν ή της 
<γονής σύλΧηψις <γενηται, κινουμένων τε καΐ συν- 
ΙδΟτρεχ^ονσών εις εαυτάς των ύστερων αϊσθη\\σις 'yi- 
•γνεται καΐ ην αμφω ταύτα συμβ^, μΰσαι μεν το 
στόμα χωρίς φΧε^μονης η τίνος αΧΧου παθή- 
ματος, αϊσθησιν δε της κατά τάς μήτρας κινή- 
σεως άκοΧουθήσαι, ΤΓρος αυτας η8η το σπέρμα 
το παρά, τάν8ρος εΙΧηφέναι τε καΐ κατέχειν αΐ 
γυναίκες νομίζουσι. 

Ύαΰτα δ' ούχ ημείς νυν άναπΧάττομεν ήμιν 
αύτοΐς, άλλ' εκ μακράς πείρας 8οκιμασθέντα 
πάσι ^έ'^ραπται σχεδόν τι τοις περί τούτων 
πρα'^ματευσαμένοις. Ηρόφιλος μεν γε καΐ ώς 
ούΒε πυρήνα μήΧης αν Βέχοιτο των μήτρων το 
στόμα, πρ\ν αποκυεΐν την 'γυναίκα, καΧ ώς ούΒε 
τουλάχιστον ετι Βιέστηκεν, ην ύπάρξΐ)ται κύειν, 
καΐ ώς επΙ πΧέον άναστομοΰνται κατά τάς των 
έπιμηνίων φοράς, ουκ ώκνησε Ύράφ^ιν συνομο- 
\oJoυσι δ' αυτω και οΐ αΧλοι πάντες οι περί 
τούτων πpayμaτευσάμεvoι καΐ πρώτος γ' απάντων 
ιατρών τε καΐ φιλοσόφων Ιπποκράτης άπεφήνατο 
μύειν το στόμα τών υστερών εν τε ταΐς κυήσεσι 
κα\ ταΐς φΧε^μοναΐς, άλλ' εν μεν ταΐς κυήσεσιν 
ουκ εζιστάμενον της φύσεως, εν δε ταΐς φΧε^αοναΐς 
σκληρον ηιηνόμ^νον. 



able to accept a common demonstration also for both. 
Thus it is the work of the retentive faculty to make 
the uterus contract upon the foetus at every point, 
so that, naturally enough, when the midwives palpate 
it, the OS is found to be closed, whilst the pregnant 
women themselves, during the first days — and par- 
ticularly on that on Λvhich conception takes place — 
experience a sensation as if the uterus vrere moving 
and contracting upon itself. Now, if both of these 
things occur — if the os closes apart from inflammation 
or any other disease, and if this is accompanied by a 
feeling of movement in the uterus — then the Avomen 
believe that they have received the semen which 
comes from the male, and that they are retaining it. 
Now >ve are not inventing this for ourselves : one 
may say the statement is based on prolonged ex- 
perience of those who occupy themselves >vith such 
matters. Thus Herophilus ^ does not hesitate to 
state in his \vritings that up to the time of labour 
the OS uteri will not admit so much as the tip of a 
probe, that it no longer opens to the slightest degree 
if pregnancy has begun — that, in fact, it dilates more 
widely at the times of the menstrual flow. With 
him are in agreement all the others who have applied 
themselves to this subject ; and particularly HippK)- 
crates, who was the first of all physicians and 
philosophers to declare that the os uteri closes 
during pregnancy and inflammation, albeit in preg- 
nancy it does not depart from its own nature, whilst 
in inflammation it becomes hard. 

* Herophilus of Chalcedon (circa aOO B.C.) was, like 
Erasistratus, a representative of the anatomical school of 
Alexandria. His book on Mid\vifery was known for cen- 
turies, c/. Introduction, p. xii. 

•^ 233 


*Ε7Γ4 δε 7^ τ*?? εναντία<ί τή<; βκκρίτίκης άνοί- 
ηνυται μ\ν το στόμα, ττροίρχβται δ' 6 ττνθμην || 

1δ1 αττα? όσον οΙόν τ εγγυτάτω του στόματος 
ά7Γ(ύθούμβνο<ί βζω το βμβρυον, άμα δ' αυτω κα\ 
τα σννεχτ] μέρη τα οίον irXevpa του τταντος 
οργάνου συνεττιλαμβανόμενα του έργου ΘΧίββί 
τε καΐ ιτροωθεΐ ττάν βξω το βμβρυον, κα\ 7Γθλλα?9 
των γυναικών ώδίΐ/ε? βίαιοι τάς μήτρας δλα? 
€κπ€σ€Ϊν ηνάγκασαν άμέτρως γ^ρησαμύναις TJj 
τοιαύττ) Βυνάμει, τταραττΧησίου τινο<; γιγνομβνου 
τω ΤΓοΧλάκις iv ττάΧαΐζ τισΐ καΧ φιλονεικίαις 
συμβαίνοντι, όταν άνατρέψαι Τ€ καΐ καταβαΧεΐν 
ετέρους στΓβύΒοντες αυτοΧ συγκαταττεσωμβν. 
οΰτω γαρ καΐ αΐ μητραι το βμβρυον ωθοΰσαι 
συνεξεττεσον ενίοτε και μάΧισθ\ όταν οι ιτρος την 
ρά'χ^ιν αυτών σύνΒεσμοι 'χαΧαροϊ φύσει τυγ'χάνωσιν 

"Εστί 8ε και τοΰτο θαυμαστόν τι της φύσεως 
σόφισμα, το ζώντος μεν του κυήματος ακριβώς 
Ίτάνυ μεμυκεναι το στόμα τών μητρών, απο- 
θανόντος δέ τταραχρήμα διανοίγεσθαι τοσούτον, 
όσον εις την εξοΒον αύτοΰ Βιαφέρει. καΐ μεντοι 
καϊ αϊ μαΐαι τας τικτούσας ουκ ευθύς άνιστάσιν 
ούΒ* εττΐ τον Βίφρον καθίζουσιν, αλλ' άτττονται 

152 ττρότερον άνοιγομενου του στόματος \\ κατά βραχύ 
καϊ ττρώτον μεν, ώστε τον μικρόν ΒάκτυΧον 
καθιεναι, Βιεστηκέναι φασίν, εττειτ ήΒη και 
μείζον καϊ κατά βραχύ 8η ττυνθανομενοις ημΐν 
άτΓοκρίνονται το μέγεθος της Βιαστάσεως ετταυ- 
ζανόμενον. όταν δ' ίκανον 17 τ^ρός την του 
κυουμεΐ'Ου ΒίοΒον, άνιστάσιν αύτας καϊ καθιζουσι 



In the case of the opposite (the eliminative) 
faculty, the os opens, whilst the whole fundus ap- 
proaches as near as possible to the os, expelling the 
embryo as it does so ; and along with the fundus the 
contiguous parts — which form as it were a girdle 
round the whole organ — co-operate in the work ; 
they squeeze upon the embryo and propel it bodily 
outwards. And, in many women who exercise such 
a faculty immoderately, violent pains cause forcible 
prolapse of the whole womb ; here almost the same 
thing happens as frequently occurs in \VTestling-bouts 
and struggles, when in our eagerness to overturn and 
throw others Ave are ourselves upset along with them , 
for similarly when the uterus is forcing the embryo 
forward it sometimes becomes entirely prolapsed, and 
particularly when the ligaments connecting it with 
the spine happen to be naturally lax.^ 

A wonderful device of Nature's also is this — that, 
when the foetus is alive, the os uteri is closed with 
perfect accuracy, but if it dies, the os at once opens 
up to the extent >vhich is necessary for the foetus to 
make its exit. The midwife, however, does not make 
the parturient Avoman get up at once and sit down on 
the [obstetric] chair, but she begins by palpating the 
OS as it gradually dilates, and the first thing she says 
is that it has dilated " enough to admit the little 
finger," then that *^it is bigger now," and as Λνβ 
make enquiries from time,to time, she answers that 
the size of the dilatation is increasing. And Avhen 
it is sufficient to allow of the transit of the foetus/- 
she then makes the patient get up from her bed and 

^ Relaxation of utero-sacral ligaments as an important pie- 
disposmg cause of prolapsus uteri. 
' That LI, at the end of the tirst stage of labour. 



καΙ ττροθυμβΐσθαι Kekevovaiv άττώσασθαι το 
iraihiov. έ'στί δ' η^η τούτο το ep'yov, ο τταρ 
βαντών αΐ κύουσαι ττροστιθέασιν, ούκβτί των 
υστέρων, άλλα των κατ^ eTriydaTpiov μυών, οΐ 
ττρος την άτΓοπάτησίν τ€ καΐ την ονρησίν ήμϊν 


Οί;τω μ€ν iirl των μήτρων ivapy(t)<: αΙ 8ύο 
φαίνονται Βννάμ€ΐ<;, iirl δε της ^αστρος ώδε. 
Ίτρωτον μβν τοΙς κ\ύ8ωσιν, oc 8η καΐ ττεττίστευνταί 
τοΓ? ίατροΐς άρρωστου κοιλίας elvac συμπτώματα 
και κατά \oyov ττβττίστβυνταΐ' ενίοτε μεν <yap 
ελάχιστα ττροσενηνε^ μένων ου ^ί^νονται ττερι- 
στεΧΚομενης ακριβώς αύτοΐς της ^αστρος καΐ 
σφιγγούσης ττανταγ^όθεν, ενίοτε 8ε μεστή μεν η 
153 ηαστηρ εστίν, οι κλύδωνες δ' ώς εττΐ κενής 
εξακούονται. κατά φύσιν μεν yap έχουσα και 
χρωμενη καλώς τί) ττερισταλτικη 8υνάμει, καν 
6λίyov fi το Ίτεριεχόμενον, ατταν αύτο ττερι- 
λαμβάνουσα χώραν ου8εμΙαν άττολείττει κενήν, 
αρρωστούσα 8ε, καθότι αν ά8υνατήστ) ττεριλαβεΐν 
ακριβώς, ενταυθ* ευρυχωρίαν τιν εpyaζoμεvη 
συyχωpεΐ τοις ττεριεχομενοις ύypoΐς κατά τας 
των σχημάτων μετaλλayaς άλλοτ' άλλαχοσε 
μεταρρέονσι κλύΒωνας αττοτελεΐν. 

Ευλόγως οΐιΐ', οτι μη8ε ττεψουσιν Ικανώς, οι εν 
τώ8ε τω συμτττώματι yεvόμεvoι ττροσΒοκώσιν• ου 
yap εν8εχεται ττεψαι καλώς άρρωστον yaστεpa. 
τοις τοιούτοις 8e καϊ ρ-^χρι ττλείονο^ εν αύττ} 



sit on the chair, and bids her make every effort to 
expel the child. Now, this additional work which 
the patient does of herself is no longer the work 
of the uterus but of the epigastric muscles, which 
also help bs in defaecation and micturition. 


Thus the two faculties are clearly to be seen in the 
case of the uterus ; in the case of the stomach they 
appear as follows : — Firstly in the condition of gurgling, 
which physicians are persuaded, and with reason, to 
be a symptom of weakness of the stomach ; for 
sometimes when the very smallest quantity of food 
has been ingested this does not occur, owing to the 
fact that the stomach is contracting accurately upon 
the food and constricting it at every point ; some- 
times when the stomach is full the gurglings yet 
make themselves heard as though it were empty. 
For if it be in a natural condition, employing its con- 
tractile faculty in the ordinary way, then, even if its 
contents be very small, it grasps the whole of them 
and does not leave any empty space. When it is 
>veak, however, being unable to lay hold of its con- 
tents accurately, it produces a certain amount of 
vacant space, and allows the liquid contents to flow 
about in different directions in accordance with its 
changes of shape, and so to produce gurglings. 

Thus those who are troubled with this symptom 
expect, with good reason, that they ΛνΐΠ also be 
unable to digest adequately; proper digestion can- 
not take place in a Aveak stomach. In such people 
also, tlie mass of food may be plainly seen to remain 



φαίνεται τταραμενον το βάρο<{, ώ? αν καϊ βραΒύ- 
repov 7Γ€Ττουσι. καϊ μην θανμάσβιβν άν τί? εττ' 
αυτών τούτων μαλίστα τσ ττοΧνχ^ρόνίον τ•»}? iv τί} 
^αστρϊ διατριβής ου των σιτίων μόνον άλλα καϊ 
του ΤΓοματο?• ου jap, οττερ άν οΐηθείη Ti<i, ώ9 το 
της γαστ/ϊός στόμα το κάτω στβνον Ικανών 
υττάρχον oijhev τταρίησι ττρίν ακριβώς Χειωθήναι, 
τουτ αίτιον όντως βστί. ττολλά <γοΰν ττοΧλάκις 
154 οπωρών οστά μέ'γιστα καταττίνουσι \\ ττάμττοΧΧοι 
και τις 8ακτύ\ιον γρυσοΰν iv τω στόαατι φν- 
λαττων άκων κατ€7Γΐ€ και αΧΧος τις νόμισμα και 
άΧΧος άΧΧο τι σκληρον και ΒνσκατέρΎαστον, 
άΧΧ όμως άτταντες ούτοι ραΒίως άττεττάτησαν, α 
κατ€ΤΓΐον, ού^βνος αύτοΐς άκοΧονθήσαντος συμ- 
τΓτωματος. ει Be <γ ή στει/ότ?;? του ττόρου της 
<γαστρ6ς αίτια του μβνβιν εττι ττΧεον ην τοις 
άτριτττοις σιτίοις, ovhev άν τούτων ττοτε Βιεχώ- 
ρησεν. άλλα κα\ το τα ττόματ αύτοΐς εν τ-ί} 
ιγαστρί -παραμενειν επΙ ττΧεΐστον Ικανον άττά^ειν 
την ύττόνοιαν του ττόρου της στενότητος' οΧως 
yap, εϊττερ ην iv τω κεχυΧώσθαι το θάττον 
ύτΓίεναι, τά τε ροφηματ άν ούτω και το γάλα και 
6 της ΤΓΤισάνης χυλός αύτίκα Βιεξηει ττάσιν. 
άλλ' ούχ ώδ' έχει• τοις μεν yap άσθενεσιν inrl 
ττΧεΐστον εμττΧεΐ ταύτα καϊ κΧύδωνας εpyάζετaι 
τταραμενοντα καϊ ΘΧίβει και βαρύνει την y αστέρα, 
τοις δ' ίσχυροΐς ου μόνον τούτων ού8εν συμβαίνει, 
άλλα και ττοΧύ ττΧηθος άρτων καϊ κρεών ύττο- 
χωρεΐ ταχέως. 

^ The pylorus. 

* "Chylosis," chylification. cf, p. 240, note 1. 



an abnormally long time in the stomach, as would be 
natural if their digestion were slow. Indeed, the 
chief way in which these people Λνϊΐΐ surprise one is 
in the length of time that not food alone but even 
fluids will remain in their stomachs. ΝοΛν, the 
actual cause of this is not, as one would imagine, 
that the lower outlet of the stomach,^ being fairly 
narrow, will allow nothing to pass before being 
reduced to a fine state of division. There are a 
great many people who frequently swallow large 
quantities of big fruit-stones ; one person, who was 
holding a gold ring in his mouth, inadvertently 
swallowed it ; another swalloAved a coin, and various 
people have swallowed various hard and indigestible 
objects ; yet all these people easily passed by the 
bowel what they had s\vallowed, without there being 
any subsequent symptoms. Now surely if narroΛv- 
ness of the gastric outlet were the cause of untritu- 
rated food remaining for an abnormally long time, 
none of these articles I have mentioned Avould ever 
have escaped. Furthermore, the fact that it is 
liquids which remain longest in these people's 
stomachs is sufficient to put the idea of narrowness 
of the outlet out of court. For, supposing a rapid 
descent were dependent upon emulsification,'-^ then 
soups, milk, and barley-emulsion^ would at once pass 
along in every case. But as a matter of fact this is 
not so. For in people who are extremely asthenic it 
is just these fluids which remain undigested, Λvhich 
accumulate and produce gurglings, and which oppress 
and overload the stomach, whereas in strong persons 
not merely do none of these things happen, but even a 
large quantity of bread or meat passes rapidly do>vn. 

• Lit. barley-" chyle," i.e. barley-water. ' 



Ov μόνον δ' ex του ττβριτβτάσθαι την >γαστ6ρα 
155 και βαρύνβσθαι \\ και μεταρρεΐν άΧλοτ €ΐς αλΧα 
μβρη μβτα κΧύΒωνος το τταραμενειν εττΐ ττΧβον iv 
αύττ} ττάντως rot? οΰτως βχουσι τ€κμήραίτ άν 
Τί9 άλλα κάκ των βμίτων evioi "yap ου μετά 
T/3e?9 ώρας ή τβτταρας αλλά νυκτών ή8η μέσων 
τταμττοΧΧου μβταξύ 'χ^ρόνου Βιέλθόντος iirl ταΐ<} 
ττροσφοραΐς άνήμεσαν ακριβώς άτταντα τα €8η- 

Kat μεν Srj καϊ ζωον οτιουν εμττΧησα^ vypa<i 
τροφή'ζ, ωσττερ ημεΐ•? 7ΓθΧλ.άκι<; iirl συών έττειρά- 
θημβν βξ αλεύρων μάθ^ ΰ8ατο<ϊ οίον κυκεώνα τίνα 
BovT€<i αύτοΐ<}, ε7Γ€ΐτα μετά τρεις ττου καϊ τετταρας 
ώρας άνατεμόντες, ει ούτω καϊ συ πράξειας, 
ευρησεις ετι «ατά την <yaaTipa τά εΒηΒεσμενα• 
Ίτερας yap αύτοΐς εστί της ενταύθα μονής ούχ η 
γυΧωσις, ην καϊ έκτος ετι όντων μηγανήσασθαι 
Βυνατόν εστίν, α.λλ' ή ττεψις, έτερον τι της 'χυΧω- 
σβως ούσα, καθάττερ αΙμάτωσίς τε καϊ θρέψις. 
ώς yap κάκεΐνα ΒεΒεικταί ποιοτήτων μεταβοΧη 
ιγι^νόμενα, τον αυτόν τροττον καϊ ή εν Trj ^αστρί 
ττεψις τών σιτίων εις την οίκειαν εστί τω τρεφο- 
\5& μένω ττοίότητα \\ μεταβοΧη και οταν Jε ττεφθ-^ 
τεΧεως, άνοί^νυται μεν τηνικαΰτα το κάτω στόμα, 
διεκ'ττίτΓτει δ' αύτοΰ τα σιτια ραΒίως, ει και 
ττΧηθός τι μεθ' εαυτών εγρντα τύχοι Χίθων η 
οστών η yiy άρτων η τίνος άλλοι» "χυΧωθηναι 
μη Βυναμενου. και σο'. 'οίτ' ενεστιν εττΐ ζωον 


And it is not only because the stomach is distended 
and loaded and because the fluid runs from one part 
of it to another accompanied by gurglings — it is not 
only for these reasons that one would judge that 
there was an unduly long continuance of the food in 
it, in those people who are so disposed, but also from 
the voiniiing. Thus, there are some Λνΐιο vomit up 
every particle of Λvhat they have eaten, not after 
three or four hours, but actually in the middle of the 
night, a lengthy period having elapsed since their 

Suppose you fill any animal whatsoever with liquid 
food — an experiment I have often carried out in pigs, 
to whom I give a sort of mess of Λvheaten flour and 
water, thereafter cutting them open after three or 
four hours ; if you Λνϋΐ do this yourself, you will find 
the food still in the stomach. For it is not chylifica- 
tion^ which determines the length of its stay here — 
since this can also be effected outside the stomach ; 
the determining factor is digestion ^ which is a differ- 
ent thing from chylification, as are blood-production 
and nutrition. For, just as it has been shown ^ that 
these two processes depend xi^^on a. change of qualities, 
similarly also the digestion of food in the stomach 
involves a transmutation of it into the quality proper 
to that which is receiving nourishment.* Then, 
Λvhen it is completely digested, the lo\ver outlet 
opens and the food is quickly ejected through it, 
even if there should be amongst it abundance of 
stones, bones, grape-pips, or other things which can- 
not be reduced to chyle. And you may observe this 

^ i.e. not the mere mechanical breaking down of food, but 
a distinctively vital action of "alteration." 

" Pepsi*. 3 Book I., chaps, x., xi. * ς/", p.2S2, note 1. 



θεάσασθαι στο'χασαμβνω τον καιρόν τ?}? κάτω 
hi^eohov. κοΧ μβν γε καΐ el σφαΧ€ίη<; ττοτε τοΟ και- 
ρόν και μηΒβν μήττω κάτω τταρέργ^οιτο ττβττομένων 
€τι κατά την ^γαστέρα των σιτίων, ούδ' οΰτω<ς 
άκαρτΓΟ^ η ανατομή σοι Ύβνησβταΐ' θζάστ) yap 
€7γ' αυτών, οττερ ολίγω ττρόσθβν €λ€γο/Α€ΐ/, ακρι- 
βώς μίν μβμνκότα τον ττυΧωρόν, άττασαν δε την 
yaaTcpa ττεριεσταΧμβνην τοΐ? σιτίοις τρόττον 
όμοιότατον, olovrrep καΧ αΐ μητραι τοις κνον- 
μίνοις. ου yap βστιν ονΒέττοτβ κενην evpeiv 
'χωράν οΰτ€ κατά τάς υστέρας οΰτ€ κατά την 
κοιλ,ίαν οντ€ κατά τάς κύστβις άμφοτέρας οΰτ€ 
κατά την χοΧη^όχ^ον όνομαζομβνην οΰτ€ την 
CTepav αλλ' €Ϊτ okiyov βϊη το ττβριβχόμβνον iv 
αυταις είτε ττοΧύ, μεσταΐ και ττΧηρβις αυτών αΐ 
κοιλίαι φαίνονται ττεριστεΧΧομενων aei τών χιτώ- 
νων τοις ττεριεχομβνοις, όταν ye κατά φύσιν εγτ) 
το ζώον. II 
157 ^Ερασίστρατος δ' ουκ οίδ' οττως την ττεριστοΧην 
της yaστpoς άττάντων αΐτίαν άττοφαίνει καϊ της 
Χειώσεως τών σιτίων καΐ της τών ττεριττωμάτων 
υττογωρησεως και της τών κεχυΧωμίνων ανα- 

Έγώ μεν yap μυριάκις εττϊ ζώντος ετι του ζώου 
ΒιεΧών το ττεριτόναιον ευρον άεΧ τά μεν έντερα 
ττάντα ττεριστεΧΧόμενα τοις ενυττάργουσι, την 
κοιΧίαν δ' ούχ άττΧώς, αλλ' εττϊ μεν ταΐς ε8ωΒαΐς 
άνωθεν τε καϊ κάτωθεν αυτά και ττανταχόθεν άκρι- 

' Choledochous. ^ More exactly pertVoM; cf. p. 97, note 1. 

' Neuburger saj'S of Erasistratus that "dissection had 

taught him to thiuk in terms of anatomy." It was chiefly 



yourself in an animal, if you will try to hit upon the 
time at which the descent of food from the stomach 
takes place. But even if you should fail to discover 
the time, and nothing v,-as yet passing down, and the 
food was still undergoing digestion in the stomach, 
still even then you would find dissection not without 
its uses. You will observe, as we have just said, 
that the pylorus is accurately closed, and that the 
whole stomach is in a state of contraction upon the 
food very much as the womb contracts upon the 
foetus. For it is never possible to find a vacant 
space in the uterus, the stomach, or in either of the 
two bladders — that is, either in that called bile- 
receiving ' or in the other ; whether their contents 
be abundant or scanty, their cavities are seen to be 
replete and full, owing to the fact that their coats 
contract constantly upon the contents — so long, at 
least, as the animal is in a natural condition. 

Now Erasistratus for some reason declares that it 
is the contractiiMis 2 of the stomach which are the 
cause of everything — that is to say, of the softening 
of the food,2 the removal of waste matter, and the 
absorption of the food when chylified [emulsified]. 

Now I have personally, on countless occasions, 
divided the peritoneum of a still living animal 
and have always found all the intestines contracting 
peristaltically ■* upon their contents. The condition 
of the stomach, hoAvever, is found less simple ; as 
regards the substances freshly swallowed, it had 
grasped these accurately both above and below, in 
fact at every point, and Avas as devoid of movement 

the gross movements or structure of organs with which he 
concerned himself. Where an organ had no obvious function, 
he dubbed it "useless" ; e.g. the spleen (cf. p. 143). 

* i.e. contracting and dilating ; no longitudinal movements 
involved ; ^f. p. 263, note 2. 243 


βως ττεριειληφνΐαν άκίνητον, ώς hoKeiv ήνώσθαι 
καϊ ττεριτΓβφυκέναι τοί<; σιτίοι^' ev 8e τούτω καί 
τον ττνΧωρον ενρισκον άβΐ μβμυκότα και Κ€κ\€ΐσ- 
pevov ακριβώς ωσττερ το των υστερών στόμα 
ταΐς iyKvpoffiv. 

ΈττΙ μβντοι ταΐς ττέψεσι σνμτΓειτλ.ηρωμεναι^; 
άνβωκτο μβν 6 ττυΧωρός, η /γαστηρ Be ι/ΓβριστάΧ,τι- 
κώς eKiveiTO τταραττΧησίωΐί τοϊς ii'Tepoi'i. 

"KiravT ουν άλλτ^λοί? opoXoyei ταντα καΐ ttj 
yaaTpl καΐ ταΐς υστβραις καΐ τα?? κύστβσιν βιναί 
τινας έμφυτους 8υνάμ€ΐ<; καθεκτικας μβν των 
158 οίκβίων ΤΓΟίοτήτων, \\ άττοκριτικας 8e των άΧλο- 
τρίων. ΟΤΙ μεν <γαρ €λκ€ΐ την χοΧην €ΐς εαυτην η 
€7γΙ τφ ήττατι κύστις, έμπροσθεν ΒεΒεικται, οτι 8ε 
καϊ άτΓΟκρίνβι καθ^ εκάστην ημεραν el<; την 
^γαστέρα, καϊ τοΟτ' ivapyco^ φαίνεται, και μην ει 
8ιε8εχετο την εΧκτικην 8ύναμιν ή εκκριτική καϊ 
μη μέση τις άμφοΐν ην η καθεκτικη, 8ια τταντος 
εχρην άνατεμνομενων των ζωών ϊσον ττΧήθος 
χοΧής ευρίσκεσθαι κατά την κύστιν ου μην 
ευρίσκεται ye. ττοτε μεν yap ττΧηρεστάτη, ττοτε 
8ε κενότατη, ττοτε 8ε τας εν τω μεταξύ 8ιαφορά<; 
έχουσα θεωρείται, καθάττερ καϊ ή έτερα κύστις η 
το ονρον ύτΓοΒεχομένη. ταύτης μεν yε καϊ ττρο 
της ανατομής αίσθανόμεθα, ττρίν άνιαθήναι τω 
ιτΧηθει βαρυνθεΐσαν ή Ty 8ριμύτητι 8ηχθεΐσαν, 

* φ ρ. 282, note J . " Book II., cbapa. ii. and viii. 


as though it had groAvn round and become united 
with the food.^ At the same time I found the 
pylorus persistently closed and accurately shut, like 
the OS uteri on the foetus. 

In the cases, however, where digestion had been 
completed the pylorus had opened, and the stomach 
was undergoing peristaltic movements, similar to 
those of the intestines. 

Thus all these facts agree that the stomach, 
uterus, and bladders possess certain inborn faculties 
which are retentive of their own proper qualities 
and eliminative of those that are foreign. For it 
has been already shown ■^ that the bladder by the 
liver draws bile into itself, Λvhile it is also quite 
obvious that it eliminates this daily into the stomach. 
Now, of course, if the eliminative >vere to succeed 
the attractive faculty and there Λvere not a retentive 
faculty between the two, there would be found, 
on every occasion that animals were dissected, an 
equal quantity ot bile in the gall-bladder. This 
however, we do not find. For the bladder is some- 
times observed to be very full, sometimes quite 
empty, while at other times you find in it various 
intermediate degrees of fulness, just as is the case 
with the other bladder — that Λvhich receives the 
urine ; for even Λvithout resorting to anatomy we 
may obsen'e that the urinary bladder continues to 
collect urine up to the time that it becomes uncom- 
fortable through the increasing quantity of urine or 
the irritation caused by its acidity — ^the presumption 



άθροιζονσης ert το ovpov, ώς οΰσης τίνος κάνταΰθα 
Βυνάμεως καθβκτικής. 

Οΰτω Se καϊ ή yaarrjp υττο Βριμύτητος ττολ- 
\ακί<; Βη-χθύσα ττρωίαίτβρον τον ζεοντος άττετττον 
€τι την τροφην άττοτρίβεται. ανθις δ' αν ττοτε 
τω ττΧηθβι βαρυνθεΐσα ή καϊ κατ αμφω σννβΧ- 
θοντα κακω<ζ Βιατβθεΐσα Βιαρροίαι<ί ίαλω. καϊ 
μεν ye και οι βμετοι, τω πΧηθεί βαρννθείσης || 
159 αυτής η την Ίτοιότητα των iv αύττ} σιτίων τε καϊ 
7Γ€ριττωμάτων μη φερούσης, avaXoyov τι ταΐς 
Βιαρροίαις πάθημα τη<^ άνω ηαστρός ίστιν. όταν 
μεν yap ii> τοις κάτω μβρβσιν αυτής η τοιαύτη 
yevητaι Βιάθβσις, ερρωμίνων των κατά τον στό- 
μαχον, €ΐς Βιαρροίας βτεΧεύτησεν, όταν δ' ev τοις 
κατά το στόμα, των άΧΧων εύρωστούντων, εις 
i μίτους. 


"Ει^βστί δε καϊ τούτο ττοΧΧάκις ivapyώς iSelv 
€7γΙ των άποσίτων άvayκaζ6μevoι yap iaO'ieiv 
οΰτβ κατατΓίνειν βυσθενουσιν οΰτ, ει καϊ βιάσαιντο, 
κατβχουσιν, αλλ' ευθύς άνεμουσι. καϊ οΊ άΧΧως 
δε των εδεσμάτων ττρος οτιοΰν Βυσχε βαίνοντες 
βιασθεντες ενίοτε προσάρασθαι ταχέως εξεμουσιν, 
ή ει κατάσχοιεν βιασάμενοι, ναυτιώΒεις τ είσΐ 
και τής yaστρoς ύτττίας αΙσθάνονται καϊ σττευ- 
Βούσης άττοθέσθαι το Χυττοΰν. 

Ούτως εξ άττάντων των φαινομένων, οττερ εξ 
αρχής ερρεθη, μαρτυρεΐται το Βεΐν ύττάρχειν τοις 
του ζώου μορίοις σχεΒον άττασιν εφεσιν μεν τίνα 



thus being that here, too, there is a retentive 

Similarly, too, the stomach, when, as often happens, 
it is irritated by acidity, gets rid of the food, although 
still undigested, earlier than proper ; or again, when 
oppressed by the quantity of its contents, or dis- 
ordered from the co-existence of both conditions, it 
is seized with diarrhoea. Vomiting also is an affec- 
tion of the upper [part of the] stomach analogous 
to diarrhoea, and it occurs when the stomach is over- 
loaded or is unable to stand the quality of the food 
or surplus substances which it contains. Thus, when 
such a condition develops in the lower parts of the 
stomach, while the parts about the inlet are normal, 
it ends in diarrhoea, whereas if this condition is in 
the upper stomach, the lower parts being normal, it 
ends in vomiting. 


This may often be clearly observed in those who 
are disinclined for food ; when obliged to eat, they 
have not the strength to swallow, and, even if they 
force themselves to do so, they cannot retain the 
food, but at once vomit it up. And those especially 
who have a dislike to some particular kind of food, 
sometimes take it under compulsion, and then 
promptly bring it up ; or, if they force themselves to 
keep it down, they are nauseated and feel their 
stomach turned up, and endeavouring to relieve itself 
of its discomfort. 

Thus, as was said at the beginning, all the observed 
facts testify that there must exist in almost all parts 
of the aninial a certain inclination towards, or, so to 



καΐ οίον ορβξιν τή<ζ οίκβία^ 'ΐΓ0ΐ6τηΎ0<;, άττοστροφην 

160 δε τίνα || καϊ οίον μισός rt της άΧλοτρίας. αλλ' 
ξφιεμβνα μβν βΧκειν evXoyov, άττοστρβφόμενα δ' 

Κάκ τούτων ΊταΚ,ιν η θ' €Χκτικη Βύναμις 
άτΓοΒακνυταί καθ* άπαν υττάρ'χονσα καϊ ή ττρο- 

Αλλ enrep €φ€σις re τί.9 βστι και, βΧξις, €ΐη αν 
τις καϊ άπόΧανσις' ov8ev yap των όντων eXKCi τι 
Βι αντο το ΐΧκβιν, αλλ' Χν άττοΧαύστ] του Βια 
της όΧκής ξυττορηθ^ντος. καϊ μην άττοΧαύειν ου 
Βύναται μη κατασχ^όν. καν τούτω ττάΧιν η 
καθβκτικη Βύναμις αττοΒβικνυται την yeveaiv 
αναηκαίαν βχουσα' σαφώς yap έφίβται μίν των 
οίκβίων ΊΓΟίοτητων η ^γαστήρ, άττοστρβφβται Be 
τας άΧΧοτρίας. 

'Αλλ' CLTTep βφίεταί τ€ καϊ eXKei καϊ αττοΧαύει 
κατβχουσα καϊ ττβριστβΧΧομβνη, €Ϊη αν τι καϊ 
ττάρας αύτη της άττοΧαύσβως κάττϊ τωδ ο καιρός 
ηΒη της εκκριτικής Βυνάμ€ως ενεργούσης. 


'Αλλ' &, καϊ κατέχει κα\ άττοΧαύει, κατα- 
γρήταί ττρος ο πεφυκε. ττεφυκε Βε του ττροσ- 

161 ηκοντος εαυττ} || κατά ποιότητα καϊ οικείου 

^ Note use of psychological terms in biology^ ς/! also 
p. 133, note 3. 
2 .«In everything." qf. p. 66, note 3. 



speak, an appetite for their ΟΛνη sjiecial quality, and 
an aversion to, or, as it were, a hatred ^ of the foreign 
quality. And it is natural that when they feel an 
inch'nation they should attract, and that when they 
feel aversion they should expel. 

From these facts, then, again, both the attractive 
and the propulsive faculties have been demonstrated 
to exist in everj'thing.^ 

But if there be an inclination or attraction, there 
will also be some benefit derived ; for no existing 
thing attracts anything else for the mere sake of 
attracting, but in order to benefit by what is acquired 
by the attraction. And of course it cannot benefit 
by it if it cannot retain it. Herein, then, again, 
the retentive faculty is shown to have its necessary 
origin : for the stomach obviously inclines towards 
its own proper qualities and turns away from those 
that are foreign to it.^ 

But if it aims at and attracts its food and benefits 
by it while retaining and contracting upon it, we 
may also expect that there will be some tennination 
to the benefit received, and that thereafter will come 
the time for the exercise of the eliminative faculty. 


But if the stomach both retains and benefits by its 
food, then it employs it for the end for which it [the 
stomach] naturally exists. And it exists to partake 
-_of that which is of a quality befitting and proper to 

» Galen confuses the nutrition of organs with that of the 
ultimate living elements or cells ; the stoma^:h does not, of 
course, feed itself in the way a cell does, φ Introduction, 
p. xxziL 




μεταΚαμβάνβίν ωσθ' βλ/κβί των σιτίων όσον 
χρηστότατον άτμωΒώς re zeal κατά. βραχύ και 
τοΰτο τοις βαντής χιτώσιν βναττοτίθβταί τ€ καΐ 
ττροστιθησιν. όταν δ' ίκανως βμπΧησθτ}, καθά- 
irep άχθος τι την Χοιττην άττοτίθεται τροφην 
€σχηκυΐάν τι χρηστον η8η και αύτην βκ της ττρος 
την yaaTepa κοινωνίας• ovBe <γάρ βν^ίχεται 8νο 
σώματα 8ράν και ιτάσχειν βττιτήΖβια συνΐΧθόντα 
μη ουκ ήτοι ττάσχβιν θ^ αμα καϊ Βραν η θάτερον 
μ€ν 8ράν, θάτερον he ττάσχειν. iav μεν yap 
ισάζτ) ταΐς Βυνάμεσιν, εξ ϊσου 8ράσει τε καϊ 
ττεισεται, αν δ' υττερεχη ττοΧύ και κρατί) θάτερον, 
ivepyήσ6l ττερϊ το ττάσχον ώστε Βράσει με^α 
μεν τι κα\ αίσθητόν, αύτο δ' ήτοι σμικρόν τι καϊ 
ουκ αΙσθητον η τταντάττασιν ούΒεν ττεισεται. αλλ' 
εν τούτω 8η και μάΧιστα Βιηνε^κε φαρμάκου 
ΒηΧητηρίου τροφή• το μεν yap κρατεί της εν τω 
σώματι Βυνάμεως, ή 8ε κρατείται. 

Οΰκουν ενΒεχεται τροφην μίν είναι τι τφ ζώω 
ττροσηκουσαν, ου μην καϊ κρατεΐσθαί y ομοίως 
162 προς των || εν τω ζωω ττοιοτητων το κρατεΐσθαι 
Β ην άΧΧοιουσθαι. άλλ' έττει τα μεν Ισχυρότερα 
ταΐς Βυνάμεσίν εστί μόρια, τα δ' ασθενέστερα, 
κρατήσει μεν ττάντα της οικείας τω ζοίω τροφής, 
ούχ ομοίως Βε ττάντα• κρατήσει δ' άρα καϊ η 
y αστήρ καϊ άΧΧοιώσει μεν την τροφην, ου μην 
ομοίως ήττατι καϊ φΧεψϊ καϊ άρτηρίαις καϊ 

ΤΙοσον ουν εστίν, ο άΧΧοιοΐ, καϊ Βή θεασώμεθα• 
τΐΧεον μεν η κατά το στόμα, μείον δ' η κατά το 

* cf. Asclepiades's theory regarding the urine, p. 51. 

' The process of application or proethesis. cf. p. 223, note 3. 



it. Thus it attracts all the most useful parts oi the 
food in a vaporous ^ and finely divided condition^ 
storing this up in its own coats, and applying ^ it to 
them. And Λν1ΐ6η it is sufficiently full it puts away 
from it, as one might something troublesome, the rest 
of the food, this having itself meanwhile obtained some 
profit from its association Λvith the stomach. For it 
is impossible for two bodies which are adapted for 
acting and being acted upon to come together with- 
out either both acting or being acted upon, or else 
one acting and the other being acted upon. For if 
their forces are equal they will act and be acted 
upon equally, and if the one be much superior in 
strength, it will exert its activity upon its passive 
neighbour ; thus, while producing a great and appre- 
ciable effect, it will itself be acted upon either little 
or not at all. But it is herein also that the main 
difference lies between nourishing food and a dele- 
terious drug ; the latter masters the forces of the 
body, whereas the former is mastered by them.^ 

There cannot, then, be food which is suited for the 
animal Avhich is not also correspondingly subdued bj 
the qualities existing in the animal. And to be 
subdued means to undergo alteration.* Now, some 
parts are stronger in power and others weaker 
therefore, Avhile all will subdue the nutriment which 
is proper to the animal, they will not all do so 
equally. Thus the stomach will subdue and alter its 
food, but not to the same extent as will the liver 
veins, arteries, and heart. 

We must therefore observe to what extent it does 
alter it. The alteration is more than that which 

• Mutual influence of organism and environment. 

* Qualitative change, cf. Book I., chap. ii. 



ήττάρ Τ€ καΐ τας φ\€βα<;. αΰτη μίν yhp η 
αΧΧοιωσις 649 αίματος ούσίαν ayei την τροφηι•, 
η δ' ev τω στόμαη μβθίστησι μεν αυτήν ivapyco^ 
€49 erepov είδος, ου μην eh τβλο? ye μετακοσμεΐ. 
μάθοίς δ' αν εττϊ των εyκaτa\€lφθεvτωv ταΐς 
Βιαστάσεσί των οδόντων σιτίων καΐ καταμεινάν- 
των δί δΧης νυκτός• ούτε yap άρτος ακριβώς ί 
άρτος οΰτε κρέας εστί το κρέας, αλλ' όζει μεν 
τοιούτον, οΐόνττερ καΐ του ζώου το στόμα, δια- 
ΧεΚυται δβ καΐ διατέτηκε καΐ τας εν τω ζωω της 
σαρκός άττομεμακται ποιότητας, ενεστί δε σοι 
163 θεάσασθαι το μεyεθoς της εν τφ στόματι \\ των 
σιτι,ων αΧλοιώσεως, ει ττνρούς μασησάμενος 
ετΓίθειης άττετΓτοις δοθιήσιν όψει yap αυτούς 
τάχιστα μεταβάΧλοντάς τε καΐ συμττεττοντας, 
ούδεν τοιούτον, όταν ϋδατι φυραθώσιν, εpyάσa- 
σθαι δυνάμενους, καϊ μη θαυμάσιας' το yap τοι 
φXεyμa τουτϊ το κατά το στόμα καϊ Χεί'χτηνων 
εστίν ακος καϊ σκορττίους αναιρεί τταραχρήμα καϊ 
ΤΓοΧΧα των ΙοβόΧων θηρίων τα μεν ευθέως 
άίΓΟκτείνει, τα δ' ες ύστερον άτταντα yo\)v 
βΧατττει μεyaXως. άλλα τα μεμασημενα σιτία 
ττρώτον μεν τούτω τω φXεyμaτι βεβρεκταί τε 
καϊ Ίτεφύραται, δεύτερον δε καΐ τω χρωτΐ του 
στόματος άτταντα ττεπΧησίακεν, ώστε ιτΧείονα 
μεταβοΧην εΓΧηφε των εν ταΐς κεναΐς χώραις των 
οδόντων εσφηνωμενων. 

Αλλ' όσον τα μεμασημενα τούτων εττϊ ττΧεον 
ήΧΧοίωται, τοσούτον εκείνων τά καταττοθεντα. 



occurs in the mouth, but less than that in the liver 
and veins. For the latter alteration changes the 
nutriment into the substance of blood, whereas that in 
the mouth obviously changes it into a new form, but 
certainly does not completely transmute it. This 
vou may discover in the food which is left in the 
intervals between the teeth, and which remains there 
all night ; the bread is not exactly bread, nor the 
meat meat, for they have a smell similar to that of 
the animal's mouth, and have been disintegrated and 
dissolved, and have had the qualities of the animal's 
riesh impressed upon them. And you may observe 
the extent of the alteration which occurs to food in 
the mouth if you will chew some com and then 
apply it to an unripe [undigested] boil : you Avill see 
it rapidly transmuting — in fact entirely digesting — 
the boil, though it cannot do anything of the kind Lf 
you mix it with water. And do not let this surprise 
you ; this phlegm [saliva] in the mouth is also a cure 
for lichens ^ ; it even rapidly destroys scorpions ; 
while, as regards the animals which emit venom, 
some it kills at once, and others after an interval ; 
to all of them in any case it does great damage. 
Now, the masticated food is all, firstly, soaked in and 
mixed up Λvith this phlegm ; and secondly, it is 
brought into contact with the actual skin of the 
mouth ; thus it undergoes more change than the 
food which is wedged into the vacant spaces between 
the teeth. 

But just as masticated food is more altered than 
the latter kind, so is food which has been swa^loΛved 
more altered than that which has been merely 

* Apparently skin-diseases in which a superficial cnut 
(resemblii)g the lichen on a tree-trunk) forms — eg. peoriasis. 



μη yap ovSe τταραβΧητον y το της ύττερβοΧή•;, 
el το κατά την κοίΧιαν βννοηοαιμβν φΧύ'γμα καί 
'χρλ.ην και ττνενμα καΐ θβρμασίαν καΐ οΚ/ην την 
ούσίαν τη<ί <^αστρό<ί, ei δε κα\ συνβττινοήσαις 

164 αύττ} τα τταρακείμενα || σττΧάηγνα καθάττξ,ρ τινΧ 
Χέβητί μβ^άΧω 7rvpb<; Ιστία? ττολλά?, €κ Ββξιών 
μεν το ήτταρ, έξ αριστερών Be τον σττΧήνα, την 
καρΒίαν δ' €κ των άνω, συν αύτη δε και τά? 
φρένας αιωρούμενα^; τε και 8ιά τταντος κινονμένας, 
ε'φ' άττασι δε τούτοις σκέττον το ΙττίττΧοον, βξαί- 
σιόν τίνα ττβισθηση την αΧΧοίωσιν ηί^νβσθαι των 
et9 την ηαστίρα καταττοθέντων σιτ'ιων. 

Πω? δ' αν ηΒύνατο ραΒίως αίματοΐισθαι μη 
ττροτΓαρασκβυασθίντα τη τοιαύτη μβταβοΧη; δε- 
heiKTai yap ονν και ττρόσθεν, ώς ovSev βίς την 
ivavTiav αθρόως μεθίσταται ττοιότητα. πώς ουν 
6 άρτος αίμα y'lyveTai, ττώς δε το τεΰτΧον η ο 
κύαμος η τι τών άΧΧων, ei μη ττροτερόν τιν ίτίραν 
άΧΧοίωσιν ε'δε'^ατο; ττώς δ' η κόπρος ev τοις 
Χεπτοΐς έντβροις αθρόως ^γεννηθήσεται; τι <γάρ ev 
τούτοις σφο8ρότερον εις άλΧοίωσίν εστί τών κατά 
την y αστέρα; ποτβρα τών 'χιτώνων το πΧηθος η 
τών yeιτvιωvτωv σπXάy■χyωv ή περιθεσις η της 
μονής 6 χρόνος η σύμφυτος τις εν τοις opyavoις 
θερμασία; καΐ μην κατ ούΒεν τούτων πΧεονεκτεΐ 
τά έντερα της yaστpός. τι ποτ ουν εν μεν τη 

165 yaoTpX νυκτός || οΧης ποΧΧάκις μείναντα τον 
άρτον ετι φυΧάττεσθαι βούΧονται τάς αρχαίας 
Βιασωξοντα ποιότητας, επειΒάν δ' άπαξ εμπεση 

^ Note especially pneuma and innate heat, which practi- 
cally stand for oxygen and the heat generated in oxidatio? 
cf. p. 41, note 3. * Book 1., chap. x. 



masticated. Indeed, there is no com|jarison between 
these two processes ; we have only to consider what 
the stomach contains — phlegm, bile, pneuma, [in- 
nate] heat,^ and, indeed the Λvhole substance of the 
stomach. And if one considers along with this the 
adjacent viscera, like a lot of burning hearths around 
a great cauldron — to the right the liver, to the left 
the spleen, the heart above, and along -with it the 
diaphragm (suspended and in a state of constant 
movement), and the omentum sheltering them all — 
you may believe what an extraordinary alteration it 
is which occurs in the food taken into the stomach. 

How could it easily become blood if it were not 
previously prepared by means of a change of this 
kind ? It has already been sho>vn ^ that nothing is 
altered all at once from one quality to its opposite. 
How then could bread, beef, beans, or any other 
food turn into blood if they had not previously 
undergone some other alteration.'' And how could 
the faeces be generated right away in the small 
intestine ? ' For what is there in tliis organ more 
potent in producing alteration than the factors in the 
stomach .'' Is it the number of the coats, or the way 
it is surrounded by neighbouring viscera, or the time 
that the food remains in it, or some kind of innate 
heat which it contains ? Most assuredly the intestines 
have the advantage of the stomach in none of these 
respects. For what possible reason, then, will ob- 
jectors have it that bread may often remain a >vhole 
night in the stomach and still preserve its original 
qualities, whereas when once it is projected into the 

* That is to say, faeces are obviously altered food. This 
alteration cannot have taken place entirely in the small 
intestine : therefore alteration of food must take place in the 



τοις ivrepoL<i, €νθυ<ζ yiyveaOai κόττρον; el μβν 
yap ο τοσούτος χ^ρόνος άΒύνατος άΧλοιοΰν, ovS ο 
βράχους ίκανό<;' el δ' οντος αυτάρκης, ττώς ου 
ΤΓοΧύ μάΧλον 6 μακρός; αρ ονν άΧΚοίονταί μβν 
ή τροφή κατά την κοιΧίαν, αΧλην Be τιν άΧλοίω- 
σιν καΐ ούχ^ ο'ίαν Ικ της φύσεως ϊσχει του μ€τα- 
βάΧλοντος 6pyάvoυ; η ταύτην μίν, ου μην την 
y οίκβιαν τφ του ζώου σώματι; μακρω τοΰτ 
ά8υνατώτ€ρον εστί. καΐ μην ουκ άΧλο γ' ην ή 
ττέψις ή άΧλοίωσις εΙς την OLKeLav tcc τρεφομένου 
ΤΓΟίότητα. etirep ουν η ττεψις τοΰτ εστί καΧ η 
τροφή κατά την yacTepa SeSeiKTai Βεχομενη 
ποιότητα τω μέΧλοντί ττρος αυτής θρεψεσθαι ζωω 
ττροσηκουσαν, ίκανώς άττοΒεΒεικται το ττεττεσθαι 
κατά, την yaaTepa την τροφήν. 

ΚαΙ yeXoΐϋς μεν * ΚσκΧητηάΒης οΰτ εν ταΐς 
εpυyaΐς \έyωv εμφαίνεσθαί ττοτε την ττοιότητα 
των ττεφθεντων σιτίων οΰτ εν τοις εμετοις οΰτ 
166 εν ταΐς άΐ'α\\τομαΐς' αυτό yap 8η το του σώματος 
εξόζειν αυτά της κοιλίας εστί το ττεττεφθαι. ό δ' 
οί5τω<? εστίν εύήθης, ώστ, εττειΒη των τταΧαιων 
ακούει \εyόvτωv εττΐ το χρηστόν εν ttj yaστpl 
μεταβάΧλειν τα σιτία, Βοκιμάζει ζητ€ΐν ου το 
κατά Βύναμιν αλλά το κατά yeυσιv •χρηστόν, 
ώσπερ ή του μή\ου μηΧωΒεστερου — γ^ρη yap 
ούτως αύτω Bιa\εyeσθaι — yιyvoμεvoυ κατά την 
κοιΧίαν ή του μεΧιτος μεΧιτωΒεστέρον. 

1 cf. ρ. 39. 

^ Asclepiades held that there was no sixch thing as real 



intestines, it straightway becomes ordure? For, if 
6uch a long period of time is incapable of altering it, 
neither will the short period be sufficient, or, if the 
latter is enough, surely the longer time will be much 
more so ! Well, then, can it be that, while the 
nutriment does undergo an alteration in the stomach, 
this is a different kind of alteration and one Avhich is 
not dependent on the nature of the organ Λvhich 
alters it ? Or if it be an alteration of this latter 
kind, yet one perhaps which is not proper to the 
body of the animal ? This is still more impossible. 
Digestion was shown to be nothing else than an 
alteration to the quality proper to that which is 
receiving nourishment.^ Since, then, this is what 
digestion means and since the nutriment has been 
shown to take on in the stomach a quality appro- 
priate to the animal which is about to be nourished 
by it, it has been demonstrated adequately that 
nutriment does undergo digestion in the stomach. 

And Asclepiades is absurd when he states that 
the quality of the digested food never shows itself 
either in eructations or in the vomited matter, or on 
dissection.2 For of course the mere fact that the 
food smells of the body shows that it has undergone 
gastric digestion. But this man is so foolish that, 
when he hears the Ancients saying that the food is 
converted in the stomach into something "good," he 
thinks it proper to look out not for what is good ir 
its possible effects, but for what is good to the taste. 
this is like sajing that apples (for so one has to argue 
with him) become more apple-like [in flavour] in the 
stomach, or honey more honey-like I 

t(\lalitative change ; the food was merely broken up into ite 
constituent molecules, and absorbed unaltered, ef. p. 49, 
note 5. 


Πολύ δ' εύηθβστερό^ eart καΐ γελοιότε/οος ό 
^Ερασίστρατο*: ή μη νοών, οττως βϊρηται ιτρος των 
ττάλαιών η ττβψις έψήσεί τταραττΧήσιΟ'ί υττάρχ^ειν, 
ή €κών σοφιζόμενος iavTOV. ^ψήσει μβν ονν, 
φησίν, οϋτως βΧαφραν βχονσαν θβρμασίαν ουκ 
€ίκ6<; elvai τταραττΧησίαν την ττεψιν, ωσττερ η την 
AtTi'7;t' Beov υτΓοθβΐναί Ty <γαστρΙ η αΧλως αύτη'; 
άΧλοιώσαι τα σιτία μη 8νναμ€νη<; ή Βυναμένη'ζ 
μβν άΧλοιονν, ου κατά την βμφυτον 8e θβρμασίαν, 
vypav ονσαν 8η\ονοτι καΐ 8ία τονθ' βψειν ουκ 
οτΓτάν είρημίνην. 

^Κ•χρήν δ' αυτόν, etirep irepl ττ ραμμάτων άντί- 
Xeyeiv έβουΚετο, ττβιραθήναί Sei^at μάλιστα μβν 
167 καΐ II ττρώτον, ώ? ovBe μεταβάλλει την άρχ^ην ούδ' 
άΧλοίονται κατά ττοιότητα προς της 'γαστρος τα 
σιτία, BevTepov Β\ εΐττερ μη οΙός τ ην τούτο 
τηστωσασθαι, το την άΧλοιωσιν αυτών ά'χ^ρηστον 
elvai τω ζωω• ei Be μηΒβ τούτ είχε ΒιαβάΧλειν, 
εξεΧε^ζαι την ττερϊ τάς Βραστικάς αρχάς ύττό- 
Χηψιν καΐ Bei^ai τάς ενερΎείας εν τοις μορίοις ου 
Βιά την εκ θερμού καϊ ψυχρον καΐ ξηρού καϊ 
ν<γρού ττοιάν κρασιν νττάρχειν αλλά Βι άλλο τΐ' 
εΐ Be μηΒε τοΰτ ετολμα ΒιαβαλΧειν, αλλ' οτι >γε 
μη το θερμον εστίν εν τοις ύττο φύσεως Βιοίκου- 
μενοις το τών άΧΧων Βραστικώτατον . ή ει μήτε 
τούτο μήτε τών άΧΧων τι τών εμττροσθεν ειχεν 
άτΓοΒεικνύναι, μη Χηρεΐν ονόματι ττ ροστταΧαίοντα 

* t.e. denial of forethought in the Physis. 


Erasistratus, however, is still more foolisli and 
■ibsurd, either through not perceiving in what sense 
the Ancients said that digestion is similar to the 
process of boiling, or because he purposely confused 
iiimself >vith sophistries. It is, he says, inconceivable 
that digestion, involving as it does such trifling 
svarmth, should be related to the boiling process, 
i'his is as if we were to suppose that it was necessary 
to put the fires of Etna under the stomach before it 
could manage to alter the food ; or else that, while it 
was capable of altering the food, it did not do this 
bv virtue of its innate heat, which of course was 
moist, so that the word boil was used instead of 

What he ought to have done, if it ΛνΕ5 facts that lit 
wished to dispute about, was to have tried to show, 
first and foremost, that the food is not transmuted or 
altered in quality by the stomach at all, and secondly, 
if he could not be confident of this, he ought to 
have tried to show that this alteration was not of any 
advantage to the animal^ If, again, he Avere unable 
even to make this misrepresentation, he ought to 
have attempted to confute the postulate concerning 
the active principles — to show, in fact, that the functions 
taking place in the various parts do not depend on the 
way in which the Warm, Gald, Dry, and Moist are 
mixed, but on some other factor. And if he had not 
the audacity to misrepresent facts even so far as this, 
still he should have tried at least to show that the 
Warm is not the most active of all the principles 
which play a part in things governed by Nature. But 
if he was unable to demonstrate this any more than 
any of the previous propositions, then he ought not to 
have made himself ridiculous by quarrelling uselessly 



μάτην, ωσττΐρ ου σαφώς * Α ριστοτέΧονς h> τ 
αλλθί9 7Γθλλοΐ9 καν τω τ€τάρτω των μβτεωροΧο^ι- 
κών δττω? ή ττεψις έψησβι 7Γαρα7Γ\ησιο<; etvai 
XeycTai, καΐ οτι μη 7τρώτω<; μηΒζ κυρίως ονομα- 
ζόντων, είρηκότος. 

'Αλλ', ως ηΒη XiXeKrai ττοΧΧάκις, άρχτ) τούτων 
άττάντων εστί μία το ττερΧ θβρμοΰ καϊ ψυχ^ροϋ καΐ 
ξηρον καϊ ύ<γροΰ Βιασκέψασθαι, καθάττερ ^Αριστο- 
τέΧης ίτΓοίησβν ev τω Βευτβρω ττερί γενέσεως καϊ 
168 φθοράς, άπο\\Βείξας άττάσας τάς κατα τα σώματα 
μβταβοΧας καϊ άΧΧοιώσας ύττο τούτων 'γί'γνεσθαι. 
αλλ' ^Ερασίστρατος οΰτε τούτοις οΰτ άΧΧω τινί 
των ττροειρημίνων άντεινων iirl τοΰνομα μόνον 
ετράττετο της εψησεως. 


ΈτΓΐ μεν ονν της ττέψεως, εΐ καϊ τάΧΧα ττάντα 
τταρεΧίττε, το ηουν οτι Βιαφερει της έκτος εψησεως 
η εν τοις ζωοις ττέψις, εττειράθη Βεικνύναι, ττερϊ 
Βε της καταττόσεως ούδ' άχρι τοσούτου, τι yap 

" ΌΧκη μεν ουν της κοιΧίας ούΒεμία φαίνεται 

Καϊ μην Βύο χιτώνας ή ηαστηρ έχει ττάιηως 
ενεκά του ιγε^ονότας καϊ Βιηκουσιν ούτοι μέχρι 
του στόματος, 6 μεν ενΒον, οΙός εστί κατα την 
'γαστέρα, τοιούτος Βιαμενων, 6 δ' έτερος εττΐ το 



with a mere name — as though Aristotle had not 
clearly stated in the fourth book of his " Meteoro- 
logy," as well as in many other passages, in what 
way digestion can be said to be allied to boiling, 
and also that the latter expression is not used in 
its primitive or strict sense. 

But, as has been frequently said already,^ the one 
starting-point of all this is a thoroughgoing enquir\' 
into the question of the Warm, Cold, Dry and Moist ; 
this Aristotle carried out in the second of his books 
"On Genesis and Destruction," where he shoΛVS that 
all the transmutations and alterations throughout 
the body take place as a result of these principles. 
ErasistratuS; hoΛvever, advanced nothing against these 
or am-thing else that has been said above, but 
occupied himself merely with the word " boiling." 


Thus, as regards digestion, even though he neglected 
everything else, he did at least attempt to prove his 
point — namely, that digestion in animals differs from 
boiling carried on outside ; in regard to the question 
of deglutition, hoΛvever, he did not go even so far as 
this. What are his words ? 

" The stomach does not appear to exercise any 
traction." ^ 

Now the fact is that the stomach possesses two 

coats, Λvhich certainly exist for some purpose ; they 

. extend as far as the mouth, the internal one remaining 

throughout similar to what it is in the stomach, and 

the other one tending to become of a more fleshy 

* V. p. 9, tt passim. * ς/", p. 97. 



σαρκωδέστερον ev τω στομάχ^ω τρεττόμβνος. οτι 
μεν ουν εναντίας άΧλήΧαις τά,<ζ έττιβοΧάς των 
ινών εχουσίν οι χίτωι^69 ούτοι, το φαινόμενον 
αύτο μαρτυρεί, τίνος δ' ένεκα τοιούτοι ^ε'y6- 
νασιν, ^Κρασίστρατος μεν ούδ' εττεχ^είρησεν είττεΐν, 
ημείς δ* ερονμεν. 

Ό μεν ενΖον ευθείας εγ^ει τας Ινας, οΧκής yap 
) ένεκα '^ε\{^ονεν• ό δ' έξωθεν εγκάρσιας ύττερ του 
κατά κύκΧον ττεριστεΧλεσθαΐ' εκάστφ yap των 
κινουμένων οργάνων εν τοις σώμασι κατά, τας 
των ινών θέσεις αϊ κινήσεις είσίν. εττ αυτών δβ 
ττρώτον τών μυών, εΐ βούλει, βασάνισον τον 
Xojov, εφ' ών καΧ αϊ ίνες εναρ-γεσταται κα\ αϊ 
κινήσεις αυτών ορώνται Βια σφοδρότητα, μετά 
δε του? μυς εττΐ τα φυσικά τών οργάνων ϊθι και 
Ίτάντ όψει κατά τάς Ινας κινούμενα καϊ 8ιά τουθ' 
εκύστω μεν τών εντέρων στροηηΰΧαι καθ' εκά- 
τερον τών 'χ^ιτώνων αϊ Ινες είσι• ττεριστεΚΧονται 
yap μόνον, εΧκουσι δ' ούΒεν. ή yaστήp 8ε τών 
ινών τάς μεν ευθείας 'έ'χει χάριν ο\κής, τάς δ' 
εyκapσίaς ένεκα ττεριστοΧής' ωσττερ yap εν τοις 
μυσιν εκάστης τών ινών τεινομενης τε και ττρος 
την αρχήν εΧκομενης αϊ κινήσεις yiyvovrai, κατά 
τον αντον Xoyov καν τη yaστpl• τών μεν ουν 
εyκapσίωv Ινών τεινομενων εΧαττον άvάyκη yl- 

^ It appears to me, from comparison between this and other 
passages in Galen's writings (notably Use of Parts, \v., 8), 
that he means by tlie "two coats" simply the mucous and 
the muscular coats. In this ease the "straight" or "longi- 
tudinal " fibres of the inner coat would be the rugae ; the 
"circular" fibres of the inner intestinal coat would be the 
valvulae coimictntes, 



nature in the gullet. Now simple observation will 
testify that these coats have their fibres inserted in 
contrary directions. ^ And, although Erasistratus did 
not attempt to say for >vhat reason they are like this, 
I am going to do so. 

The inner coat has its fibres straight, since it exists 
for the purpose of traction. The outer coat has 
its fibres transverse, for the purpose of peristalsis.^ 
In fact, the movements of each of the mobile organs 
of the body depend on the setting of the fibres. 
Now please test this assei-tion first in the muscles 
themselves; in these the fibres are most distinct, and 
their movements visible owing to their vigour. And 
after the muscles, pass to the physical organs,^ and 
you Λvill see that they all move in correspondence 
with their fibres. This is why the fibres throughout 
the intestines are circular in both coats — they only 
contract peristaltically, they do not exercise traction. 
The stomach, again, has some of its fibres longitudinal 
for the purpose of traction and the others transverse 
for the purpose of jieristalsis.^ For just as the 
movements in the muscles ■* take place Λvhen each of 
the fibres becomes tightened and drawn towards its 
origin, such also is what happens in the stomach ; 
when the transverse fibres tighten, the breadth of 

"^ The term here rendered penstalsii is perhtdi in Greek ; 
it is applied only to the intermittent movements of muscles 
placed circularly round a lumen or cavity, and comprehends 
systoli or contraction and diasfolo or dilatation. In its 
modern significance, peristal -^vi, however, also includes the 
Hiovements of lomjitudinal fibres, cf. p. 97, note 1. 

' i.e. those containing non-striped or "involuntary" muscle 
fibres; organs governed by the "natural" pneuma ; cf. 
p. 186, note 3. 

* By this term is meant only what we should call the 
' * voluntary " muscle•. 



r^veadai ro evpo^ ττ}? τΓ€ρίβχομ€νης υττ αυτών 
κοιΧοτητος, των δ' βύθβίών βλκομίνων τ€ καΐ et9 
ίαυτά,ΐζ συναΎομβνων ουκ βνΒεχ^βται μη ου συναι- 

)70 ρ&ίσθαι το μήκος. άΧλα μην || βναρ'γώς γε φαίν€ται 
κατατΓίνόντων συναιρούμβνον και τοσούτον 6 
Xdpvj^ άνατρβ^ων, όσον 6 στόμα-χ^ος κατασττα- 
ται, κα\ όταν y€ συ μπΧηρωθβίσης της iv τω 
καταττίνειν ivepyeia^ άφεθη της τάσεως ό στόμα- 
χος, εναριγώς τταΚιν φαίνεται καταφερόμενος 6 
Χάρνγξ' 6 yap ενΒον 'χ^οτών της ^αστρος 6 τας 
ευθείας Ινας έχων 6 καΐ τον στομαχον υττάΧείφων 
και το στόμα τοις εντός μερεσιν εττεκτείνεται του 
Χάρυ^^ος, ωστ ουκ ενδέχεται κατασττωμενον 
αυτόν ύτΓο της κοιλίας μη ου συνεττισττάσθαι και 
τον λάρυγγα. 

"Οτί δ' αι ττεριφερείς Ινες, αις ττεριστεΧΧεται 
τά τ' αλΧα μόρια και ή <^αστήρ, ου συναιροΰσι 
το μήκος, άλλα συστεΧΚουσι καΐ στενοΰσι την 
ευρύτητα, καΐ παρ αυτοί) λαβεΐν εστίν όμοΧο^ού- 
μενον ^Ειρασιστράτου' ττεριστεΧΧεσθαι yap φησι 
τοις σιτίοις την yaστεpa κατά τον τής -ττέψεως 
ατταντα χρόνον. άλλ' ει ττεριστεΧΧεται μεν, 
ού8εν 8ε του μήκους αφαιρείται τής κοιλίας, ουκ 
εστί τής ττερισταΧτικής κινήσεως iSiov το κατα- 
σττάν κάτω τον στόμαχον. οττερ yap αυτός ο 
^Κρασίστρατυς είττε, τοΰτο μόνον αύτο συμ- 

171 βησεται το των άνω συστεΧ\\λο μένων 8ιαστεΧ- 
Χεσθαι τα κάτω. τοΰτο δ' οτι, καν εις νεκρού τον 
στόμαχον ΰΒατος εyχeης, φαίνεται yιyvόμεvov, 
ου8ε\ς άyvoεΐ. ταΐς yap των υλών 8ια στενού 

1 C/. ρ. 97. 


the cavity contained by them becomes less ; and 
when the longitudinal fibres contract and dra\v in 
upon themselves, the length must necessarily be 
curtailed. This curtailment of length, indeed, is 
well seen in the act of SΛvalloΛving : the larynx is 
seen to rise upwards to exactly the same degree that 
the gullet is drawn downwards ; while, after the pro- 
cess of s\vallowing has been completed and the gullet 
is released from tension, the larynx can be clearly 
seen to sink doAvn again. This is because the inner 
coat of the stomach, which has the longitudinal fibres 
and which also lines the gullet and the mouth, 
extends to the interior of the larynx, and it is thus 
impossible for it to be drawn down by the stomach 
without the larynx being involved in the traction. 

Further, it will be found acknowledged in Erasi- 
stratus's ΟΛνη •writings that the circular fibres (by 
which the stomach as well as other parts performs 
its contractions) do not curtail its length, but con- 
tract and lesson its breadth. For he says that the 
stomach contracts peristaltically round the food 
during the whole period of digestion. But if it 
contracts, Avithout in any way being diminished in 
length, this is because dowTiward traction of the 
gullet is not a property of the movement of circular 
peristalsis. For what alone happens, as Erasistratus 
himself said, is that when the upper parts contract 
the lower ones dilate.^ And everyone knows thtt this 
can be plainly seen happening even in a dead man, 
if water be poured down his throat ; this symptom "^ 
results from the passage of matter through a narrow 

" For " sjTnptom." cj p. 1.3, and p. 12. note 3. " Transitum 
namque materiae per angmtuin corpus id accidens consequi- 
tur " (Linacre). Leaa a "result " or " consequence " than an 
" accompaniment." 

L 265 


σώματος οΒοηΓορίαι<; άκόΧουθόν ear ι το σύμ- 
ΤΓτωμα• θαι μαστον yap, ei 8ΐ€ρχ^ομ€νου τίνος 
αντον oyKov μη 8ιασταΚησ€ται. ούκονν το μίν 
τώι> άνω συστ€\\ομ€νων ΒιαστέΧΧβσθαι τά κάτω 
κοινον €στί και τοις νεκροίς σώμασι, δί' ών 
οττωσοΰν τί διβξβρχ^εται, και τοΐς ζώσιν, etVe 
ττεριστβΧλοίτο τοις Βίβρχομέΐ'Οίς εΐθ' βΧκοίτο. 

Το δε της του μήκους σνναιρεσεως ΐΒιον των 
τας βύθείας Ινας εχόντων οργάνων, 'ίν εττισιτά- 
σωνταυ τί. άλλα μην εΒει,χθη κατασττώμενος 6 
στόμαχος, ου yap αν εΙΧκε τον Xάpυyya' ΒηΧον 
ονν, ώς ή yaaTTjp εΧκει τα σιτία Βιά του 

Και ή κατά τον βμετον Be των εμουμίνων άχρι 
του στόματος φορά ττάντως μεν ττου καΐ αύτη τά 
μεν υτΓΟ των αναφερομένων Βιατεινόμενα μέρη 
του στομάχου Βιεστώτα κέκτηται, των ττρόσω δ' 
ο Τί άν εκάστοτ εττιΧαμβάνηται, τοΰτ αρχόμενου 
172 δί α στέλλεται, το δ' || οττισθεν καταΧείττειΒηΧονότι 
συστεΧΧομενον, ώσθ' όμοίαν είναι ττάντη την 
Βιάθεσιν του στομαχιού κατά yε τούτο τη των 
κατατΓΐνόντων άΧΧά της οΧκής μη τταρούσης το 
μήκος οΧον Ισον εν τοις τοιούτοις συμτττώμασι 
Βιαώ υΧάττεται. 

Αιά τοΰτο Βέ καΐ καταττίνειν ραόν εστίν η εμεΐν, 
ΟΤΙ καταπίνεται μεν άμφοΐν της yaστpoς των 
χιτώνων εvεpyoύvτωv, του μεν εντός εΧκοντος, του 
δ' εκτός ττεριστεΧΧομενου τε καΐ συνεττωθοΰντος, 
εμεΐται δε θατερου μόνου του έξωθεν ivepyodvTO^, 

^ i.e. this is a purely mechanical process. 


channel ; it would be extraordinary if the channel 
(lid not dilate when a mass vras passing through it.' 
Obviously tiien the dilatation of the lower parts 
:ilong with the contraction of the upper is common 
both to dead bodies, when anything whatsoever is 
passing through them, and to living ones, whether 
they contract peris taltically round their contents or 
ittract them.2 

Curtailment of length, on the other hand, is 

peculiar to organs which possess longitudinal fibres 

>i• the purpose of attraction. But the gullet was 

nown to be pulled down ; for otherwise it would 

iiot have drawn upon the larynx. It is therefore 

clear that the stomach attracts food by the gullet. 

Further, in vomiling, the mere passive conveyance 
of rejected matter up to the mouth \vill certainly 
itself suffice to keep open those parts of the oeso- 
pliagus Λvhich are distended by the returned food ; 
as it occupies each part in front [above], it first 
dilates this, and of course leaves the part behind 
[beloAv] contracted. Thus, in this respect at least, the 
condition of the gullet is precisely similar to Λvhat it 
is in the act of swallowing.^ But there being no 
Iraction, the ΛνΗοΙβ length remains equal in such 

And for this reason it is easier to swalloΛv than 
to vomit, for deglutition results from both coats 
of the stomach being brought into action, the inner 
one exerting a pull and the outer one helping by 
peristalsis and propulsion, Λvhereas enaesis occurs 
from the outer coat alone functioning, without there 

* i.e. this phenomenon is a proof neither of perietoU nor 
of attraction, cf. p. 97, note 2. 
' Coatractioa and dilatation of course being reversed. 



ovSevbf; εΚκοντος εΙς το στόμα, ου yap Βη ωσιτερ 
ή της γαστρό? ορεξις ιτροη^είτο του καταττίνειν 
τα σίτία, τον αυτόν τρόττον καν τοΐ<; ε'/χετοί? 
βΤΓΐθνμεΐ τι των κατά το στόμα μορίων του yiyvo- 
μβνον τταθηματος, αλλ' άμφω της ^αστρος αυτής 
είσιν έναντίαι Βιαθέσεις, ορβ^ομενης μίν kou 
ττροσιεμβνης τα 'χ^ρήσιμά τ€ καΐ οίκβΐα, Ζυσγβραι- 
νούσης 8e και άττοτριβομύνης τά, άλΧότρια. Βιό 
και το καταττυνειν αυτό τοις μίν ίκανως opeyo- 
μενοις των ονκειων εδεσμάτων τί} yaστpl τάχίστα 
yi,yv€Tai, σαφώς εΧκούσης αύτα καΐ κατασττώσης 
Ίτριν ή μασηθήναι, τοις δ' ήτοι φάρμακόν τι κατ 
173 άvάy^κηv ττίνουσιν ή σιτίον iv χωρά φαρμάκου 
ττροσφερομένοίς ανιαρά, καΐ μόyις η κατάττοσις 
αυτών iirtTeXeiTai. 

ΑήΧος οΰν εστίν εκ τών ει ρη μένων 6 μεν evSov 
χιτων της yaστpoς 6 τας ευθείας εγων Ινας της 
Sk του στόματος εις αύτην ολκής ένεκα yεyovως 
καΐ 8ια tout' εν ταΐς καταττόσεσι μόναις εvεpyώv, 
ό δ έξωθεν ο τάς εγκάρσιας έχων ένεκα μεν του 
ττεριστεΧΧεσθαι τοις ενυττάρχουσι και ττροωθεΐν 
αυτά τοιούτος άττοτεΧεσθείς, ενεργών δ' ούΖεν 
ήττον εν τοις εμετοις ή ταΐς καταττόσεσιν. εναρ- 
γέστατα Βε μαρτυρεί τω Χεγομένω καΐ το κατά 
τάς χάννας τε και τους συνόΒοντας γιγνόμενον 
ευρίσκεται yap ενίοτε τούτων ή γαστηρ εν τω 
στόματι καθάττερ και 6 ^ΑριστοτέΧης εν ταΐς ττερί 

^ The channa is a kind of sea-perch; "a species of Ser- 
ranus, either 5. acriba or S. cabrilla" (D'Arcy W. Thompson). 
cf, Aristotle's Λ^αί. Hut. (D'Arcy Thompson's edition, Ox- 
ford, 1910), IV., xi., 538 a, 20. The synodont " is not to be 
identified with certainty, but is supposed to be Denitx vtU- 



being any kind of pull towards the mouth. For, 
although the 5Λν3] lowing of food is ordinarily pre- 
ceded by a feeling of desire on the part of the 
stomach, there is in the case of vomiting no cor- 
responding desire from the mouth-parts for the 
experience ; the two are opposite dispositions of the 
stomach itself; it yearns after and tends towards 
what is advantageous and proper to it, it loathes and 
rids itself of \vhat is foreign. Thus the actual 
process of swalloAving occurs very quickly in those 
who have a good appetite for such foods as are 
proper to the stomach ; this organ obviously draws 
them in and down before they are masticated ; 
\vhereas in the case of those who are forced to take 
a medicinal draught or Λvho take food as medicine, 
the swallowing of these articles is accomplished 
with distress and difficulty. 

From what has been said, then, it is clear that the 
inner coat of the stomach (that containing longitudinal 
fibres) exists for the purpose of exerting a pull from 
mouth to stomach, and that it is only in deglutition 
that it is active, whereas the external coat, which 
contains transverse fibres, has been so constituted in 
order that it may contract upon its contents and 
propel them forward ; this coat furthermore, functions 
in vomiting no less than in swalloΛving. The truth 
of my statement is also borne out by what happens 
in the case of the channae and synodonts ^ ; the 
stomachs of these animals are sometimes found in 
their mouths, as also Aristotle writes in his History 

garis" that is, an edible Mediterranean perch. "It is not the 
stomach," adds Prof. Thomppon, " but the air-bladder that 
gets everted and hangs out of the mouth in fishes, especially 
when they are hauled in from a considerable depth." cf. 
Η.Α.,ΥΙΙΙ., u., 591 B, 5. 



ζωών eypayfrev ίστορίαι<; καΧ προστίθησί ye την 
αίτίαν υττο \αιμ>αρ^ία^ αύτοΓ? τούτο συμβαίνβιν 

"Εχει yap ώδε* κατά τα<; σφο8ροτ€ρα<; ope^wi 
άνω ττροστρέχ^βί ττασι τοΪ9 ζωοί'ζ ή yaστηp, ωστ€ 
Tiv€<; του ττάθους αϊσθησιν ivapyrj σχόντες 
εξβρπειν αίτοΐ<; φασί την κουΧιαν, ΐνίων Se μασω- 

m μβνων €Τί καΐ μηττω \\ κα\ως iv τω στόματι 
τα σιτία κaτepyaσaμevωv βζαρττάζεί φανερώ<ζ 
ακόντων. εφ' ών ουν ζωών φύσει \aιμάpyωv 
ντταρχόντων η τ εύρυγωρία του στοματο<; εστί 
8αψιλη=; η τε τή<; yaaTpo<i θβσίς iyyv<;, ώς εττϊ 
σννοΒοντός τε καΐ χ^άννη^, ούΒεν θανμαστον, όταν 
ίκανώς ττεινάσαντα 8ίώκη τί των μικρότερων 
ζωών, είτ' ή8η ττΧησίον η του συΧλαββΐν, άνα- 
τρεχειν ε^Γειyoύση<; της επιθυμίας εις το στόμα 
την yaστεpa. yεveσθaι δ' άΧΧως άμήχανον τούτο 
μη ούχ ωσπερ 8ia χειρός του στομάχου της 
yaστpoς επισττωμενης εις εαυτην τα σιτια. καθα- 
ττερ yap καΐ ημείς υττο προθυμίας ενίοτε τη χειρι 
συνεπεκτείιομεν οΧους ημάς αυτούς ένεκα του 
θάττον εττώράξασθαι τού προκείμενου σώματος, 
ούτω και ή yaστηp οίον χειρι τω στομάχω 
συνεττεκτείνεται. καΐ 8ια τούτ εφ^ ών ζωών άμα 
τα τρία ταυτί συνεττεσεν, εφεσίς τε σφο8ρα της 
τροφής ο τε στόμαχος μικρός ή τ ευρυχωρία τού 
στόματος Βαψιλης, εττΐ τούτων 6'Kίyη ροπή της 
επεκτάσεως εΙς το στόμα την κοιΧίαν ο\ην ανα- 

"Hp/cei μεν ουν ϊσως άνΒρϊ φυσικω παρ' αυτής 

η δ μόνης τής κατασκευής των 6pyά^•vωv την ενΒειξιν 
της εvεpyείaς Χαμβάνειν. ου yap οή μάτην y 



of Animals ; he also adds the cause of this : he says 
that it is owing to their voracity. 

The facts are as follows. In all animals, when the 
appetite is very intense, the stomach rises up, so that 
some people Λνΐιο have a clear perception of this 
condition say that their stomach "creeps out" of 
them ; in others, w*ho are still masticating their food 
and have not yet worked it up properly in the mouth, 
the stomach obviously snatches away the food from 
them against their will. In those animals, therefore, 
which are naturally voracious, in whom the mouth 
cavity is of generous proportions, and the stomach 
situated close to it (as in the case of the synodont and 
channa), it is in no way surprising that, when they 
are sutticiently hungry and are pursuing one of the 
smaller animals, and are just on the point of catching 
it, the stomach should, under the impulse of desire, 
spring into the mouth. And this cannot possibly take 
place in any other way than by the stomach draΛving 
the food to itself by means of the gullet, as thougli by 
a hand. In fact, just as we ourselves, in our eager- 
ness to grasp more quickly something lying before us, 
sometimes stretch out our whole bodies along with 
our hands, so also the stomach stretches itself for\vard 
along with the gullet, Λvhich is, as it were, its hand. 
And thus, in these animals in whom those three 
factors co-exist — an excessive propensity for food, a 
small gullet, and ample mouth proportions — in these, 
any slight tendency to movement forwards brings 
the whole stomach into the mouth. 

Now the constitution of the organs might itself 

iiffice to give a naturalist an indication of their 
functions. For Nature would never have purpose- 



άν ή φνσις €Κ Βνοΐν γ^ιτώνων ίναντίω^ άΧΚηΚοί'ζ 
ζ-χ^όντων άτΓ€ίρ>γάσατο τον οίσοφά'^ον, el μη καΧ 
Βιαφόρως €κάτ6ρο^ αυτών ivepyeiv βμβΧλεν. αλλ' 
eirel ττάντα μάΧλον ή τά Τί}9 φύσεως epya Βια- 
Ύί^νώσκειν οί ττβρΧ τον Ερασίστρατου eiaiv 
Ικανοί, φέρε κάκ τη<ί των ζωών ανατομής εττί- 
8βίξωμ€ν αύτοΐς, ώς εκάτβρος των ■χιτώνων evepyet 
την είρημενην ivipyeiav. el 8η τί \αβων ζωον, 
είτα ^υμνώσας αύτον τά περικβίμβνα τω στομάχω 
σώματα χωρίς του Βιατεμεΐν τίνα των νβύρων ή 
των αρτηριών η τών φΧεβών τών αυτόθι τεταγ- 
μένων εθβλοις ατΓο της ^ίνυος εως του θώρακος 
βύθείαις τομαΐς BieXeiv τον εξω χιτώνα τον τάς 
εγκάρσιας Ινας έχοντα καττειτα τω ζωω τροφην 
ττροσενεΎκοις, όψει καταπΐνον αυτό καίτοι της 
ττερισταΧτικής ενέργειας άττοΧωΧυίας. ει δ' αΰ 
ττάΧιν εφ' έτερου ζώου 8ιατεμοις αμφότερους τους 
χιτώνας τομαΐς έγκαρσιαις, θεάστ) καΐ τούτο 
καταττΐνον ούκετ ενεργούντος τού εντός, ω Βηλον, 
ΟΤΙ καΐ Βιά θατερου μεν αυτών καταττίνειν οΐόν 
176 τ εστίν, || άλλα χείρον ή δί' αμφοτέρων, ττρος 
γαρ αύ τοις αΧλοις καΐ τυύτ εστί θεάσασθαι 
σαφώς εττϊ της είρημένης ανατομής, ως εν τψ 
καταττίνειν ύττοττίμ'πΚαταί πνεύματος ο στόμαχος 
τού συγκατατΓίνομενου τοις σιτίοις, ο ττεριστεΧλο- 
μενού μεν τού έξωθεν χιτώνος ωθείται ραΒίως 
εις την γαστέρα συν τοις έΒέσμασι, μονού Βε τού 
ενΒον ύττάρχοντος εμττοΒών ϊσταται τή φορά τών 

^ Under the term "neiira," tendons were often included 
as well as nerves. Similarly in modern Dutch the word 
zenuw ("sinew") means both a tendon and a nerve; zenuw- 
achtig = " nervous." 


lessly constructed the oesophagus of two coats with 
contrary dispositions ; they must also have each been 
meant to have a different action. The Erasistratean 
school, however, are capable of anything rather than 
of recognizing the effects of Nature. Q)me, therefore, 
let us demonstrate to them by animal dissection as 
well that each of the tΛvo coats does exercise the 
activity which I have stated. Take an animal, then ; 
lay bare the structures surrounding the gullet, without 
severing any of the nerves,^ arteries, or veins which 
are there situated ; next divide with vertical incisions, 
from the lower jaw to the thorax, the outer coat of the 
oesophagus (that containing transverse fibres) ; then 
give the animal food and you will see that it still swal- 
lows although the peristaltic function has been abol- 
ished. If, again, in another animal, you cut through 
both coats ^ with transverse incisions, you will observe 
that this animal also swallows although the inner coat 
is no longer functioning. From this it is clear that 
the animal can also SΛvallow by either of the two 
coats, although not so well as by both. For the 
following also, in addition to other points, may be 
distinctly observed in the dissection which I have 
described— that during deglutition the gullet be- 
comes slightly filled Avith air which is swallowed 
along with the food, and that, when the outer coat is 
contracting, this air is easily forced Λvith the food 
into the stomach, but that, when there only exists 
an inner coat, the air impedes the conveyance of 

' Rather than the alternative reading, rhf ίσωθΐν χιτώνα. 
(lalfiu apparently supposes that the outer coat will not be 
damaged, as the cuts will pass between its fibres. These cuts 
would be, presumably, short ones, at various levels, no single 
one of them involving the whole circumference of the gullet. 



σίτίων 8ιατ€Ϊνόν τ αυτόν και την evepyeiav 

'Αλλ' οΰτ€ τούτων ovSev * Ερασίστρατος elirev 
οΰθ' ως η σκοΧια θβσις τον στομαχιού ΒιαβάΧλβι 
σαφώς το Boy μα των νομιζόντων ΰττο της άνωθεν 
βοΧής μονής ττοΒη^ούμενα μέχρί της ^αστρος 
ϋναι τα καταττινόμενα. μόνον δ' 'ότι ττολλά των 
μακροτραχήΧων ζωών έττικεκυώοτα καταπίνει,, 
καΧώς enrev. ω ΒήΧον, οτι το φαινόμβνον ου 
το ττώς κατατηνομεν άττοΒείκνυσιν, άλλα το ττως 
ου κατατηνομεν otl yap μη δίά μόνης της άνωθεν 
βοΧής, εκ τούτον ΒήΧον ου μην εΐθ^ εΧκούσης 
της κοιΧίας εϊτε 'πapάyovτoς αυτά του στομάχου, 
177 ΒήΧον ήΒη ττω. αλλ' ημείς yε \\ ττάντας τους 
Xoyίσμovς είττόντες τους τ εκ της κατασκενής 
των όpyάvωv ορμώμενους καΐ τους άττο των άΧΧων 
συμτΓτωμάτων των τε ττρο του yυμvωθηvat τον 
στόμαχον καϊ yυμvωθevτoς, ως ολίγω ττρόσθεν 
ε\εyoμεv, Ικανώς ενεΒειζάμεθα του μεν εΧκειν 
ένεκα τον εντός χιτώνα, του δ' άττωθείν τον έκτος 

ΤΙρούθεμεθα μεν ουν άττοΒεΐξαι την καθεκτίκην 
Βύναμιν εν εκάστω τών 6pyάvωv οΰσαν, ωσττερ 
εν τω ττρόσθεν λόγω την εΧκτικήν τε καϊ ττροσέτί 
την άΧΧοιωτίκήν. ύττο Βε της άκοΧουθίας του 
Xόyoυ τάς τετταρας άττεΒεΙξαμεν ύτταρχούσας τη 
yaστpί, την εΧκτικην μεν εν τω καταπίνειν, την 
καθεκτίκην δ' εν τω ττεττειν, την άττωστικην δ' εν 
τοις εμετοίς καϊ ταΐς τών ττεττεμμενων σιτίων εις 
το ΧετΓΤον εντερον ύττοχωρήσεσιν, αύτην 8ε την 
ττεψιν άΧΧοίωσιν ύττάρχειν. 



food, by distending tliis coat and hindering its 

But Erasistratus said nothing about this, nor did 
he point out that the obHque situation of the gullet 
clearly confutes the teaching of those Avho hold that 
it is simply by virtue of the impulse from above that 
food which is swallowed reaches the stomach. The 
only correct thing he said Λvas that many of the long- 
necked animals bend doΛvn to swallow. Hence, 
clearly, the observed fact does not show how we 
swalloAv but how Λve do not swallow. For from this ob- 
servation it is clear that swallowing is not due merely 
to the impulse from above; it is yet, however, not clear 
whether it results from the food being attracted by 
the stomach, or conducted by the gullet. For our 
part, however, having enumerated all the different 
considerations — those based on the constitution of the 
organs, as well as those based on the other symptoms 
which, as just mentioned, occur both before and after 
the gullet has been exposed — Λve have thus sufficiently 
proved that the inner coat exists for the purpose ot 
attraction and the outer for the purpose of propulsion. 
Now the original task Λve set before ourselves 
was to demonstrate that the releniiie faculty exists 
in every one of the organs, just as in the previous 
book we proved the existence of the allractive, and, 
over and above this, the alterative faculty. Thus, 
in the natural course of our argument, we have de- 
monstrated these four faculties existing in the 
stomach — the attractive faculty in connection with 
swallowing, the retentive with digestion, the expul- 
sive with vomiting and Λnth the descent of digested 
food into the small intestine — and digestion itself 
Ave have shown to be a process of alteration. 




Ονκουν er άττορήσομεν ovSe irepi του σττΧηνός, 
€1 €λκ€ΐ μ€ν το οΙκ€Ϊον, άτΓοκρίνβί 8e το άΧλότριον, 
aWoiovv he καϊ κατβχβιν, όσον αν έτησττάσηται, 
7Γ€φνκ€ν, ovSe Trepl ηττατο^ ή φ\€βο<; η αρτηρίας 
178 ή καρΒίας η των || άΧΧων τινό<;' αναηκαΐαι yap 
βΒβίχθησαν αϊ τίτταρβς αύται Βννάμ€ί<} άτταντι 
μορίω τω μίΧΚοντι θρέψεσθαι καϊ δίά τοΰτ αύτας 
νττηρετώας elvai θρέψβως βφαμβν ώ? yap το των 
άνθρώττων άττοττάτημα τοΐ<; κυσίν ήΒιστον, ούτω 
καϊ τα του ήττατος ττβρίττώματα το μ€ν τω 
σττλ/ηνι, το Be Tjj χ^λ,τ^δόχω κύστβι, το Be τοις 
νεφροΐς οίκείον. 

Kat Xeyeiv βτι Trepl της τούτων ^βνεσεως ουκ 
αν έθελοιμί μβθ' Ίτητοκράτην καϊ ΤΐΧάτωνα και 
^ΑριστοτέΧην καϊ ΑιοκΧέα και ΤΙραξα^όραν και 
ΦίΧοτιμον ovBe yap ovBe περϊ των Βννάμεων 
el-nov αν, ei τις των εμττροσθβν ακριβώς e^eipya- 
σατο τον υττερ αυτών \6yov. 

ΈττεΙ δ οΐ μεν τταΧαιοϊ καΧώς xjirep αυτών 
άτΓοφηνάμενοι τταρέΧιττον aywviaaaOai τω λόγω, 
μηΒ ΰτΓονοησαντες εσβσθαί τινας εΙς τοσούτον 
άναισ'χνντους σοφιστάς, ώς avTiXeyeiv ίττιγειρη- 
σαι τοις evapyeσιv, οι νεώτεροι Be το μεν τι 

» C/. ρ. 205. 



Concerning the spleen, also, we shall therefore have 
no further doubts ^ as to Λvhether it attracts what is 
proper to it, rejects what is foreign, and has a 
natural power of altering and retaining all that it 
attracts ; nor shall we be in any doubt as to the liver, 
veins, arteries, heart, or any other organ. For these 
four faculties have been shown to be necessary for 
every part which is to be nourished ; this is Avhy we 
have called these faculties the handmaids of nuintion. 
For just as human faeces are most pleasing to dogs, 
so the residual matters from the liver are, some of 
them, proper to the spleen,^ others to the gall-bladder, 
and others to the kidneys. 

I SHOULD not have cared to say anything further as 
to the origin of these [surplus subtances] after Hip- 
pocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Diodes, Praxagoras, and 
Philotimus, nor indeed should I even have said 
anything about t\ie f acuities, if any of our predecessors 
had worked out this subject thoroughly. 

While, however, the statements Avhich the Ancients 
made on these points were correct, they yet omitted 
to defend their arguments with logical proofs ; of 
course they never suspected that there could be 
sophists so shameless as to try to contradict obvious 
facts. More recent physicians, again, have been 

• Thus Galen elsewhere calls the spleen a mere emunctory 
(4κμα•γίΐον) of the liver, cf. p. 214, note 1. 



νικηθίντες ύττο των σοφισμάτων εττβίσθησαν 
αύτοΐς, το Be τι καΐ avTiXeyeiv €τγ ιχβιρησαντα 
άτΓοΒβΐν μοι 7Γθ\ύ τή<; των τταΧαιών βΒοξαν Βυνά- 

179 μεως, \\ Βια τουθ\ ως αν βκβίνων αυτών, β'ίττβρ €Τ 
ην τις, ά^ωνίσασθαί μοι Βοκβΐ ττρος τους ανατρέ- 
ποντας της τέχνης τα κάΧλιστα, καΐ αύτος οΰτως 
€7Γ€ΐράθην συνθβΐναι τους λόγοι;?. 

' Οτι Β η ούΒβν η τταντάττασιν άνύσω τν σμικ- 
ρόν, ουκ ayvoco' ττάμττόΧλ.α yap ευρίσκω τέλέως 
μεν airoBeBeiy μένα τοις τταΧαιοΐς, ούτε Βε συνετά 
τοις 7ΓοΧΧ.οΐς των νυν Βι άμαθίαν αλλ' ούδ' 
εττιχειρούμενα ηι^νώσκεσθαι Βια ραθυμίαν, οΰτ , 
ει και ηνωσθείη τινί, Βίκαίως εξεταζόμενα. 

Χ/)^ yap τον με\\οντα yvώσeσθaί τι των ττολ- 
\ών αμεινον ευθύς μεν καΙ τι) φύσει καΐ ττ) πρώτη 
ΒιΒασκαΧία πο\ύ των αλΧων Bιevεyκεΐv• επειΒαν 
Be yεvητaι μειράκιον, αληθείας τινά σχείν ερω- 
τικην μανίαν, ωσπερ ενθουσιωντα καΐ μηθ" ημέρας 
μήτε νυκτός Βια\είπειν σπεύΒοντά τε καΐ συντε- 
ταμενον εκμαθείν, οσα τοις ενΒοξοτάτοις εϊρηται 
των τταΧαιών επειΒάν δ' εκμάθη, κρίνειν αυτά 
κα\ βασανίζειν χρόνω παμπόΧΚω και σκοπεΐν, 
πόσα μεν όμo\oyεΐ τοις εvapyως φαινομένοις, 

ΙδΟττόσα δε Βιαφέρεται, || καΐ ούτω τα μεν αίρεΐσθαι, 
τά δ' άποστρεφεσθαι. τω μεν Βη τοιούτω πάνυ 
σφόΒρα -χρησίμους ηΧπικα τους ημετέρους «σε- 



partly conquered by tlie sophistries of these fellows 
and have given credence to them ; whilst others 
who attempted to argiie with them appear to me to 
lack to a great extent the power of the Ancients. 
For this reason I have attempted to put together my 
arguments in the way in which it seems to me the 
Ancients, had any of them been still alive, would have 
done, in opposition to those Λνΐιο would overturn the 
finest doctrines of our art. 

I am not, however, unaΛvare that I shall achieve 
either nothing at all or else very little. For I find 
that a great many things which have been conclu- 
sively demonstrated by the Ancients are unintelli- 
gible to the bulk of the Moderns owing to their 
ignorance — nay, that, by reason of their laziness, 
they will not even make an attempt to comprehend 
them ; and even if any of them have understood 
them, they have not given them impartial examina- 

The fact is that he whose purpose is to know any- 
thing better than the multitude do must far surpass 
all others both as regards his nature and his early 
training. And Λvhen he reaches early adolescence 
he must become possessed with an ardent love for 
truth, like one inspired ; neither day nor night may 
he cease to urge and strain himself in order to learn 
thoroughly all that has been said by the most illus- 
trious of the Ancients. And when he has learnt 
this, then for a prolonged period he must test and 
prove it, obser\ ing Avhat part of it is in agreement, 
and Avhat in disagreement Λvith obvious fact ; thus 
he will choose this and turn away from that. To 
such an one my hope has been that my treatise 
would prove of the very greatest assistaiice. . . , 


σθαι \oyov<;' elev δ' αν oTdyoi παντάττασιν ούτοι• 
Ύοΐ^ δ άλλοις οντω ^ενήσεταί το γράμμα ττεριτ- 
τον, ώ? el κα\ μΰθον ονω τις Xeyot, 


"Ζνμττεραντβον οΰν ήμΐν τον \6yov βνεκα των 
της αληθείας έφιεμένων οσα Xeiirei κατ αυτόν 
eri νροσθεΐσιν. ώς yap η yaaTrjp eXxei μβν 
ivapyώς καΐ κατασττα τοι σιτία τοις σφό8ρα 
ττεινώΒεσι, πριν ακριβώς iv τω στόματι Χειω- 
θηναι, Βυσχεραίι^ει δε και αττωθεΐται τοις άττοσί- 
τοις τε και ττρος άvάyκηv εσθίουσιν, οντω καΐ 
των άΧλων opyάvωv βκαστον άμφοτίρας e^ei τας 
Βννάμεις, την re των οικείων ελκτικην και την 
των αλλότριων άττοκριτικήν. και Βιά τούτο, καν 
εξ ενός η -χ^ιτώνος opyavov τι συνεστώς, ωσττερ 
καΐ αϊ κύστεις άμφότεραι και αϊ μητραι και αϊ 
φλέβες, αμφότερα των ινών έχει τα yεvη, των 
ευθειών τε καΐ των εyκapσίωv. 
181 ΚαΙ μεν yε και τρίτον τι || yεvoς ινών εστί 
<τών> λοξών, εΧαττον ττοΧύ τφ ττΧηθει τών 
ττροειρη μένων δύο yevώv. ευρίσκεται δ' εν μεν 
τοις εκ Svoiv 'χ^ιτώνων συνεστηκόσιν 6pyάvoις 
εν θατερω μόνω ταΐς ενθείαις ίσΐν άvaμεμιyμέvov, 
εν 8ε τοις εξ ενός άμα τοις άλΧοις δύο yεvεσι. 
συνετΓίΧαμβάνονσι δ' αύται μεyιστov τη της καθ- 
εκτικής ονομασθείσης Βυνάμεως εvεpyείa' 8εΐται 
yap εν τούτω τω χρόνω τταντα-χ^όθεν εσφίyχθaι 
και ττεριτετάσθαι τοις ενυττάρχουσι το μόριον, ή 

1 ς/•, ρ. 269. 


Still, such people may be expected to be quite few 
in number, Λνΐιϋε, as for the others, this book will be 
as superfluous to them as a tale told to an ass. 


For the sake, then, of those who are aiming at 
truth, we must complete this treatise by adding 
what is still wanting in it. Now, in people Λvho 
are very hungry, the stomach obviously attracts or 
draws down the food before it has been thoroughly 
softened in the mouth, whilst in those who have no 
appetite or Λvho are being forced to eat, the stomach 
is displeased and rejects the food.^ And in a similar 
way each of the other organs possesses both faculties 
— that of attracting Λvhat is proper to it, and that of 
rejecting Avhat is foreign. Thus, even if there be any 
organ \vhich consists of only one coat (such as the 
two bladders,^ the uterus, and the veins), it yet 
possesses both kinds of fibres, the longitudinal and 
the transverse. 

But further, there are fibres of a third kind — the 
oblique — which are much fewer in number than the 
two kinds already spoken of. In the organs con- 
sisting of tΛvo coats this kind of fibre is found in 
the one coat only, mixed Λvith the longitudinal 
fibres ; but in the organs composed of one coat it is 
found along with the other two kinds. Now, these 
are of the greatest help to the action of the faculty 
which we have named retentive. For during this 
period the part needs to be tightly contracted and 
stretched over its contents at every point — the 

* The urinary bladders of pigs (such as Galen dissected) are 
thin, and appear to have only one coat. ο 


μβι^ jaarrjp ev τω της ττίψβω'ί, αΐ μήτραο δ' iv 
τω τη<ί κυήσεως 'χ^ρονίρ τταντί. 

Ταί/τ' αρα και ό της φΧεβος 'χ^ίτωρ εΙς ων έκ 
ΊΓοΚνεώων Ινών iyevero καϊ των της αρτηρίας 6 
μεν έξωθεν εκ των στρο'γ^ύΧων, 6 δ' εσωθεν εκ 
μεν των ευθειών ττΧείστων, όΧί'γων 8ε τίνων συν 
αύταΐς καϊ των Χοξών, ώστε τας μεν ψλεβας ταΐς 
μήτραις καϊ ταΐς κύστεσιν εοικέναι κατά γβ την 
των ινών σύνθεσιν, εΐ καϊ τω ττάχει Χείττονται, 
τάς δ' αρτηρίας ττ} •γαστρί. μονά δε ττάντων όρ- 
ιγάνων εκ Βυοίν θ^ άμα καΐ αμφοτέρων εγκάρσιας 
εχόντων τας Ινας έ^ενετο τα έντερα, το δ' οτι 
182 βέΧτίον ην || των τ αΧλων εκάστω τοιούτφ την 
φύσιν ύττύρ-χ^ειν, οΐόνττερ καϊ νυν εστί, τυΐς τ 
εντεροις εκ 8υοΐν ομοίων -χ^ιτώνων συ^κεΐσθαι, της 
ττερί -χ^ρείας μορίων πραγματείας εστίν, ούκουν 
νυν -χ^ρη τΓοθεΐν άκούειν ττερί τών τοιούτων, ώσττερ 
ούΒε δίά τί ττερί του ττΧηθους τών χιτώνων 
εκάστου τών οργάνων Βιαττεφώνηται τοις άνατο- 
μικοΐς avhpaaiv. ίιττερ μεν yap τούτων αύτάρκως 
εν τοις περί της ανατομικής διαφωνίας εϊρηταΐ' 
ττερϊ 8ε του 8ιότι τοιούτον εκαστον έyevετo τών 
opyavwv, εν τοις ττερί χρείας μορίων είρησεται. 


ΝννΙ δ' ού8έτερον τούτων πρόκειται \εyειv, 
αλλά τα? φυσικας Βυνάμεις μονάς άπο8εικνύειν εν 
εκάστω τών 6pyάvωv τετταρας υπάρχουσας. επΙ 
τοΰτ* ουν πάΧιν επανεΧθόντες άναμνήσωμέν τε 

1 cf. ρ. 243 

^ My suggestion is that Galen refers to (1) the mucous 



stomach during the whole period of digestion,^ and 
the uterus during that of gestation. 

Thus too, the coat of a vein, being single, consists 
of various kinds of fibres ; Λvhilst the outer coat of 
an artery consists of circular fibres, and its inner 
coat mostly of longitudinal fibres, but with a ίελν 
oblique ones also amongst them. Veins thus re- 
semble the uterus or the bladder as regards the 
arrangement of their fibres, even though they are 
deficient in thickness ; similarly arteries resemble 
the stomach. Alone of all organs the intestines 
consist of two coats of Avhich both have their fibres 
transverse.2 ΝοΛν the proof that it was /or the best 
that all the organs should be naturally such as they 
are (that, for instance, the intestines should be com- 
posed of two coats) belongs to the subject of the use 
of parts^; thus we must not now desire to hear about 
matters of this kind nor why the anatomists are at 
variance regarding the number of coats in each 
organ. For these questions have been sufficiently 
discussed in the treatise " On Disagreement in 
.\natomy." And the problem as to why each organ 
has such and such a character will be discussed in 
the treatise " On the Use of Parts." 


It is not, however, our business to discuss either 
of these questions here, but to consider duly the 
natural facull'ies, Λvhich, to the number of four, exist 
in each organ. Returning then, to this point, let us 

coat, with its vnlvulae conniveiites, and (2) the musrular coat, 
of which the chief layer is raade up of circular fibres, ef. 
p. 262, note 1. » Or utility. ^g 


rSiv ίμττροσθβν el ρη μίνων εττιθώμάν re Κ€φα\ην 
η8η τω λόγω τταντί το Χβΐττον €τι 7Γροσθ6ντ€<ί. 
βτΓβώη yap βκαστον των iv τω ζωω μορίων eXxeiv 
€69 εαυτό τον οίκβΐον 'χνμον άποΒέδεικται και 
πρώτη σχεδόν αΰτη των φυσικών βστι Βυνάμβων, 

183 €φ€ζή<; II ίκβίνω <γνωστ6ον, ώς ου ττρότβρον άττο- 
τρίβξται την βΧγθεΙσαν <τροφην> ήτοι σύμπασαν 
η και τι τΓβρίττωμα αντή<;, ττρίν αν εις ivavTi'av 
μεταΐΓ^ση Βιάθβσιν η αύτο το opyavov η και των 
Trepie)(o μίνων iv αύτω τα ττΧβΐστα. η μίν ονν 
^αστηρ, €7Γ€ί8αν μβν Ικανώς βμττΧησθη των αιτίων 
κα\ το 'χ^ρηστότατον αυτών €ΐ<; τους εαυτής χιτώ- 
νας βναττόθηται βΒάΧλουσα, τηνικαντ ηοη το 
ΧοιτΓον άτΓοτρίββται καθύττβρ ά-χθος άΧΧότριον 
αϊ κύστεις δ', iireiSav €καστον τών ίΧχθέντων ή 
τφ ττΧηθζΐ 8ιατ€Ϊνον ή τ^ ττοιότητι 8άκνον άνιαρον 

Τω δ' αύτω τρόττω καΐ αι μήτραΐ' ήτοι yap, 
€7Γ€ΐ8αν μηκέτι φβρωσι 8ίατ€ΐνομ€ναι, το Χυττοϋν 
ατΓοθέσθαι σττεύΒονσιν ή τ^ ττοιότητι 8ακνόμβναι 
τών ίκχυθίντων €ΐς αύτας υypώv. εκάτβρον δε 
τών βιρη μίνων yiyveTai μεν καΐ βιαίως εστίν ό'τε 
καΐ άμβΧώσκουσι τηνικαΰτα, yiyveTai δ' ώς τα 
ΤΓολλά καΐ προσηκόντως, οττβρ ουκ άμβΧώσκειν 
αλλ' άτΓοκυίσκειν τε καΐ τίκτβιν ονομάζεται, τοις 
μεν ουν άμβΧωθρι8Ίοις φαρμάκοις η τισιν άΧΧοις 

184 τταθττιμασι 8ιαφθεί\\ρουσι το εμβρυον η τινας τών 
νμίνων αυτοί) pηyvύovσιv αι άμβΧώσεις βττονται, 
ούτω 8ε καττεώαν άνιαθώσί ττοθ' at μήτραι κακώς 
εχουσαι τρ 8ιατάσει, ταΐς δε τών εμβρύων αυτών 
κινησεσι ταΐς σφοΒροτάταις οι τόκοι, καθάττερ 
και τοΰθ^ Ίτητοκράτξΐ καΧώς εϊρηται. κοινον δ' 



recall ΛνΗβί has already been said, and set a crown 
to the whole subject by adding what is still wanting. 
For when every part of the animal has been shewn 
to draw into itself the juice Avhich is proper to it 
(this being practically Ihefirsi of the natural faculties) , 
the next point to realise is that the part does not 
get rid either of this attracted nutriment as a \vhole, 
or even of any superfluous portion of it, until either 
the organ itself, or the major part of its contents 
also have their condition reversed. Thus, when the 
stomach is sufficiently filled with the food and has 
absorbed and stored away the most useful part of it 
in its own coats, it then rejects the rest like an alien 
burden. The same happens to the bladders, when 
the matter attracted into them begins to give trouble 
either because it distends them through its quantity 
or irritates them by its quality. 

And this also happens in the case of the uterus ; for 
it is either because it can no longer bear to be 
stretched that it strives to relieve itself of its 
annoyance, or else because it is irritated by the 
quality of the fluids poured out into it. Now both 
of these conditions sometimes occur with actual 
violence, and then miscarriage takes place. But for 
the most part they happen in a normal Avay, this 
being then called not miscarriage but delivery or 
panurition. ΝοΛν abortifacient drugs or certain other 
conditions \vhich destroy the embryo or rupture 
certain of its membranes are followed by abortion, 
and similarly also when the uterus is in pain from 
being in a bad state of tension ; and, as has been 
well said by Hippocrates, excessive movement on the 
part of the embryo itself brings on labour. Nov 



αττασων των Βίαθέσβων ή ανία καΐ ταντη<ζ αϊτιον 
τριττον ή 6<yK0<i ττεριττος ή τί βάρο'ζ ή 8ήξίς• 
ο'γκος μεν, CTreiBav μηκέη φερωσο Βιατεινόμβναι, 
βάρο<ζ δ', €7Γ€ΐ8άν virep την ρώμην αυτών y το 
7Γ€ρί€χ^ομ€νον, Βήξις δ', iireiSav ήτοι τα ττρότερον 
iv Τ0Γ9 ύμέσιν vypa στβ'γόμενα ρα'^εντων αυτών 
€19 αύτάς εκχ^υθί} τά? μήτρας ή καΐ σύμτταν 
άτΓοφθαρβν το κύημα σηττόμβνόν τ€ και 8ιαΧυό- 
μενον eh μοχθηρού<ς ιχώρας ούτως ερβθίζη τ€ καϊ 
Βάκνη τον 'χ^ιτώνα τών υστερών. 

'AvaXoyov οΰν ev άττασι τοις 6pyavot<} έκαστα 
τών τ ερ'γων αυτών τών φυσικών και μεντοι τών 
παθημάτων τε καϊ νοσημάτων φαίνεται yiyvo- 
μενα, τα μεν έναρ^ώς και σαφώς ούτως, ώς 
άτΓοδείξεως Βεΐσθαι μηΒεν, τα δ' ήττον μεν εναρ- 
185 γώς, ου μην αγι^ωστά γ€ τταντάττασι τοϊς || εθέ- 
Χουσι ττροσεγειν τον νουν. 

ΈτΓλ μεν οΰν της <γαστρ6ς αϊ τε Βήξεις εναργείς, 
Βιότι ττΧείστης αίσθησεως μετέχει, τά τ' άΧΧα 
τταθήματα τά τε ναυτίαν εμττοιοΰντα καϊ οι 
καλούμενοι καρΒιω^μοι σαφώς ενΒείκνννται την 
άτΓΟκριτικην τε καϊ άττωστίκην τών άΧΧοτρίων 
Βύναμιν, ούτω Βε κάττΐ τών υστερών τε και της 
κύστεως της το οΐιρον ύττοΒεχομενης' εναρ^ώς 'yap 
οΰν καϊ αύτη φαίνεται μ^χρι τοσούτου το h'ypov 
ΰττοΒεγομενη τε καϊ άθροίζουσα, ά.'χ^ρις αν ήτοι 
ττρος του ττΧηθους αυτού Βιατεινομενη μηκετι 
φεριι την άνίαν ή προς της ποιότητος Βακνομενη' 
■χ^ρονίζον yap εκαστον τών περιττωμάτων εν τω 
σώματι σηπεται δηΧονότι, το μεν έΧάττονι, το Βε 
πΧείοΐΊ 'χ^ρόνω, καϊ ούτω ΒακνώΒες τε και Βριμύ 
και άνιαρον τοις περιεχουσι ηίηνεται. ου μην 



pain is common to all these conditions, and of this 
there are three possible causes — either excessive 
bulk, or weight, or irritation ; bulk >vhen the uterus 
can no longer support the stretching, weight 
when the contents surpass its strength, and irritation 
when the fluids which had previously been pent up 
in the membranes, flow out, on the rupture of these, 
into the uterus itself, or else when the wliole foetus 
perishes, putrefies, and is resolved into pernicious 
ichors, and so irritates and bites the coat of the 

In all organs, then, both their natural efl^ects and 
their disorders and maladies plainly take place on 
analogous lines,^ some so clearly and manifestly as to 
need no demonstration, and others less plainly, 
although not entirely unrecognizable to those who 
are willing to pay attention. 

Thus, to take the case of the stomach : the irrita- 
tion is evident here because this organ possesses most 
sensibility, and among its other affections those 
producing nausea and the so-called heartburn clearly 
demonstrate the eliminative faculty which expels 
foreign matter. So also in the case of the uterus 
and the urinary bladder ; this latter also may be 
plainly observed to receive and accumulate fluid until 
it is so stretched by the amount of this as to be 
incapable of enduring the pain ; or it may be the 
quality of the ui-ine which irritates it; for every super- 
fluous substance which lingers in the body must 
obviously putrefy, some in a shorter, and some in a 
longer time, and thus it becomes pungent, acrid, and 
burdensome to the organ Avhich contains it. This 

^ Relationship between pli3'siology and pathology again 
emphasized, ς/', p. 188, note 2. 



eiTi ye της eVt τω ήτταη κύστ€ω<; ομοίως ίχ€ί' 
ω ΒήΧον, ΟΤΙ νεύρων ηκιστα μετβχ^ει. χρη Be 
κάνταΰθα τον je φνσικον avSpa το avaXoyov 
έξβνρίσκειν. el yap eXKecv re τον οίκβΐον aire- 
Ζβίχθη χυμόν, ώ? φαίνεσθαι 7ΓοΧΧάκι<ζ μεστήν, 

186 ά•ποκρί\\ν€ΐν re τον αυτόν τούτον ουκ et? μακράν, 
avayKaiov εστίν αύτην ή Βια νό TrXrjUo'; βαρυνο- 
μβνην ή της ττοώτητος μεταβαΧΧούσης eVi το 
ΒακνώΒβς Τ€ καΐ Βριμύ της άττοκρίσεως εφίεσθαι. 
ου yap δη τα μεν σιτία την άρχαίαν ύτταΧΧάττει 
ποιότητα ταχέω<ζ οΰτως, ωστ, εττειΒαν εμττεση 
τοις ΧετΓΤοΐς εντεροις, ευθύς είναι κόττρον, ή χοΧη 
δ' ου ΊΓοΧύ μάΧΧον η το ουρον, irreihav ατταζ 
εκττεστ) των φΧεβών, εξαΧΧάττει την ττοιότητα, 
τάχιστα μεταβάΧΧοντα καΐ σηττόμενα. καΐ μην 
εϊττερ επί τε των κατά τάς υστέρας καΐ την 
κοιΧίαν καΧ τα έντερα καΙ προσέτι την το ουρον 
ύποδεχομενην κύστιν εvapyως φαίνεται Βιάτασίς 
τις ή δηξις η άχθος επεyεΐpov εκαστον των 
6pyάvωv εις άπόκρισιν, ούδεν χαΧεττον κάπι 
της χοΧηΒόχου κύστεως ταύτο τούτ έννοεΐν επί 
τε των άΧΧων απάντων 6pyάvωv, εξ ων ΒηΧονότι 
καΐ αϊ άρτηρίαι και αί φΧεβες είσίν. 


Ου μην ούΒε το Βιά του αυτού πόρου την θ' 
οΧκην yίyvεσθaι και την άπόκρισιν εν Βιαφέ- 

187 ρουσι \\ χρόνοις ούΒεν ετι χαΧεπον εξευρεΐν, ει ye 
καΐ της yaστpoς 6 στόμαχος ου μόνον εΒεσματα 



does not apply, however, in the case of the bladder 

alongside the liver, whence it is clear that it possesses 
fewer nerves than do the other organs, f lere too, 
however, at least the physiologist ^ must discover 
an analogy. For since it was shown that the gall- 
bladder attracts its ΟΛνη special juice, so as to be often 
found full, and that it discharges it soon after, this 
desire to discharge must be either due to the fact 
that it is burdened by the quantity or that the bile 
has changed in quality to pungent and acrid. For 
while food does not change its original quality so 
fast that it is already ordure as soon as it falls into 
tlie small intestine, on the other hand the bile even 
more readily than the urine becomes altered in 
quality as soon as ever it leaves the veins, and 
rapidly undergoes change and putrefaction. Now, 
if there be clear evidence in relation to the uterus, 
stomach, and intestines, as well as to the urinary 
bladder, that there is either some distention, irri- 
tation, or burden inciting each of these organs to 
elimination, there is no difficulty in imagining this in 
the case of the gall-bladder also, as Λvell as in the 
other organs, — to which obviously the arteries and 
veins also belong. 


Nor is there any turther difficulty in ascertaining 
that it is through the same channel that both attrac- 
tion and discharge take place at different times. For 
obviously the inlet to the stomach does not merely 

1 Or physicist— the investigator of the Physis or Nature. 
cf. p. 196, note 2. Note here the use of Analogical reasoning. 
c/. p. 113, note 2. ^g^ 


καϊ ττόματα τταρά'^ων et? αυτήν, άλλα καν ταΙ<^ 
ναυτίαις την βναντίαν νττηρβσίαν νττηρβΎών evap- 
7W9 φαίνεται, καϊ τ?)? eVt τω ηττατι κύστ€ωζ 
6 αύχην eh ων άμα μ€ν ττΧηροΐ δί' αυτοί) την 
κύστίν, αμα δ' βκκενοΐ, καϊ των μήτρων ο 
στόμα'χο^ ώσαύτω<; όδος βστιν €Ϊσω μβν του 
σπέρματα^;, βξω Be του κυήματος. 

'Αλλά κάνταυθα τταλιν ή μεν εκκριτική Βύναμι^ 
evapyrj^, ου μην ομοίω'ζ <γ αύτη σαώη<ζ τοΙ<ί 
TToXXoh ή ελκτική' αλλ' Ίτητοκράτης μεν αρρώ- 
στου μητρα<ί αΐτιώμενος αυχένα φησί' " Ου yap 
Βύναται αύτεη<ζ 6 στόμαχος είρύσαι την ηονην. 

^Ερασίστρατος Βε καϊ ^ΑσκΧηττίάΒης εις τοσού- 
τον ηκουσι σοφίας, ωστ ου μόνον την κοιΧιαν καΐ 
τας μήτρας άττοστεροΰσι της τοιαύτης Βυνάμεως 
άΧλά καϊ την εττΐ τω ηττατι κύστιν άμα τοις 
νεφροΐς. καίτοι y οτι μηΒ^ elveiv Βυνατον έτερον 
αϊτιον ή ούρων η χοΧής Βιακρίσεως, εν τω ττρώτω 
ΒεΒεικται λόγω. 

Καί. μητραν ούν καϊ ηαστερα καϊ την εττϊ 
188 τ^ ηττατι κύστιν Βι ενός καϊ ταύτοΰ στο\\μάχου 
την θ' όΧκην καϊ την άττόκρισιν εύρίσκοντες 
ττοιουμενας μηκετι θαυμάζωμεν, ει καϊ Βια των 
φΧεβών ή φύσις εκκρίνει ττοΧλάκις εις την 
ηαστερα ττεριττώματα. τούτου δ' ετι μαΧΧον 
ου χρη θαυμάζειν, ει, Βι ων εις ητταρ άνεΒόθη 
φλεβών εκ ^αστρός, αύθις εΙς αύτην εξ ηττατος 
εν ταΐς μακροτεραις άσιτίαις ελκεσθαΐ τις Βύνα- 
ται τροφή. το yap τοις τοωύτοις άττιστεΐν 

' Galen's idea is that if reversal of tiie direction of flow 


conduct food and drink into this organ, but in the 
condition of nausea it performs the opposite service. 
Further, the neck of the bladder which is beside the 
Uver, albeit single, both fills and empties the bladder. 
Similarly the canal of the uterus affords an entrance 
to the semen and an exit to the foetus. 

But in this latter case, again, ΛvhiIst the eliminative 
faculty is evident, the attractive faculty is not so 
obvious t© most people. It is, ho\vever, the cervix 
which Hippocrates blames for inertia of the uterus 
Λvhen he says : — " Its orifice has no power of attract- 
ing semen." ^ 

ErasistratuSj however, and Asclepiades reached 
such heights of Λvisdom that they deprived not 
merely the stomach and the womb of this faculty but 
also the bladder by the liver, and the kidneys as well. 
I have, however, pointed out in the first book that it 
is impossible to assign any other cause for the secretion 
of urine or bile.^ 

Now, when we find that the uterus, the stomach 
and the bladder by the liver carry out attraction and 
expulsion through one and the same duct, we need 
no longer feel surprised that Nature should also 
frequently discharge waste-substances into the 
stomach through the veins. Still less need we be 
astonished if a certain amount of the food should^ 
during long fasts, be drawn back from the liver 
into the stomach through the same veins ^ by 
which it was yielded up to the liver during ab- 
sorption of nutriment.* To disbelieve such things 

can occur in the prtmae viae (in vomiting), it may also be 
expected to occur in the -ienindae viae or absorptive channels. 
■* For this "delivery," '* up-yield," or aiuidods, v. p. 1.3. 
note δ. 



δμοιον εστί ^ηπου τω μηκέτί ττιστεύειν μηΒ* 
ότί τα καθαιροντα φάρμακα 8ιά των αυτών 
στομάτων έξ οΚ,ου του σώματος eh την /γαστβρα 
του<{ οΙκ6ίους ειησ'παται ■χυμού<ί, 8ί ων βμττρο- 
σθβν ή άνάΒοσις iyiveTO, αλλ' €Τ€ρα μβν ζητβΐν 
άναδόσεως, έτερα 8ε καθάρσεων στόματα, καΐ 
μην εΐττερ εν καΐ ταύτο στόμα δίτταΐ? υπηρετεί 
Βυνάμεσιν, εν Βιαφόροι<} γ^ρόνοι^ εί•ζ τάναντία 
την όΧκην ΊΓΟίουμεναις, εμττροσθεν μεν τη κατά 
το ητταρ, εν Be τω της καθάρσεων καιρώ τη 
TOU φαρμάκου, τι θαυμαστόν εστί Βιττην ύπη- 
ρεσίαν τε και χρείαν είναι ταΐς φΧεψι ταΐς 
εν τω μέσω τετα'^μεναις ηττατός τε και των 
κατά την κοιΧιαν, ωσθ\ όττότε μεν εν τούτοις 
άφθονος εΐη "περιεχόμενη τροφή, Βια των ειρη- 
189 μάνων εις || ήτταρ άναφερεσθαι φΧεβών, όττότε δ' 
εϊη κενά καϊ δεόμενα τρεφεσθαι, διά των αύτων 
αύθις εξ ήπατος εΧκεσθαι; 

Yiav 'yap εκ παντός εΧκειν φαίνεται καϊ παντί 
μεταδίδόναι καϊ μία τις είναι σύρροια καϊ σύμ- 
πνοια πάντων, καθάπερ και τουθ^ ό θειότατος 
'Ιπποκράτης είπεν. εΚκεί μεν ουν το ίσχυρότερον, 
εκκενοΰται δε το άσθενίστερον. 

^Ισχνρότερον δε καϊ άσθενεστερον έτερον έτερου 
μόριον ?) άπΧως καϊ φύσει καϊ κοινή πάσίν εστίν 
η ιδίως τωδε τινι yiyveTai. φύσει μεν καϊ κοινή 
πάσιν άνθρώποις θ^ άμα και ζωοις ή μεν καρδία 
του ήπατος, το δ' ήπαρ των εντέρων τε καϊ της 
Ύαστρός, αι δ' άρτηρίαι των φΧεβών εΧκύσαι τε 
το χρήσιμον εαυταΐς άποκρΐναί τε το μη τοιούτον 

* The mesenteric veins. 


would of course be like refusing to believe that 
purgative drugs draw their appropriate humours from 
all over the body by the same stomata through 
which absorption previously takes place^ and to look 
for separate stomata for absorption and purgation 
respectively. As a matter of fact one and the same 
stoma subserves tAvo distinct faculties, and these 
exercise their pull at different times in opposite 
directions — first it subserves the pull of the liver 
and, during catharsis, that of the drug. What is 
there surprising, then, in the fact that the veins 
situated bet>veen the Kver and the region of the 
stomach ^ fulfil a double service or purpKJse ? Thus, 
when there is abundance of nutriment contained in 
the food-canal, it is carried up to the liver by the 
veins mentioned ; and Λvhen the canal is empty and 
in need of nutriment, this is again attracted from the 
liver by the same veins. 

For everything appears to attract from and to go 
shares with everything else, and, as the most divine 
Hippocrates has said, there >vould seem to be a con- 
sensus in the movements of fluids and vapours.^ 
Thus the stronger draws and the weaker is evacu- 

Now, one part is weaker or stronger than another 
either absolutely, by nature, and in all cases, or else 
it becomes so in such and such a particular instance. 
Thus, by nature and in all men alike, the heart is 
stronger than the liver at attracting what is service- 
able to it and rejecting Λvhat is not so ; similarly the 
liver is stronger than the intestines and stomach, and 

' Linacre renders: "Una omnium confluxio ac conspira- 
tio"; and he adds the marginal note "Totum corpus nostrum 
est coQspirabile et confluxile per meatus oommunes." cf. 
p. 48. 



Ισγνρότβραί. καθ* e/caarov δ' ήμων ΙΒίως iv μ^ν 
τάδε τω καιρώ το ήπαρ Ισ-χυροΎβρον βΧκειν, ή 
yaarrjp δ' iv τωδε. ττολλ?}? μβν yap iv rfj κοιΚία 
7Γ€ρΐ€-χ^ομβνη<ζ τροφής καϊ σφοδρώς ορβ^ομίνου re 
καΐ 'χρι'ιζοντος του ηττατος, ττάντως Ισχ^νρότερον 
βΧκει το σττΧάγχνον βμτταΧιν he του μεν ήπατο<; 

190 €μ7Γ€7Γλησμ€νον τ€ καϊ Βία\\τ€ταμ€νον, τή^ί γαστ/ο09 
δ' όρεγο/χεντ;? καϊ κβνη'ζ ύτταρχούση^; ή της όΧκής 
ίσχύζ et9 iκ€ίvηv μεθίσταται. 

Ώς ya-Pf fi' /^ο,ν ταΐς χερσί τίνα σιτία κατ- 
€χοντ€<ί aWyjXwv άρττάζοιμβν, el μβν ομοίως βϊημβν 
8eopevoi, TrepLyiyveadai τον ίσ'χυροτβρον βίκος, ei 
δ' ούτος μβν iμ'πe^Γ\ησμβvoς €Ϊη καϊ 8ιά τοΰτ 
άμβΧώς κατβχ^ων τα ττβριττα η και τινι μβτα- 
Ζοΰναι ΤΓοθών, ό δ* ασθενέστερος opiyoiTO 8εινώς, 
ούΒβν αν εϊη κωΚνμα τον μη τταντα Χαββΐν αυτόν, 
ούτω καϊ ή yaστηp βκ του ήττατος βτησττάταί 
ραΒίως, όταν αύτη μβν ίκανώς 6peyητaι τροφής, 
βμτΓβττΧησμβνον δ' y το aTrXay)(yov. κοίΧ του ye 
μη ΤΓβίνήν ivioTe το ζωον η ττβριουσια της iv 
ηττατι τροφής αΙτία' κρείττονα yap βγουσα καϊ 
βτοιμοτεραν ή yaστηp τροφήν ούΒβν Βεΐται τής 
βξωθεν ei Be. ye ττοτε Ββοιτο μέν, άττοροίη Be, 
ΤΓΧηρούται ττβρίττωμάτων. Ιχωρβς Be τινβς είσι 
ταύτα χολώδβί? τε καϊ φX6yμaτώBeις καϊ ορρώΒβίς, 
οϋς μόνους βΧκούστ] μεθίησίν αύττ) το ήττα ρ, όταν 
ττοτε καϊ αυτή Ββηται τροφής. 

"Ω,στΓβρ οΰν βξ άΧΧ^ίΧων εΧκβι τα μόρια || 

191 τροφήν, οΰτω καϊ άττοτίθεταί ττοτ ίΐς άΧΧηΧα 



the arteries than the veins, lu each of us person- 
ally, however, the liver has stronnjer drawins: power 
at one time, and the stomach at another. For when 
there is much nutriment contained in the alimentary 
canal and the appetite and craving of the liver is vio- 
lent, then the viscus^ exerts far the stronfjest traction. 
Again, when the liver is full and distended and the 
stomach empty and in need, then the force of the 
traction shirts to the latter. 

Su})pose we had some food in our hands and were 
snatching it from one another ; if we were equally 
in Avant, the stronger would be likely to prevail, but 
if he had satisfied his appetite, and was holding what 
was over carelessly, or was anxious to share it with 
somebody, and if the weaker was excessively desirous 
of it, there would be nothing to prevent the latter 
from getting it all. In a similar manner the stomach 
easily attracts nutriment from the liver Avhen it [the 
stomach] has a sufficiently strong craving for it. 
and the appetite of the viscus is satisfied. And 
sometimes the sui-plusage of nutriment in the liver 
is a reason why the animal is not hungry ; for \vhen 
the stomach has better and more available food it 
requires nothing from extraneous sources, but if ever 
it is in need and is at a loss how to supply the need, 
it becomes filled with waste-matters ; these are 
certain biliary, phlegmatic [mucous] and serous fluids, 
and are the only substances that the liver yields in 
response to the traction of the stomach, on the 
occasions when the latter too is in want of nutriment 

Now, just as the parts draw food from each other^ 
so also they sometimes dejwsit their excess substances 

' The alimentary canal, as not being edible, is not con- 
sidered a aplanchnon or viscus, 



το TrepiTTov καΐ ώσττβρ ίλκόντων εττλεον^κτξί το 
Ισ'χνροτβρον, ούτω και άττοτίθε μίνων καϊ των <ye 
καλουμένων ρ(:νμάτων ijSe η ττράφασίς. βκαστον 
ιγαρ των μορίων 'έγεί τίνα τόνον σύμφντον, φ 
8ιωθ€ίταί το ττβρίττόν. όταν οΰν €v εξ αυτών 
άρρωστότερον ιγενηται, κατά, Βή τίνα Βίάθβσιν, βξ 
απάντων et? εκείνο συρρεΐν ανάηκΎ] τα ττεριττώ- 
ματα. το μεν yap Ισγυρότατον εναποτίθεται 
τοις ττΧησίον άττασιν, εκείνων δ' αΰ πάλιν 
εκαστον εις ετερ άττα των ασθενέστερων, είτ 
αύθις εκείνων εκαστον εις άλλα καϊ τοΰτ επι 
πλβΐστον •γί'γνεται, μέχρι περ αν εξ απάντων 
εΧαυνόμενον το περίττωμα καθ* εν τι μείνη των 
ασθενέστατων εντεύθεν jap ουκετ εις αΧλο 
Βύναται μεταρρειν, ως αν μήτε δεχόμενου τίνος 
αυτό των ισχυρότερων μητ άπώσασθαι Βυναμένον 
του πεπονθότος. 

Αλλά περί μεν των παθών της γενέσεως κα\ 
της ίάσεως αύθις ημών επώεικνύντων Ικανά κάξ 
εκείνων εσται λαβείν μαρτύρια των εν τώδε τω 
192 λόγω παντι || Bε8ειy μένων ορθώς, ο δ' εν τω 
παρόντι Βεΐξαι προΰκειτο, πάλιν άναλάβωμεν, ώς 
ούΒεν θαυμαστον εξ ήπατος ηκειν τινά τροφην 
εντεροις τε καϊ ^αστρί Βιά τών αυτών φλεβών, 
Βι ων έμπροσθεν εξ εκείνων εις ήπαρ άνεΒίΒοτο. 
καϊ ποΧλοΐς αθρόως τε καϊ τελεως άποστασιν 
ισχυρών γυμνασίων η τι κώλον άποκοπείσιν 
αίματος Βιά τών εντέρων ηίηνεται κενωσις εκ 
τίνων περιοΒων, ώς που καϊ Ιπποκράτης ελε^γεν, 
ούΒεν μεν άλλο λυπούσα, καθαιρούσα δ' οξέως το 
παν σώμα καϊ τάς πλησμονάς έκκενούσα, Βιά τών 



in each other, and just as the stronger prevailed 
when the two -were exercising traction, so it is also 
when they are depositing ; this is the cause of the 
so-called riuxions,^ for every part has a definite inborn 
tension, by virtue of which it expels its superfluities, 
and, therefore, when one of these parts, — owing, of 
course, to some special condition — becomes >veaker, 
there will necessarily be a confluence into it of the 
superfluities from all the other parts. The strongest 
piut deposits its surplus matter in all the parts near 
it ; these again in other parts which are \veaker ; 
these next into yet others ; and this goes on for a 
long time, until the superfluity, being driven from 
one part into another, comes to rest in one of the 
weakest of all ; it cannot flow from this into another 
p>art, because none of the stronger ones Avill receive 
it, while the affected part is unable to drive it awav. 
When, however, we come to deal again with the 
origin and cure of disease, it will be jjossible to find 
there also abundant proofs of all that we have 
correctly indicated in this book. For the present, 
however, let us resume again the task that lay before 
us, i.e. to show that there is nothing surprising in 
nutriment coming from the liver to the intestines and 
stomach by way of the very veins through which it 
had previously been yielded up from these organs 
into the liver. And in many people who have 
suddenly and completely given up active exercise, or 
who have had a limb cut off, there occurs at certain 
periods an evacuation of blood by way of the in- 
testines — as Hippocrates has also pointed out some- 
where. This causes no further trouble but sharply 
purges the whole body and evacuates the plethoras ; 
* Lit. rheum» ; hence our term rJieumatimi. 

U «97 


αυτών 8 ήττον φΧε,βών της φοράς των ττερίττών iiri- 
τβΧουμβνης,Βι ων βμττροσθβν ή άνά8οσις iyiyveTO. 

11 ολλά /ci 9 δ' iv νόσοις ή φύσις 8ια μ€ν των 
αυτών 8ή•που φΧεβών το ττάν βκκαθ αίρει ζωον, ου 
μην αΙματώΒης y ή κβνωσις αύτοΐς, αλλά κατά 
τον ΧυτΓονντα yiyveTai 'χυμόν. οντω he καν ταΓν 
γοΚίραις εκκενοΰται το ττάν σώμα 8ία τών eU 
βντερά τ€ καϊ 'γαστέρα καθηκουσών φΧεβών. 

Το δ' οϊβσθαι μίαν elvat ταΐς ΰΧαις φοράν 
193 τέΧέως ά'γνοοΰντός εστί τάς φυσικας || 8υνάμ€ΐς 
τάς τ αΧΧας καϊ την εκκριτικην έναντίαν ουσαν 
τ^ εΧκτίκτ}' ταΐς yap βναντίαις 8υνάμ€σίν εναντίας 
κινήσεις τε καϊ φάρας τών υΧών avayKalov 
άκοΧουθεΙν. εκαστον yap τών μορίων, όταν 
εΧκύστ] τον οίκείον 'χυμόν, εττειτα κατάσχη καϊ 
άτΓοΧαύστ], το ττεριττον ατταν αττοθεσθαι σ'πεύ8ει, 
καθότι μάΧιστα 8ύναται τάχιστα θ* άμα καϊ 
κάΧΧιστα, κατά την του ττεριττού ροττήν. 

"Οθεν η yaστηp τά μεν εττιττοΧάζοντα τών 
ττεριττωμάτων εμέτοις εκκαθαιρει, τά 8 υφιστά- 
μενα 8ιαρροίαις. καϊ τό ye ναυτιώ8ες yιyvεσθaι 
το ζωον τοΰτ εστίν όρμήσαι την y αστέρα κενω- 
θηναι 8ι εμετού, ούτω 8ε 8ή τι βιαιον καϊ 
σφο8ρον ή εκκριτική 8νναμις έχει, ώστ εν τοΙς 
εΙΧεοΐς, οταν άττοκΧεισθτ} τεΧεως ή κάτω 8ιέξο8ος, 
εμεΐται κόττρος. καίτοι ττρίν 8ιεΧθεΐν το τε Χεττ- 
τον εντερον άτταν καϊ την νήστιν και τον ττυΧωρον 
και την yaστepa και τον olσoφάyov ούχ οίον τε 
8ιά του στόματος εκττεσεΐν ού8ενΙ τοιούτω ττεριτ- 
τώματι. τι 8ή θαυμαστόν, εΐ κάκ της εσχάτης 

^ Here Galen apparently indicates that vital functions are 


the passage of the superfluities is effected, of course, 
through the same veins by which absorption took place. 

Frequently also in disease Nature purges the 
animal through these same veins — although in this 
case the discharge is not sanguineous, but corresponds 
to the humour which is at fault. Thus in cholera the 
entire body is evacuated by way of the veins leading 
to the intestines and stomach. 

To imagine that matterof different kinds is carried 
in one direction only would characterise a man >vho 
was entirely ignorant of all the natural faculties, and 
particularly of the eliminative faculty, which is the 
opposite of the attractive. For opposite movements 
of matter, active and passive, must necessarily follow 
opposite faculties ; that is to say, every part, after it 
has attracted its special nutrient juice and has 
retained and taken the benefit of it hastens to get 
rid of all the surplusage as quickly and effectively as 
possible, and this it does in accordance with the 
mechanical tendency of this surplus matter.^ 

Hence the stomach clears aΛvay by vomiting those 
superfluities which come to the surface of its contents,- 
whilst the sediment it clears away by diarrhoea. 
And when the animal becomes sick, this means that 
the stomach is striving to be evacuated by vomiting. 
And the expulsive faculty has in it so violent and 
forcible an element that in cases of ileus [volvulus], 
when the lower exit is completely closed, vomiting 
of faeces occurs ; yet such surplus matter could not 
be emitted from the mouth \vithout having first 
traversed the whole of the small intestine, the 
jejunum, the pylorus, the stomach,and the oesophagus. 
What is there to wonder at, then, if something 

at least partly explicable in terms of mechanical law. ς/". 
Introduction, p. xxviiL " ς^. pp. 211, 247. 


έτΓίφανβίας της κατά το Ββρμα μβχρι των εντέρων 

194 Τ6 καΐ της ^γαστρος άφικνοΐτό τι \\ μβταλαμβανό- 
μενον, ως καΐ τονθ^ ΊτΓΤΤοκράτης ημάς β^ί^αξβν, 
ου ττνβνμα μόνον η περίττωμα φάσκων άλλα καϊ 
την τροφην αύτην εκ της εσ-χάτης εττιφανείας 
αύθις εττΐ την άρχην, όθεν άνηνβ-χθη, καταφερε- 
σθαι. εΧάχ^ίσταί yap ροτταϊ κινήσεων την 
εκκριτικην ταύτην οίακίζουσι Βνναμιν, ώς hv 8ιά 
των εΎκαρσίων μεν Ινών <γιγνομενην, ώκύτατα Βε 
ΒιαΒώομένην άπο της κινησάσης άργ^ης εττϊ τα 
καταντικρύ ττερατα. οΰκουν άττεικος ούδ' «δύ- 
νατον άηΟει ποτέ ψύξει το προς τω Βερματι 
μόριον εξαίφνης πιληθεν άμα μεν άρρωστότερον 
αντο 'γενόμενον, άμα 8' οίον άχθος τι μάΧλον η 
παρασκενην θρεψεως έχον την έμπροσθεν αλνπως 
αύτω παρεσπαρμίνην νηρότητα και 8ιά τουτ 
άπωθεΐσθαι σπεϋ8ον, άμα 8ε της εξω φοράς 
άποκεκΧεισμενης τη πυκνώσει, προς την Χοιπην 
επιστραφηναι και ούτω βιασάμενον εις το 
παρακείμενον αύτω μόριον αθρόως άπώσασθαι 
το περίττόν, εκείνο δ' αΰ πάΧιν εΙς το μετ αυτό, \\ 

195 καϊ τούτο μη παύσασθαι ηιηνόμενον, άχρις αν η 
μετά^ηψις επΙ τα έντος πέρατα των φΧεβών 

Αι μεν 8η τοιαΰται κινήσεις θάττον άπο- 
παύονται, αϊ δ' άπο των ενΒοθεν 8ιερεθιζόντων, 
ώς εν τε τοις καθαίρουσι φαρμάκοις καϊ ταΐς 
χο\έραις Ισχυρότεραί τε πόΧύ και μονιμώτεραι 
ryiyvovTai καϊ Βιαμένουσιν, εστ αν καϊ ή περί 
τοις στόμασι των ά<γ^είων Βιάθεσις, ή το πΧησίον 

^ See ρ. 298, note 1. 


should also be transferred from the extreme skin- 
surface and so reach the intestines and stomach ? 
This also was pointed out to us by Hippocrates, who 
maintained that not merely pneuma or excess-matter, 
but actual nutriment is brought down fi-om the outer 
surface to the original place from which it was taken 
up. For the slightest mechanical movements ^ deter- 
mine this expulsive faculty, which apparently acts 
through the transverse fibres, and which is verj' 
rapidly transmitted from the source of motion to the 
opposite extremities. It is, therefore, neither unlikely 
nor impossible that, Λvhen the part adjoining the skin 
becomes suddenly oppressed by an unwonted cold, it 
should at once be weakened and should find that the 
liquid previously deposited beside it without dis- 
comfort had ηοΛν become more of a burden than a 
source of nutrition, and should therefore strive to put 
it away. Finally, seeing that the passage outwards 
was shut off by the condensation [of tissue], it would 
turn to the remaining exit and would thus forcibly 
expel all the waste-matter at once into the adjacent 
part ; this would do the same to the part following 
it ; and the process would not cease until the 
transference finally terminated at the inner ends of 
the veins." 

Now, movements like these come to an end fairly 
soon, but those resulting from internal irritants {e.g., 
in the administration of purgative drugs or in cholera) 
become much stronger and more lasting ; they per- 
sist as long as the condition of things ^ about the 
mouths of the veins continues, that is, so long as 

^ The ends of the veins in the alimentar}• canal from which 
absorption or anadosi* had originally taken place. 
* Diatheai». 



άκουσα, irapaukvr]. αντη μεν yap το συνεχές 
eKKevol μόρων, i/ceivo δ' αν το μετ αυτό καΐ τούτ 
ου παύεται μέχρι της εσχάτης εττιφανείας, ώστε 
οιαοιΒοντων των εφεζής άεΐ μορίων έτερων ετεροις 
το πρώτον πάθος ωκύτατα Βιικνεΐσθαι μέχρι των 
εσχάτων, όντως ονν έχει κάπι των εΙΧεών. αντο 
μεν yap το φ\εyμaΐvov εντερον ούτε του βάρονς 
οΰτε της Βριμντητος ανέχεται των περιττωμάτων 
καΐ 8ια τοΰτ εκκρίνειν αύτα σπενΒει και άπω- 
θεΐσθαι πορρωτάτω. κω\νόμενον 8ε κάτω ποι- 
εισθαι την Βίωσιν, όταν ενταυθοΐ ποτέ το σφοΒρό- 
τατον η της φXεy μονής, εΙς τά πΧησιάζοντα των 
υπερκείμενων εντέρων απωθείται, καΐ ούτως ηΒη 
196 κατά \\ το συνεχές την ροπην της εκκριτικής 
Βυνάμεως άνω ποιησαμενης άχρι του στόματος 
επανέρχεται τά περιττώματα. 

Ύαΰτα μεν ούν Βη καν τοις των νοσημάτων 
\oyLσμolς επΙ πΧεον είρησβται. το δ' εκ παντός 
βίς παν φερεσθαί τι και μ€ταΧαμβάνεσθαι και 
μίαν απάντων είναι σύμπνοιάν τε καϊ σύρροιαν, 
ώς Ιπποκράτης εXεyεv, ήΒη μοι Βοκώ ΒεΒεΙχθαι 
σαφώς και μηκέτ αν τίνα, μηΒ^ ει βραΒύς αύτω 
νους ενε'ιη, περί των τοιούτων άπορήσαι μηΒενός, 
οίον όπως ή y άστη ρ η τά έντερα τρέφεται και 
τίνα τρόπον εκ τής εσχάτης επιφανείας εϊσω τι 
ΒιικνεΙται. πάντων yap των μορίων εΧκειν μεν 
το προσήκον τε καϊ φίΧιον, άποκρίνειν Βε το 
βαρύνον ή Βάκνον εχόντων Βύναμιν ούΒεν θαυ- 
μαστον εναντίας συνεχώς yίyveσθaι κινήσεις εν 



these continue to attract what is adjacent. For tiiis 
condition ^ causes evacuation of tlie contiguous part, 
and that again of the part next to it, and this never 
stops until the extreme surface is reached ; thus, as 
each part keeps passing on matter to its neigh- 
bour, the original affection - very quickly arrives at 
the extreme termination. ΝοΛν this is also the case 
in ileus ; the inflamed intestine is unable to support 
either the weight or the acridity of the Avaste. sub- 
stances and so does its best to excrete them, in fact 
to drive them as far aΛvay as possible. And, being 
prevented from effecting an expulsion downwards 
when the severest part of the inflammation is there, it 
•xpels the matter into the adjoining part of the 
intestines situated above. Thus the tendency of the 
eliminative faculty is step by step upwards, until the 
superfluities reach the mouth. 

Now this will be also spoken of at greater length 
in my treatise on disease. For the present, however, 
I think I have shewn clearly that there is a universal 
conveyance or transference from one thing into 
another, and that, as Hippocrates used to say, there 
exists in everything a consensus in the movement of 
air and fluids. And I do not think that anyone, 
however slow his intellect, will now be at a loss to 
understand any of these points, — how, for instance, 
the stomach or intestines get nourished, or in what 
manner anything makes its way inwards from the 
outer surface of the body. Seeing that all parts 
have the faculty of attracting Avhat is suitable or 
■ ell -disposed and of eliminating what is troublesome 
Γ irritating, it is not surjmsing that opposite move- 
ments should occur in them consecutively — as may 

» Diatheait. • Paiho$. 



αύτοΐς, ωσττερ eiri re τ^9 καρΚα^ opdrai σαφώς 
και των αρτηριών άττασών καΐ του θώρακος καΐ 
τον ττνβυμονος. βττι μέν ye τούτων άττάντων 
μόνον ου καθ* €κάστην καιρού ροττην τά? εναντίας 
κίνησ€ίς θ αμα τών οργάνων καϊ φοράς τών 

197 ύΧών II βναργώς βστιν ISetv 'γΐ'γνομένας. είτ' eVl 
μ€ν της τραχείας αρτηρίας ουκ άττορεΐς €να\\αξ 
7Γ0Τ€ μεν βίσω τταραγούσης εις τον πνεύμονα το 
πνεύμα, ποτέ δ' εξω, καϊ τών κατά τας ρΐνας 
πόρων και 6\ου τού στόματος ωσαύτως ούδ' εΙναί 
σοί 8οκεΐ θαυμαστον ούΒε παράΒοξον, εΐ, Bl ου 
μικρω πρόσθεν εϊσω παρεκομίζετο το πνεύμα, 8ια 
τούτου νύν εκπέμπεται, περϊ δε τών εξ ήπατος 
εΙς εντερά τε καϊ γαστέρα καθηκουσών φΧεβών 
απορείς και σοι θαυμαστον είναι φαίνεται, 8ιά 
τών αυτών άναΒί8οσθαί θ* άμα την τροφην εΙς 
ήπαρ ελκεσθαί τ' εξ εκείνου πάλιν εις γαστέρα; 
Βιόρισαι 8η το άμα τούτο ποτέρως Χεγεις. el μεν 
yap κατά τον αύτον 'χ^ρόνον, ούδ' ημείς τούτο γε 
φαμεν. ωσπερ yap είσπνεομεν εν ετερω χρόνω 
και αύθις πάΧιν εν ετερω άντεκπνέομεν, ούτω και 
τροφην εν ετερω μεν γ^ρόνω το ήπαρ εκ της 
γαστρος, εν ετερω δ' ή γαστηρ εκ τού ήπατος 
επισπάται. εΐ δ' ότι καθ εν καϊ ταύτο ζωον εν 
opyavov εναντίαις φοραΐς ύΧών υπηρετεί, τούτο 
σοι βούΧεται 8ηΧούν το άμα καϊ τούτο σε ταράτ- 

198 τει, την τ || είσπνοην ι8ε καϊ την εκπνοήν. πάν- 
τως που καϊ αύται 8ια μεν τών αυτών οργάνων 
γίγνονται, τρόπω 8ε κινήσεως τε καϊ φοράς τών 
νΧών 8ιαφερουσιν. 

^ He means, not only under the stress of special circum- 
stances, but also normally. 



be clearly seen in the case of the heart, in the 
various arteries, in the thorax, and lungs. In all 
these 1 the active movements of the organs and 
therewith the passive movements of [their contained] 
matters may be seen taking place almost every 
second in opposite directions. ΝοΛν, you are not 
astonished when the trachea - artery ^ alternately 
draws air into the lungs and gives it out, and Avhen 
the nosti-ils and the whole mouth act similarly; nor 
do you think it strange or paradoxical that the air is 
dismissed through the very channel by which it was 
admitted just before. Do you, then, feel a difficulty 
in the case of the veins which pass down from the 
liver into the stomach and intestines, and do you 
think it strange that nutriment should at once be 
yielded up to the liver and drawn back from it into 
the stomach by the same veins ? You must define 
what you mean by this expression " at once." If 
you mean " at the same time " this is not Avhat we 
ourselves say ; for just as we take in a breath at one 
moment and give it out again at another, so at one 
time the liver draws nutriment from the stomach, 
and at another the stomach from the hver. But if 
your expression "at once" means that in one and 
the same animal a single organ subsei'ves the trans- 
port of matter in opposite directions, and if it is this 
which disturbs you, consider inspiration and expiration. 
For of course these also take place through the same 
organs, albeit they differ in their manner of move- 
ment, and in the way in which the matter is conveyed 
through them. 

' Lit. "rough artery." The air-passages as well as the 
arteries proper were supposed by the Greeks to carry air 
(pneuma) ; diastole of arteries was, like expansion of the 
chest, a movement for drawing in air. cf. p. 317, note 1. 


Ό Ίτν^ύμων μίν ουν κάΙ 6 θώραξ καΧ άρτηρίαί 
at τρα'χβίαι καΧ αι \elaL καϊ καρδία καΐ στόμα 
και ρΐνβς iv ελαχισταί? -χρόνου po7ral<i eU evav- 
rias κινήσβί^} αυτά re μεταβάΧλει και τά<? ί/λα? 
μβθίστησιν. αΐ δ' ξ.ξ ηττατος eh βντερα κα\ ηασ- 
τβρα καθηκουσαι φ'λέβες ουκ iv οΰτω βραχβσι 
χρόνου μορίοι<; αλλ' iv ττολλαι? ήμεραις ατταξ 
ivCoTe την ivavTLav κινούνται κίνησιν. 

"E%ei γαρ ώδε το σΰμτταν. βκαστον των όρ- 
•γάνων εις €αυτο την ττΧησιάζουσαν εττίσπάτα^ 
τροφην iκβoσκoμ€Vov αύτης α-πασαν την χρηστην 
voTiSa, μέχρί<; αν Ικανώ<ί κορεσθη, και ταύτην, 
ώ<ί καϊ ττροσθεν εΖβίκ.νυμεν, ivaTTOTLdeTai έαυτω 
και μετά ταύτα ττροσφνει τ€ και όμοιοι, τουτ- 
έστι τρέφεται. Βιώρισται <γαρ ίκανώς έμπρο- 
σθεν ετερόν τι της θρέψεως i^ ανάγκης αυτη<ί 
ττροη^ουμενον η ττρόσφυσις ύττάρχειν, εκείνης δ' 
199 ετι ττρότερον η ττρόσθεσις. ώσπερ ουν \\ τοις 
ζωοις αύτοΐς ορός iστι της iBωBής το ΤΓΚηρώσαι 
την <^αστερα, κατά τον αυτόν τρόττον εκάστω 
των μορίων ορός εστ\ της ττροσθεσεως η ιτλ-ηρωσις 
της οικείας υ'^ρότητος. εττει τοίνυν άτταν μόριον 
TTJ ιγαστρϊ ομοίως ορέγεται τρεφεσθαι, καϊ ττερι- 
ΤΓτύσσεται τη τροφή καϊ οΰτω σφί'γyει τταντα- 
χοθεν αυτήν ώς η '^αστηρ. εττεται δ' e^ ανάηκης 
τοΰτφ, καθ άττερ καϊ ττρόσθεν ερρηθη,τό ττεττεσθαι 
τοις σιτιοις, της 'γαστρος ου δια τούτο ττερι- 
στεΧΚομενης αύτοΐς, ϊν i7ΓιτηBειa τοις άΧλοις 
ερΎασηται μορίοις' οΰτω yap αν ούκετι φυσικον 

' cf. ρ. 39, chap. xi. 
" Lit. orexie. 



Now the lungs, the thorax, the arteries rough and 
smooth, the heart, the mouth, and the nostrils re 
verse their movements at very short intervals and 
change the direction of the matters they contain. 
On the other hand, the veins Λvhich pass down from 
the liver to the intestines and stomach reverse the 
direction of their movements not at such short in- 
tervals, but sometimes once in many days. 

The Avhole matter, in fact, is as follows ; — Each of 
the organs draws into itself the nutriment alongside 
it, and devours all the useful fluid in it, until it is 
thoroughly satisfied ; this nutriment, as I have already 
shown, it stores up in itself, afterwards making it 
adhere and then assimilating it — that is, it becomes 
nourished by it. For it has been demonstrated with 
sufficient clearness already ^ that there is something 
which necessarily precedes actual nutrition, namely 
adhesion, and that before this again comes presenta- 
tion. Thus as in the case of the animals themselves 
the end of eating is that the stomach should be 
filled, similarly in the case of each of the parts, the 
end of presentation is the filling of this part with its 
appropriate liquid. Since, therefore, every part has, 
like the stomach, a craving'^ to be nourished, it too 
envelops its nutriment and clasps it all round as the 
stomach does. And this [action of the stomach], as 
has been already said, is necessarily followed by the 
digestion of the food, although it is not to make it 
suitable for the other parts that the stomach con- 
tracts upon it ; if it did so, it would no longer be a 
physiological organ,^ but an animal possessing reason 

' Lit. a "physical" organ; that is, a mere instrument or 
organon of the Phjsis, — not one of the Psyche or conscious 
personality. </. semen, p. 132, note 1. 


opyavov άλλα ζωόν τι ηίηνοιτο λογίσ/^όΐ' τ€ κα\ 
νουν βχον, ώ<? αίρεΐσθαί το βέλτιον. 

Άλλ' αύτη μίν ττζριστβΧΚεται τω το ττάν 
σώμα δύναμιν βΧκτικην τίνα καΐ άττοΧαυστικην 
Κ€κτησθαί των οίκβίων ττοίοτήτων, ώ<; βμττροσθεν 
ζΖείκνυτο' συμβαίνει δ' ev τούτω τοΐ<{ σιτίοις 
άΧΧοιούσθαι. καΐ μίντοι καΐ ττΧηρωθβΐσα τή<; 
€ξ αυτών υ^ρ6τητο<ί και κορεσθείσα βάρος r^'yeiTai 
το \onrov αυτά. το ττεριττον οΰν εύθύ<; άττο- 
200 τρίβεται τε καΐ ωθεί κάτω 'προς \\ έτερον ερ^ον 
αύτη τρετΓομένη, την -πρόσφυσιν. εν δε τούτω 
τω χρόνω Βίερχ^ομενη το εντερον άτταν η τροφή 
δίά των εις αύτο καθηκόντων αγγείων άναρττά- 
ζεται, ττλείστη μεν εις τας φΧεβας, ολί^η δε τις 
εις τας αρτηρίας, ώ? μικρόν ύστερον άττοΖείξομεν. 
εν τούτφ δ' αϊ) τω γ^ρόνω καΧ το?? τών εντέρων 
γιτώσι ττροστιθεται. 

}ζ.αί μοί τεμων ή8η τω \oyισμω την της τροφής 
οίκονομίαν άττασαν εις τρεις μοίρας 'χρόνων, εν 
μεν τη πρώττ) νόει μενουσάν θ^ άμα κατά την 
κοίλίαν αντην καΐ ττεττομένην καϊ ττροστιθεμενην 
εις κόρον τη ιγαστρϊ και τι και τω ήττατι irap 
αυτής άναφερόμενον. 

Έν δε τή 8ευτερα Βιερχομενην τά τ έντερα 
και ττροστιθεμενην εις κόρον αύτοΐς τε τούτοις καϊ 
τω ήττατι και τι βραχύ μέρος αυτής ττάντη του 
σώματος φερόμενον εν δε δ^ τούτω τφ καιρώ 
το ττροστεθεν εν τω ττρώτω χρόνω ττροσφύεσθαι 
νόει τή ηαστρί. 

Κατά δε την τρίτην μοίραν του χρόνου τρε- 

' φ ρ. 317, note 2; ρ. 319, chap. χτ. 


and intelligence, with the power of choosing the 
better [of two alternatives]. 

But while the stomach contracts for the reason 
that the whole body possesses a power of attracting 
and of utilising appropriate qualities, as has already 
been explained, it also happens that, in this process, 
the food undergoes alteration ; further, when filled 
and saturated with the fluid pabulum from the food, 
it thereafter looks on the food as a burden ; thus it 
at once gets rid of the excess — that is to say, drives 
it downΛvards — itself turning to another task, namely 
that of causing adhesion. And during this time, 
Λvhile the nutriment is passing along the Avholt 
length of the intestine, it is caught up by the vessels 
which pass into the intestine ; as we shall shortly 
demonstrate,^ most of it is seized by the veins, but 
a little also by the arteries ; at this stage also it 
becomes presented to the coats of the intestines. 

Now imagine the whole economy of nutrition divided 
into three periods. Suppose that in the first period 
the nutriment remains in the stomach and is digested 
and presented to the stomach until satiety is reached, 
also that some of it is taken up from the stomach to 
the liver.2 

During the second period it passes along the 
intestines and becomes presented both to them and to 
the liver — again until the stage of satiety — while a 
small part of it is carried all over the body.^ During 
this period, also imagine that what was presented to 
the stomach in the first period becomes now adherent 
to it. 

During the third period the stomach has reached 

- Xote that absorption takes place from the stomach as well 
as the intestines, c/. p. 118, note 1. 



φβσθαι μ€ν ηΒη την Kotklav ομοιώσασαν eavrfj 
τελεως τά Ίτροσφύντα, ιτρόσφυσίν δε τοΓ? eWe- 
/30ί9 και τω ήττατι yiyveaOai των ττροστεθβντων, 

201 άνά{\Βοσιν Be ττάντη του σώματος καΐ πρόσθεσιν. 
el μεν ονν €7γΙ τούτοί<ϊ ευθέως το ζωον Χαμβάνοι 
τροφην, ev ω ττάΧιν ή <γαστηρ γ^ρόνω ττεττεί τε 
ταύτην καϊ αττοΧαΰεί προστιθξίσα ττάν εξ αυτής 
το χρτ/στόι/ τοΙς εαυτής γ^ιτώσι, τά μεν έντερα 
τεΧεως ομοιώσει τον ττροσφύντα 'χυμόν, ωσαύτως 
δε καΧ το ητταρ. εν οΧγ δε τω σώματι ττρόσφυσις 
των ττροστεθεντων της τροφής εσται μορίων, 
el δ' άσιτος άνα'γκάζοιτο μενειν η 'γαστηρ εν 
τούτψ τω 'χρόνω, παρά των εν μεσεντερίω τε καϊ 
ήττατι φΧεβών εΧξει την τροφην ου yap εζ αυτού 
ιγε του σώματος του ήττατος. Χεγω Be σώμα του 
ηττατος αύτην τε την ΙΒίαν αυτού σάρκα ττρώτην 
καϊ μάΧιστα, μετά δε τηνΒε καϊ των άηηείων 
εκαστον των κατ αυτό. τον μεν yap εν εκάστω 
των μορίων ηΒη ττεριεχ^όμενον 'χυμον ούκετ 
euXoyov άντισττάν ετερω μορίω καϊ μάΧισθ^ όταν 
ηΒη ττρόσφυσις η εξομοίωσις αυτού yiyvητaι. τον 
δ' εν ταΐς εύρνχωρίαις των φΧεβών το μαΧΧον 
Ισχύον θ* άμα καϊ Βεόμενον άντισιτα μόριον. 

202 0{5τω<? ούν καϊ ή yaστηp εν || φ χρόνω Βεΐταί 
μεν αυτή τροφής, εσθίει δ' ούΒέττω το ζωον, εν 
τούτω των κατά το ^τταρ εξαρττάζεί φΧεβών. 
έττεϊ δε καϊ τον σττΧήνα Βιά των έμπροσθεν 
εΒείκνυμεν όσον εν ηττατι τταχύτερον εΧκοντα 

* That is, among the ultimate tissuci or cells. 


the stage of receiving nourishment ; it now entirely 
assimilates everything that had become adherent to 
it : at the same time in the intestines and liver there 
takes place adhesion of what had been before 
presented, while dispersal [anadosis] is taking place 
to all parts of the body,^ as also presentation. 
Now, if the animal takes food immediately after 
these [three stages] then, during the time that the 
stomach is again digesting and getting the benefit 
of this by presenting all the useful part of it to 
its own coats, the intestines will be engaged in final 
assimilation of the juices which have adhered to 
them, and so also will the liver : while in the varioui 
parts of the body there vriW be taking place adhesion 
of the portions of nutriment presented. And if the 
stomach is forced to remain without food during this 
time, it will draΛV its nutriment from the veins in 
the mesentery• and liver ; for it will not do so from 
the actual body of the liver (by bodt/ of the liver I 
mean first and foremost its flesh proper, and after 
this all the vessels contained in it), for it is irrational 
to suppose that one part would draw away from 
another part the juice already contained in it, 
especially \vhen adhesion and final assimilation of 
that juice were already taking place; the juice, 
however, that is in the cavity of the veins wi+l be 
abstracted by the part Avhich is stronger and more in 

It is in this way, therefore, that the stomach, 
when it is in need of nourishment and the animal 
has nothing to eat, seizes it from the veins in the 
liver. Also in the case of the spleen we have shown 
in a former passage - how it draws all material from 

• Pp. 205-9. 



κατερΎαζεσθαί re καϊ μεταβάΧΧζΐν έττϊ το χρψ 
στοτερον, oiihev ούδ' βντανθα θαυμαστού εΧκεσθαί 
η κακ του σττΧηνος ec<i βκαστον των κοινωνούν- 
των αντω kutcl τας φΧέβας οργάνων, οίον eU 
έττίττΧοον καϊ μεσεντίριον καΐ Xctttov evTcpov καϊ 
κωΚον καϊ αύτην την <γαστερα' κατά Be τον αυτόν 
τροτΓον e^epevyeaOai μίν et? την 'yacTepa το 
7Γ€ρίττωμα καθ' eTepov -χ^ρόνον, αυτόν δ' αυθί<} 
€κ της Ύαστροζ βΧκβιν τι τή<; οίκ€ία<ζ τροφής iv 
βτερω καιρώ. 

Κ,αθόΧου δ' βίττβίν, ο καϊ ττρόσθεν η8η ΧέΧεκται, 
ττάν €κ τταντο'ζ eXKetv re καϊ ττβμττειν ζγχ^ωρεΐ 
κατά 8ιαφ€ροντα<; 'χρόνους, ομοιότατου ηι^νομενου 
του συμβαίνοντος, ώς el καϊ ξωα νοήσαις ττοΧΧα 
τροφην άφθονον iv κοινω κατακειμίνην, eU όσον 
βούΧεται, ττροσφερόμβνα. καθ' ον ηαρ η8η iri- 
ττανται χρονον eTepa, κατά τούτον εΙκος έσθίειν 
203 eTepa, και μeXXeιv ye τα μεν || τταύεσθαι, τα δ' 
αρχ€σθαι, και τίνα μεν συveσθίovτa, τα δ' άνα 
μέρος εσθίοντα καϊ vcd μα Αία ye το έτερον άρττά- 
ζειν θατερου ττοΧΧάκις, el το μεν έτερον ετΓίΒεοιτο, 
τω δ' άφθόνως τταρακίοιτο. καϊ ούτως ούΒεν 
θαυμαστον οΰτ εκ της εσχάτης επιφανείας εϊσω 
τι ττάΧιν ύττοστρεφειν οΰτε 8ια των αυτών ay- 
yείωv εΙς ηττατός τε καϊ σττΧηνος εΙς κοιΧιαν 
άνενεχθήναί τι, Βι* ών εκ ταύτης εΙς εκείνα 
ττρότερον άνηνεχθη. 

Κατά μεν yap τάς αρτηρίας ίκανως εvapyες το 
τοιούτον, ωσττερ καϊ κατά την καρΒίαν τε καϊ τον 
θώρακα καΧ τον πνεύμονα, τούτων yap απάντων 
ΒιαστεΧΧομ^νων τε καϊ συστεΧΧομενων εναΧΧάξ 
avayKaiov, εξ ών είΧκύσθη τι πρότερον, eh ταΰθ' 



the liver that tends to be thick^ and by working it 
up converts it into more useful matter. There is 
nothing surprising, therefore, if, in the present 
instance also, some of this should be drawn from the 
spleen into such organs as communicate Λvith it by 
veins, e.g. the omentum, mesentery, small intestine, 
colon, and the stomach itself. Nor is it surprising 
that the spleen should disgorge its surplus matters 
into the stomach at one time, while at another time 
it should draw some of its appropriate nutriment from 
the stomach. 

For, as has already been said, speaking generally, 
everything has the power at different times of 
attracting from and of adding to everything else. 
What happens is just as if you might imagine a 
number of animals helping themselves at will to a 
plentiful common stock of food ; some will naturally 
be eating when others have stopped, some will be on 
the point of stopping when others are beginning, 
some eating together, and others in succession. Yes, 
by Zeus ! and one will often be plundering another, 
if he be in need while the other has an abundant 
supply ready to hand. Thus it is in no way surprising 
that matter should make its way back from the 
outer surface of the body to the interior, or should 
be carried from the liver and spleen into the stomach 
by the same vessels by which it was carried in the 
averse direction. 

In the case of the arteries^ this is clear enough, as 
also in the case of heart, thorax, and lungs ; for, 
since all of these dilate and contract alternately, 
it must needs be that matter is subsequently dis- 
charged back into the parts from which it was 

' By this term, of course, the air-passages are also meant ; 
c/. p. 305. 213 


νστβρορ ίκττβμττβσθαι. και ταντην άρα την avay- 
κην η φύσις ττρο-γΐΎνώσκουσα τοις iv rfj καρδία 
στόμασί των ayyeloav υμένας έττέφυσβ κω\ύ- 
σοντας βίς τούττίσω ^φέρεσθαι τας νΧας. αλλ' 
δττως μεν τούτο 'yLyveTai και καθ" οντινα τρόττον, 
iv τοις ττβρί 'χρβίας μορίων είρησεται 8εικνύντων 
ημών τά τ άΧλα καΐ ως άΒύνατον όντως ακριβώς 
204 κΧείεσθαι τα στόματα τών αγγείων, ώ? || μηΒεν 
τταΧιν^φομβΐν. εις μεν yap την άρτηρίαν την 
φΧεβώΒη, καΐ yap καΐ τοντ iv βκείνοις 8ει\θή- 
σεται, ττολυ ττΧέον ή δίά τών αλ,Χων στομάτων 
εις τούττίσω τταΚιν avayKalov i^ΓavepγeσΘaL. το 
δ' βίς τα παρόντα γ^ρησιμον, ώς ούκ ενδέχεται τι 
τών αίσθητην καΐ μεyά\ηv ε-^φντων ευρύτητα 
μη ούκ ήτοι ΒιαστεΧλομενον εΧκειν e^ άττάντων 
τών πΧησίον η εκθΧίβειν αύθις εις ταύτα συ- 
στεΧΧόμενον εκ τε τών ήΒη ττροειρη μένων iv τωΒε 
τω λόγω σαφές αν εϊη κάξ ών Ερασίστρατος τε 
καΐ ημεί^ έτέρωθι ττερί της ττρος το κενούμενον 
άκοΧουθίας εΒείξαμεν. 


Άλλα μην κοί ώς εν έκάσττ) τών αρτηριών 
εστί τις Βύναμις εκ της καρΒίας εττιρρέουσα, καθ^ 
ην ΒιαστέΧΧονταί τε καΐ συστεΧΧονται, ΒέΒεικται 
Βι ετέρων, 

Κϊττερ υνν συνθείης άμφω τό τε ταντην είναι 
την κίνησιν αύταΐς τό τε τταν το ΒιαστεΧΧόμενον 

1 cf. ρ. 34, note ι. ^ ^./, ρ. 121, note 4. 

' Pulmonarj' vein, or rather, left auricle. Oalen means % 
reflux through the mitral orifice ; the left auricle was looked 



previously drawn. Now Nature foresaw this ne- 
cessity,^ and provided the cardiac openings of the 
vessels with membranous attachments,- to prevent 
their contents from being carried backwards. How 
and in what manner this takes place will be stated 
in my Λvork " On the Use of Parts," where among 
other things I show that it is impossible for the 
openings of the vessels to be closed so accurately 
that nothing at all can run back. Thus it is in- 
evitable that the reflux into the venous aitei-y ^ (as 
Λνϋΐ also be made clear in the work mentioned) 
should be much greater than through the other 
openings. But Avhat it is important for our present 
purpose to recognise is that every thing possessing a 
large and appreciable cavity must, when it dilates, 
abstract matter from all its neighbours, and, when it 
contracts, must squeeze matter back into them. 
This should all be clear from what has already been 
said in this treatise and from what Erasistratus and I 
myself have demonstrated elsewhere respecting the 
tendency of a vacuum to become refilled.* 


And further, it has been sho\vn in other treatises 
that all the arteries possess a power which derives 
from the heart, and by virtue of which they dilate 
and contract. 

Put together, therefore, the two facts — that the 
arteries have this motion, and that everything, when 

on rather as the termination of the pulmonary veins than as 
a part of the heart, cf. p. .^2:^, note 4 He speaks here of a 
kinil of " physiological" mitral incompetence. 
* Horror vacuL 


e\.K€tv €K των ιτλησίον eh eavro, θαυμαστον 
ovhev σοι φανεΐται τάς αρτηρίας, οσαι μβν βίς το 
δέρμα ττζραίνουσιν αυτών, εττισιτάσθαι τον e^wOev 
αέρα 8ίαστ€\\ομένας, οσαι 8e κατά τι ττρος τά<ϊ II 

205 φΧέβας άνβστόμωνται, το Χετττότατον iv αύταΐς 
καΐ άτμωδέστατον βτΓίσνάσθαι του αίματος, οσαι 
δ έ'γ'γύς της καρδίας βίσίν, έζ αυτής έκβίνης ττοιβΐ- 
σθαι την ολκήν. iv yap Trj ττρος το κενοΰμενον 
άκοΧουβια το κουφότατόν τ€ καΐ Χετττότατον 
βττεται ττρωτον του βαρύτερου τε και τταχυτέρου• 
κουφότατόν δ' εστί. και Χβπτότατον άττάντων των 
κατά το σώμα ττρώτον μέν το ττνβΰμα, Βεύτβρον 
δ' ό ατμός, έπι τούτω δε τρίτον, όσον αν ακριβώς 
^ κατ€ΐρ'γασμένον τε καΐ ΧβΧετττυσ μένον αίμα. 

Ύαΰτ ουν εΙς έαυτάς ελκουσιν αϊ άρτηρίαι 
ττανταγ^όθεν, αΐ μεν €ΐς το δέρμα καθηκουσαι τον 
έξωθεν αέρα• τιΧησίον τε yap αύταΐς οΰτός εστί 
και κουφότατος εν τοις μάλιστα• τών δ' άΧλων 
ή μεν eVt τον τράχηΧον εκ της καρύίας ανιούσα 
καΐ ή κατά ράχ^ιν, ή8η 8ε καΐ οσαι τούτων εγγυ? 
εξ αυτής μάΧιστα της καρδίας' οσαι 8ε και της 
καρδίας ττορρωτέρω καΐ τοΰ δέρματος, ελκειν 
ταύταις άναγκαΐον εκ τών φΧεβών το κουφό- 
τατόν τοΰ αίματος' ώστε και τών εις την γαστέρα 
τε καΐ τα έντερα καθηκουσών αρτηριών την 
όΧκην εν τω διαστέΧΧεσθαι ^ί^νεσθαι τταρά τε 

•206 της \\ καρδίας αυτής καϊ τών παρακειμένων αυτή 
φΧεβών τταμττόΧΧων ούσών. ου yap δή εκ yε τών 
εντέρων καϊ τής κοιΧίας τροφην ούτω ττα'χεϊάν τ ε 
κα\ βαρεΐαν εν έαυτοΐς ε'χ^όντων δύνανται τι 
μεταΧαμβάνειν, 6 τι καϊ άξιον Xoyoυ, φθάνουσαι 
ττΧηροΰσθαι τοις κυυφοτέροις. ούδε yap ει καθείς 


it dilates, draws neighbouring matter into itself — and 
you will find nothing strange in the fact that those 
arteries which reach the skin draw in the outer air 
when they dilate, while those which anastomose at 
any point with the veins attract the thinnest and 
most vaporous part of the blood which these contain, 
and as for those arteries which are near the heart, 
it is on the heart itself that they exert their traction. 
For, by virtue of the tendency by which a vacuum 
becomes refilled, the lightest and thinnest part obeys 
the tendency before that which is heavier and 
thicker. ΧοΛν the lightest and thinnest of anything 
in the body is firstly pneuma, secondly vapour, and 
in the third place that part of the blood which has 
been accurately elaborated and refined. 

These, then, are what the arteries draw into 
themselves on every side ; those arteries \vhich 
reach the skin draw in the outer air^ (this being- 
near them and one of the lightest of things) ; as 
to the other arteries, those which pass up from the 
heart into the neck, and that which lies along the 
spine, as also such arteries as are near these — draw 
mostly from tlie heart itself; and those which are 
further from the heart and skin necessarily draw the 
lightest part of the blood out of the veins. So also 
the traction exercised by the diastole of the arteries 
which go to the stomach and intestines takes place 
at the expense of the heart itself and the numerous 
veins in its neighbourhood ; for these arteries cannot 
get anything worth speaking of from the thick 
heavy nutriment contained in the intestines and 
stomach,'^ since they first become filled with lighter 
elements. For if you let down a tube into a vessel 

» ς/•, p. 305, note * « c/. p. 308, note 1, 


αυΧίσκον eh άγγβΐον {/δατο9 Τ€ καΐ ψάμμον ττΧηρες 
ίττίσττάσαιο τω στοματι τον έκ του αύΧίσκον 
άβρα, huvaiT αν άκοΧονθησαί σοι ττρο του ΰοατος 
ή -ψ-ά/Λ/χ,ος• ael yap iv T-rj ττρος το κενούμενον 
άκοΧουθία το κουφότ€ρον eireraL ττρότερον. 


Οΰκουν χρη θανμάζζΐν, et τται^τελω? oXiyov €κ 
τή<; κοιΧία<ί, όσον αν άκριίΒω^ y κατει pyaa μίνον, 
669 τα? άρτ7}ρία<; irapayLyveTai φθανούσας ττΧη- 
ροϋσθαί των κουφότερων, αλλ' εκείνο ^ι^νώσκειν, 
ώ? δι/' εστόν 6Χκή<ς είδη, το μεν ττ) Trpo<i το 
κενούμενον άκοΧουθία, το δ' οίκειότητι 7Γοιότητο<; 
yiyvopevov ετέρω<; μεν yap εις τά? φύσας 6 άηρ, 
ετέρως δ' ό σίδηρος υττο της ήρακΧείας ετηστταται 
Χίθου' και ως η μεν προς το κενούμενον άκο- 
207 Χονθία II το κυνφότερον εΧκει ττρότερον, η Βε 
κατά την της ποιότητος οικειότητα ποΧΧάκις, 
ει ούτως έτυχε, το βαρύτερον, αν ττ) φύσει συy- 
yeι'eστεpov ύπάρχη. και τοίνυν καϊ ταΐς άρτη- 
ρίαις τε καϊ τη καρδία, ώς μεν κοίΧοις τε καϊ 
διαστέΧΧεσθαι δυναμενυις όpyάvoις, άεΐ το κου- 
φότερον άκοΧουθει πρότερον, ώς δε τρεφεσθαι 
δεομενοις, εις αυτούς τους χιτώνας, ο'ί δη τά 
σώματα των οργάνων είσίν, εΧκεται το οίκεΐον. 
όσον αν ουν εις την κοιΧότητα διαστεΧΧο μένων 
αυτών αίματος μεταΧηφθη, τούτου το οίκειότατόν 

* The "mechanical" principle of Aorror ι•αο?£ί contrasted 
with the "phj'sical" or semi-physiological principle of 
specific attraction. Approjiriateness here might altnoet be 
rendered afinity or kinship, cf, note 2, Mf^re. 



full of water and sand, and suck the air out of the 
tube with your mouth, the sand cannot come up to 
you before the \vater, for in accordance with the 
principle of the refilling of a vacuum the lighter 
matter is ahvays the first to succeed to the evacua- 


It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that only 
a very little [nutrient matter] such, namely, as has 
been accurately elaborated — gets from the stomach 
into the arteries, since these first become filled 
with lighter matter. We must understand that Ihere 
are two kinds of aliraction, that by which a vacuum 
becomes refilled and that caused by approj)riateness 
of quality;^ air is drawn into bellows in one way, and 
iron by the lodestone in another. And Λνε must also 
understand that the traction which results from 
evacuation acts primarily on Λvhat is light, whilst 
that from appropriateness of quality acts frequently, 
it may be, on what is heavier (if this should be 
naturally more nearly related"^). Therefore, in the 
case of the heart and the arteries, it is in so far as 
they are hollow organs, capable of diastole, that they 
always attract the lighter matter first, while, in so 
far as they require nourishment, it is actually into 
tlieir coals (wiiich are the real bodies of these organs) 
that the appropriate matter is drawn. ^ Of the blood, 
then, which is taken into their cavities when they 
dilate, that part which is most proper to them and 

- " Related." "akin." cf. p. 36, note 2. 
^ The coats exercise the vital traction, the cavities the 
merely nuchanicoL cf. p. 1G5, note 2. 


re και μάλιστα τρύφειν 8υνάμ€νον οι' χιτώνβς 
αυτοί των αγγείων ετΓίσττωνται. 

Ύοΰ δ' €κ των φΧεβών e/f τά? αρτηρίας μβτα- 
Χαμβάνβσθαί τι ττρος τοις είρημίνας ίκανον καΐ 
τοντό γε τ€κμι]ριον. el ττοΧλας καΐ /^εγάλα? 
αρτηρίας Βιατβμών άττοκτβΐναι το ζωον βου- 
Χηθβίης, εύρήσεις αυτού τας φΧββας ομοίως ταΐς 
άρτηρίαις έκκενουμένας, ουκ αν τούτου ττοτε 
ιγβνομένου χωρίς των ττρος £ίλλί^λα9 αύταΐς 
αναστομώσεων, ωσαύτως Be και κατ αύτην την 
καρΒίαν Ικ τΐβ Βεξιάς κοιλίας εις την άριστεραν 
208 €λκ€ται το λ€τττό\\τατον έχοντος τίνα τρήματα 
του μέσου ΒιαφραΎματος αυτών, α μέχρι μεν 
Ίτλείστου Βυνατόν εστίν ιΒεΐν, οίον βαθύνουν τινας 
εζ ευρύτερου στόματος άεΐ και μάλλον εις στενό- 
τερον ττροϊόντας. ου μην αυτά ye τα έσχατα 
•πέρατα Βυνατον ετι θεάσασθαι Βιά τε σμικρότητα 
και ΟΤΙ τεθνεώτος ηΒη του ζώου κατέψυκταί τε 
καΐ ττεττύκνωται ττάντα. αλλ' 6 λόγο? κάνταύθα 
ττρώτον μεν εκ του μηΒεν ίιττο της φύσεως 
'γί'γνεσθαι μάτην ορμώμενος εξευρίσκει τας 
αναστομώσεις ταύτας των κοιλιών της καρΒίας' 
ου yap Β η εικγί γε και ώς ετυχεν οι ες στενον οΰτω 
τελευτώι^τες ε^ενοντο βοθυνοι. 

δεύτερον Βε κάκ του Βυοΐν οντοιν στομάτοιν εν 
τη Βεζια της καρΒίας κοιλία του μεν είσά^οντος 
το αίμα, του δ' εζά^οντος ττολύ μείζον είναι το 
εισά^ον. ώς yap ου παντός του α'ίματος, 'όσον η 
κοίλη φλεψ ΒίΒωσι τί} καρΒία, ττάλιν εξ εκείνης 

* Chap. xiv. 

' These f'osnae were probably the recesses between the 
columnat cameae. * On logos cf. p. 226, note 2. 



most able to afford nourishment is attracted by their 
actual coats. 

Now, apart from what has been said,^ the following 
is sufficient proof that something is taken over from 
the veins into the arteries. If you will kill an animal 
by cutting through a number of its large arteries, you 
will find the veins becoming empty along with the 
arteries : now, this could never occur if there were 
not anastomoses between them. Similarly, also, in 
the heart itself, the thinnest portion of the blood is 
drawn from the right ventricle into the left, owing 
to there being perforations in the septum between 
them : these can be seen for a great part [of thei»• 
length] ; they are like a kind of fossae [pits] with 
wide mouths, and they get constantly narrower; it 
is not possible, however, actually to observe their 
extreme terminations, owing both to the smallness 
of these and to the fact that when the animal is dead 
all the parts are chilled and shrunken.^ Here, too, 
however, our argument,^ starting from the principle 
that nothing is done by Nature in vain, discovers 
these anastomoses between the ventricles of the 
heart ; for it could not be at random and by chance 
that there occuiTcd fossae ending thus in narrow 

And secondly [the presence of these anastomoses 
has been assumed] from the fact that, of the two 
orifices in the right ventricle, the one conducting 
blood in and the other out, the former•* is much 
the larger. For, the fact that the insertion of 
the vena cava into the heart* is larger than the 

■* He means the tricuspid orifice, cf. p. 121, note 4. 
• The right auricle was looked on leas as a part of the 
heart than as an expansion or " insertion " of the vena cava. 



εκττεμτΓομίνου τω ττνεύμονι, μβίζων βστίν η αττο 
τη<ί κοί\η<; €49 αυτήν €μφυσις της €μφυομ€νης et? 

209 τον πνεύμονα φΧεβός. ovSe \\ yap τοΰτ βστιν 
eLTretv, ώς ε^αττανηθη τι του αίματος εις την αύτοΰ 
του σώματος της καρδίας θρέψιν. ίτέρα yap 
έστι φΧβψ ή εις εκείνο κατασχ^ιζομενη μήτε την 
yεvεσιv εκ της καρΒίας αυτής μήτε την του 
αίματος έχουσα μετά\η•\^ίν. ει Βε καΐ Βατταναταί 
η, αλλ' ου τοσούτον yε μείων εστίν η εις τον 
•πνεύμονα φ\εψ άyoυσa της εις την καρΒίαν 
εμφυομενης, όσον εΙκος εις την τροφην ανηΧώσθαι 
της καρδίας, αλλά ιτΚεον ττολλω. ΒήΧον ουν, 
ως εις την άριστεράν τι μεταΧαμβάνεται κοιΧίαν. 

Και yap ουν και των κατ εκείνην ayyείωv ΒυοΧν 
όντων εΧαττόν εστί ττολλω το εκ του ττνεύμονος εΙς 
αύτην εlσάyov το πνεύμα της εκφυομενης αρτηρίας 
της μεyάXης, άφ^ ης αΐ κατά το σώμα σύμπασαι 
πεφύκασιν, ώς αν μη μόνον εκ του πνεύμονας πνεύ- 
μα μεταΧαμβαΐ'ούσης αυτής, άΧΧα κάκ της Βεξιάς 
κοιΧίας αίμα Βια των ει ρη μένων αναστομώσεων. 

"Οτι δ' άμεινον ην τοις του σώματος μορίοις 
τοις μεν ύπο καθαρού και Χεπτοΰ και ατμώΒους 
αίματος τρέφεσθαι, τοις δ' υπο πα-χεος κάϊ 
ΘοΧερού καϊ ώς ούδ' ενταύθα τι παρεωραται ττ} 

210 φύσει, τής \\ περϊ χρείας μορίων πpayμaτείaς 
εστίν, ώστ ου χρη νύν ύπερ τούτων ετι Xέyειv, 

^ This " vein " (really the pulmonary artery) was supposed 
to be the channel by which the lungs received nutriment 
from the right heart, cf. p. 121, note 3. 

* The coronary vein. 

3 Galen's conclusion, of course, is, so far, correct, but he 
has substituted an imaginary direct communication between 
the ventricle• for the actual and more roundabout pulmonary 



vein which is inserted into the lungs ^ suggests 
that not all the blood >vhich the vena cava gives 
to the heart is driven away again from the heart 
to the lungs. Nor can it be said that any of the 
blood is expended in the nourishment of the actual 
body of the heart, since there is another vein^ 
which breaks up in it and which does not take its 
origin nor get its share of blood from the heart 
itself. And even if a certain amount is so expended, 
still the vein leading to the lungs is not to such a 
slight extent smaller than that inserted into the 
heart as to make it likely that the blood is used as 
nutriment for the heart : the disparity is much too 
great for such an explanation. It is, therefore, clear 
that something is taken over into the left ventricle.^ 

Moreover, of the two vessels connected with it, 
that which brings pneuma into it from the lungs * 
is much smaller than the great outgrowng artery ^ 
from which the arteries all over the body originate ; 
this Avould suggest that it not merely gets pneuma 
from the lungs, but that it also gets blood from the 
right ventricle through the anastomoses mentioned. 

Now it belongs to the treatise " On the Use of 
Parts " to shoΛv that it was best that some ])arts of 
the body should be nourished by pure, thin, and 
vaporous blood, and others by thick, turbid blood, 
and that in this matter also Nature lias overlooked 
nothing. Thus it is not desirable that these matters 
should be further discussed. Having mentioned, 

circulation, of whose existence he apparently had no idea. 
His views were eventually corrected by the R«nascenc< 
anatomists. «•/". Introduction, pp. xxii.-xxiii. 

* He means the left auricle, considered as the t«rminatiot 
of the pulmonary " arteries " ; c/. p. 314, note 3. 

' The aorta, its orifice being circular, appears bigger than 
the elit-like mitral orifice. 



αλλ,' ύτΓομνήσαντας, ώ? δυο εστον οΧκής εϊ^η, των 
μ€ν evpeiai•? όδοΖς iv τω ^αστέΧλεσθαι rfj ττ/οο? 
το Κΐνούμβνον άκοΧονθια την βΧξιν ττοιουμβνων, 
των δ' οίκείότητι ττοιότητος, βφεξής Xeyeiv, ώ? τα 
μβνπρότερα καΧ ττόρρωθεν βλκειν τι Βυναται, τα 
δβ hevTepa €κ των έγγντάτω μόνων. αυΚίσκον 
μεν 'yap οτί μηκιστον eh νδωρ 'ένβστί καθβντα 
ραΒίως άνασττάν eh το στόμα δί αυτού το vypov 
ου μην et γ' έττϊ ττΧίον άτταγάγοί? τ^? ήρακ\€ία^ 
Χίθου τον σίΒηρον η τού<{ ττυρούς του κεραμίου — 
καΐ yap καΐ τοιοντόν τι ττρόσθεν eXejeTO τταρά- 
Sei'yμa — δύΐ'αιτ αν ετί yeveadai τις οΧκη. 

Σαφέστατα δ' άι^ αύτο μάθοις eVt των iv τοϊ<; 
κητΓΟίς οχετών €Κ τούτων yap et? μεν τα τταρα- 
κείμενα κα\ ττΧησίον ατταντα ΒιαΒίΒοταί τι? ίκμάς, 
eh Be τα ττορρωτερω ττροσεΧθεΐν ούκετι Βύναται, 
καϊ δίά tout' άvayκάζovτaι ττολλοΐς οχετοΐς 
μικροί'; ατΓΟ του μεyάXoυ τετμημενοί<ί eh εκαστον 
μέρα του κήπου την εττίρρυσιν του ΰΒατο<; εττι- 
211 τεχνάσθαί' καϊ τηΧικαυτά ye τα \\ μεταξύ Βια- 
στηματα τούτων των μικρών 6-χετων ττοιοΰσιν, 
ηΧίκα μάΧιστα νομίζουσιν αρκείν eh το ίκανώ'ζ 
άτΓοΧαύειν εΧκοντα της εκατέρωθεν αύτοι? εττιρ- 
ρεούσης ύyp6τητo<ζ. ούτως οΰν εγει καν Toh των 
ζωών σώμασιν. άδετοι ττολλοί. κατα τταντα τα 
μεΧη Βιεστταρμενοι irapayouaiv auroh αίμα καθά- 
ττερ ev κηττοις ijBpeiav τινά. καϊ τούτων των 
οχετών τα μεταζν Βιαστηματα θαυμαστώς ύττο 
της φύσεως ευθύς εζ αρχής Βιατετακται ττρος το 
μητ ενΒεως χopηyεΐσθaι τοις μεταξύ μορίοις 
εΧκουσιν εh εαυτα το αίμα μήτε κατακΧύζεσθαί 



however, that there are two kinds of attraction, 
certain bodies exerting attraction along wide chan- 
nels during diastole (by virtue of the principle by 
which a vacuum becomes refilled) and others exert- 
ing it by virtue of their appropriateness of quality, 
we must next remark that the former bodies can 
attract even from a distance, while the latter can 
only do so from among things which are quite close 
to them ; the very longest tube let down into Avater 
can easily draAv up the liquid into the mouth, but 
if you withdraw iron to a distance froin the lodestone 
or corn from the jar (an instance of this kind has 
in fact been already given ^) no further attraction can 
take place. 

This you can observe most clearly in connection 
with garden condniU. For a certain amount of 
moisture is distributed from these into every part 
lying close at hand but it cannot reach those lying 
further off: therefore one has to arrange the flow of 
Avater into all parts of the garden by cutting a 
number of small channels leading from the large 
one. The intervening spaces between these small 
channels are made of such a size as will, presum- 
ably, best aWo-w them [the spaces] to satisfy their 
needs by drawing from the liquid which flows to 
them from every side. So also is it in the bodies of 
animals. Numerous conduits distributed through 
the various limbs bring them pure blood, much like 
the garden \vater-supply, and, further, the intervals 
between these conduits have been Avonderfully 
arranged by Nature from the outset so that the 
intervening parts should be plentifully provided for 
wiien absorbing blood, and that they should never 

> p. 87. 



ποτ' αυτά ττΧηθεί 7Γ€ριττή<; {τ/ρότητο9 άκαίρως 

Ό <γάρ Βη τ/?07Γ09 της θρεψβως αυτών TO'oaSe 
Tt9 εστί. τον συνβχοΟς εαυτω σώματα^;, olovirep 
το άττΧουν ayjeiov ^Ερασίστρατο^; ύττοτίθβται, τά 
pev €7η7Γο\ή<; μέρη ττρώτα της ομιΧούσης άττο- 
Xavei τροφής' έκ δε τούτων αΰ μεταλαμβάνει 
κατά το συνεχές εΚκοντα τα τούτων εξής, ειτ εξ 
εκείνων αύθις έτερα καϊ τοΰτ ου τταύεται yi- 
ηνόμενον, αχρις αν εις ατταντ αύτου Βιαδοθη τα 
μόρια της τρεφούσης ουσίας η ττοιότης. οσα δε 
212 των μορίων εττϊ ΊτΧεον || άΧΧοιουμενον Βεΐται τον 
μέΧΧοντος αυτά θρέψειν ■χυμού, τούτοις ωσττερ τι 
ταμιεΐον η φύσις παρεσκεύασεν ήτοι κοιΧιας η 
σηραηηας η τι ταΐς σηραηξιν avaXnyov. αι μεν 
yap σάρκες αϊ τε των σπXάyχvωv άττάντων αι τε 
των μυών εξ α'ίματος αυτού τρέφονται βραχεΐαν 
άΧΧοίωσιν Βεξαμενου. τά δ' οστά τταμποΧΧης εν 
τω μεταξύ Βεΐται της μεταβοΧής, 'ίνα τραφΐ), και 
εστίν οίονπερ το αίμα ταΐς σαρξι, τοιούτος ο 
μνεΧος τοις οστοΐς εν μεν τοις μικροΐς τε καΙ 
άκοιΧίοις κατά τάς σηpayyaς αυτών διεστταρ- 
μεΐ'ος, εν δε τοΙς μείζοσί τε και κοιΧίας εχουσιν εν 
εκείναις ηθροισμένος. 

'Ω,ς yap καϊ Βιά τον ττρώτου y ράμματος εΒεί- 
κνντο, τοις μεν όμοίαν εχουσι την ούσίαν εις 
άΧΧηΧα μεταβάΧΧειν εyχωpεΐ, τοις δε ττάμποΧυ 
Βιεστώσιν άμηγανον άΧΧήΧοις όμοιωθηναι χωρίς 
των εν μέσω μεταβοΧών. τοιούτον τι και τυΐς 

1 Or we may render it "corpuscle"; Galen practically 
means the cell. tf. p. 153, note 2. 



be deluged by a quantity of superfluous fluid running 
in at unsuitable times. 

For the way in which they obtain nourishment is 
somewhat as follows. In the body ^ which is continu- 
ous throu<ihout,such as Erasistratus supposes his simple 
vessel to be, it is the superficial parts which are the 
first to make use of the nutriment with Avhich they 
are brought into contact ; then the parts coming 
next draw their share from these by virtue of their 
contiguity; and again others from these; and this 
does not stop until the quality of the nutrient sub- 
stance has been distributed among all parts of the 
corpuscle in question. And for such parts as need 
the humour which is destined to nourish them to be 
altered still further. Nature has provided a kind of 
storehouse, either in the form of a central cavity or 
else as separate caverns, ^ or something analogous to 
caverns. Thus the flesh of the viscera and of the 
muscles is nourished from the blood directlv, this 
having undergone merely a slight alteration ; the 
bones, hoΛvever, in order to be nourished, require 
very great change, and Avhat blood is to flesh marrow 
is to bone ; in the case of the small bones, Λvhich 
do not possess central cavities, this marrow is dis- 
tributed in their caverns, Avliereas in the larger 
bones which do contain central cavities the marrow 
is all concentrated in these. 

For, as was pointed out in the first book,^ things 
having a similar substance can easily change into one 
another, whereas it is impossible for those Λvhich are 
very different to be assimilated to one another Avith- 
out intermediate stages. Such a one in respect to 

' ef. the term "cavernous tissue." 
•I. X. 



'χ^όνΒροις €στΙ το ττβρίκεχυμβνον μνξώ8ες καΐ rots 
συνΒ€σμοι<ί καΐ τοΐ<; νμβσι καΐ τοις νεύροις το 
ΊΓαρβστταρμβνον iv αυ~οΐ<ί vypov γλίσχροι/• €κα- 

213 στον yap || τούτων βξ ινών σύ^κβιται ττοΧλών, 
α'ίτΓβρ 6μοιομ€ρ€ί<; τ είσϊ και 6ντω<; αΙσθητα 
στοίγ^εΐα. κατά he τα9 μεταξύ 'χά)ρα<ζ αυτών ό 
οΙκειότατο<; et? θρβψιν τταρέστταρται. ■χνμό'ί, hv 
εϊΧκυσαν μεν εκ τών φΧεβών του α'ίματος, όσον 
οΙόν τ ην εκΧεξάμεναι τον εττίτηΒειότατον, εξ- 
ομοίονσι 8ε κατά βρα-χυ κα\ μεταβάΧλονσιν et9 
την εαυτών ούσι,αν. 

" Κιταντ ουν ταΰτα καΐ άλλϊ/λολ? 6μo\oyεΐ καΐ 
τοΐ<; εμττροσθεν ά7ΓoSε8eίyμεvoί<; Ικανώς μαρτυρεί 
καΐ ου χρη μηκύνειν ετι τον Xoyov εκ yap τών 
είρημενων ενεστιν εκάστω τα κατά μέρος ατταντα 
καθ^ οντινα yίyvετai τρόττον εζενρίσκειν ετοίμως, 
ωσττερ και 8ιά τι ττοΧλοϊς κωθωνιζομενοις ττάμ- 
ΤΓοΧυ τάχιστα μεν άνα8ίΒοται το ττοθέν, ούρεΐται 
δ' okiyou 8εΐν άτταν εντός ου ττοΧΧοΰ χρόνου, και 
yap κάνταΰθα Tjj τε της ττοιότητος οίκειοτητι καΐ 
τη της ύypότητoς Χετττότητι και τη τών άγγβίωι* 
τε καϊ τών κατ αυτά στομάτων εύρύτητι καΐ τη 
της εΧκτικής Βυνάμεως ευρωστία το τάχος συν- 
τελείται της αναβάσεως, τών μεν ττΧησιον της 
κοίΧίας τετayμevωv μορίων οίκειοτητι, ττοιοτη- 

214 τος II εαυτών ένεκα έΧκόντων το ττόμα, τών ύ 



cartilage is the myxoid substance which surrounds it, 
and in respect to ligaments, membranes, and nerves 
the viscous liquid dispersed inside them ; for each of 
these consists of numerous fibres, which are homo- 
geneous^ — in fact, actual sensible elements; and in the 
intervals between these fibres is dispersed the humour 
most suited for nutrition ; this they have drawn 
from the blood in the veins, choosing the most 
appropriate possible, and now they are assimilating 
it step by step and changing it into their own sub- 

All these considerations, then, agree with one 
another, and bear sufficient witness to the truth of 
what has been already demonstrated ; there is thus 
no need to prolong the discussion further. For, 
from what has been said, anyone can readily discover 
in what Avay all the particular [vital activities] come 
about. For instance, we could in this Avay ascertain 
why it is that in the case of many people Λvho are 
partaking freely of wine, the fluid Λvhich they have 
drunk is rapidly absorbed - through the body and 
almost the Λvhole of it is passed by the kidneys 
Avithin a very short time. For here, too, the rapidity 
with which the fluid is absorbed depends on appro- 
priateness of quality, on the thinness of the fluid, on 
the width of the vessels and their mouths, and on 
the efficiency of the attractive faculty. The parts 
situated near the alimentary canal, by virtue of their 
appropriateness of quality, draw in the imbibed food 
for their ΟΛνη purposes, then the parts next to them 

^ Lit. homoeomeroiis, i.e. " the same all through," of 
similar structure throughout, thee/enien /Λ of living matter, cf. 
p. 20, uote 3. and rf. also the " cell " of Erasistratus, p. 153. 

* " Delivered," " diepereed " ; c/. p. 13, note 5. 

Ν 329 


βξής τούτοις έζαρτταζόντων καΐ αυτών eh ίαυτλ 
κάττΕίτα των Εφεξής τταΚιν €Κ τούτων μεταΧαμ- 
βανοντων, α-χρις αν εΙς την κοίΧην άφίκηται 
φΧεβα, τούντεΰθ ev δ' ^δί; των νβφρων το oitceiov 
ετΓίσττωμένων. ώστ ovSev θανμαστον οίνον μεν 
ύΒατος άναΧαμβάνεσθαι Θάττον οίκειότητι ττοιό- 
τητος, αύτον 8ε τον οϊνον τον μεν Χευκον καΐ 
καθαρον ετοίμως άναΒίΒοσθαι 8ιά Χετττότητα, τον 
δ' αν μέΧανα καϊ ΘοΧερον ϊσ'χεσθαί τβ κατά την 
6Β6ν καϊ βραΒύνειν inro ττάγ^ους. 

ΕΙ'τ; δ' hv ταντα καϊ των vrrkp των αρτηριών 
έμπροσθεν είρημενων ου σμικρά μαρτύρια, τταν- 
ταχοΰ yap όσον οίκεΐόν τε καϊ Χετττον αίμα τον 
μη τοιούτου ράον εττεται τοις εΧκουσιν. άτμον 
ονν εΧκουσαι και ττνενμα καϊ Χετττον αίμα κατά 
τάς διαστάσεις αϊ άρτηρίαι των κατά την κοιΧίαν 
καϊ τά έντερα ττεριεγο μένων 'χυμών η ούδ* οΧως η 
τταντάττασιν ετησττώνται βραχύ. 



in their turn snatch it away, then those next again 
take it from these, until it reaches the vena cava, 
whence finally the kidneys attract that part of it 
which is proper to them. Thus it is in no way 
surprising that Λvine is taken up more rapidly than 
water, OΛv•ing to its appropriateness of quality, and, 
further, that the Avhite clear kind of Λvine is absorbed 
more rapidly owing to its thinness, while black turbid 
wine is checked on the way and retarded because 
of its thickness. 

These facts, also, will afford abundant proof of 
what has already been said about the arteries ; 
everywhere, in fact, such blood as is both specifically 
appropriate and at the same time thin in consist- 
ency answers more readily to their traction than 
does blood Λvhich is not so ; this is why the arteries 
which, in their diastole, absorb vapour, pneuma, and 
thin blood attract either none at all or very little of 
the juices contained in the stomach and intestines. 

Ν 2 331 




(.The nnmbers refer to the pa?e3 of the present editioa; fuller referent- 
will be found in the footnotes.) 

Abortifacient drugs, 285 

Abortion, 231. 285 

Absorption from digestive tract 
(r. AnadOsis) 

Acidity of urine. 245, 287 

Activity (function). 13 

Adhesion (prosphysis) of nutriment 
to tissues, 39 

Affinity. 33 

Alimentary canal, 119, 309 

coats of, 23. 263 

Allopathic treatment, 199 

Alteration (qualitative change), 
7, 9. 241, 251 

Anadosis (absorption from digestive 
tract), 63, 119 

Anaemia, 173 

Anasarca (dropsy), 41 

Anastomoses (communications be- 
tween arteries and veins), 321 

Anaxaaoras, " preformatioulst " 
doctrine of, 7 

Ancient writers, value of, 279 

Animal life, 3 

Animals (p. also HxMory, Natural) 

cold-blooded, 181 

long-neciced. 275 

Anorexia (want of appetite), 247 

Aorta (main artery of body), 143, 

Appetite, 249 

Aristotle. 9. et passim (r. also Peri- 
patetic School) 

Arrows, drugs for extracting beads 
of, 83 

"Art " of Nature (t.«. of the living 
organism). 57 

Arteries, structure of, 28Γ. 

to-and-fro motion in, 313 

attraction of air by, throngh 

skin, 317 

Artery, pulmonary, 121, 323 

Artificer, 133 

Asclepiades. 49, et passim 

Asepsis (absence of corruption), 201 

Assimilation, 33 

Asthenia (weakness), 239 

Atomist Scliool in Medicine, 45 

AtrabiUary (melanchohc) humour 

Attraction (c. also Horror vacui) 

physiological, 45 

magnetic, 73 

Auricle, left, of heart, 315 

right, of heart, 321 

Authority, value of, 279 
Aversion, 249 

Baking, 259 

Beauty, 47 

r-ile, yellow, 63, 123, 177, 191, 289 

'• vitelline," 209 

black, 203 (p. also ileianeholie 

Bile-passages, mechanical blocking 

of, 171 
Biliousness, 193 
Biology, repudiation of, by Atomist 

School, 45 
Bladder, urinary, 51, 53, et passim 

for bile (v. Gall-bladder) 

Blood-producUon, 17, 169, 133, 191, 

Boiling, 259 
Boils, 253 

Bone, structure of, 327 
Bone-marrow, 327 
Borlx)rygmi (gurglings) in stomach, 

Bread, constitution of, 11 
Bubo (swollen lymphatic glands in 

groin), 185 
Butchers (aa the primittv• anatom- 
ists). 51 



Cadaver (corpsi•), experiment on, 

Cartilage (gristle), 329 

Catarrh (mucous discharge), 215 

Cattle (as typifying " herd - moral- 
ity "), 47 

" Cell," of animal tissues, 153 

nutrition of, 327 

Change, qualitative (p. Alteration) 

Channels (o. Morphological hypo• 

Cheese-making, 91 

Childbirth, 231, 285 

Children's game, 28 

Chill. 171. 203 (0. also Cold) 

Cholagogues (drugs that di'aw off 
bile), 65 

Cholera, 299 

Chorion (membrane encloslnj; un- 
born child), 229 

Chrysippus, 9 

Chyle (emulsified contents of stom- 
ach), (p. Emulsification) 

Cirrhosis (induration) of liver, 171 

(Joats (tunics), 23 

Cold, action of, on slcin, 301 

Cold-in-the-head, 215 (p. also Chill) 

Colon (large intestine), 313 

Colour. 5 

Conception, of semen, 233 

Congius (measure), HI 

Contractions (v. Peristalsis) 

Cooking. 191 

Corn, attractive power of, 87 

Coryza (mucous discharge : now a 
"cold"), 215 

Crisis. 75 

Cyathus (measure), 65 

Decay, 7 

Deductive reasoning, 227 

Deglutition (swallowiug), 95, 261, 

265. 273 
Democritus, 153 
Deposits (in tissues). 297 
Desire (appetite), 249, 260 
Destruction (act of perisliing), 7 
Diaphragm (midriff), 255 
Diarrha-a, 247. 299 
Diet, 35, 179, 255 
Digestion, cause of, 243 

impairment of. 185, 217, 237 

Digestive tract, action on food, 251, 

et spq 
structure (v. Alimentary Canal) 

Diodes, 51 

Disease, definition of, 197 
Diseases, the four primary, 186 
Disjunctive argument, 167 
Distribution (diadosis) of nutriment 

to tissues, 163 
Dropsy, 41, 67, 171 
Drugs, 65, 285, 293 (p. also Poisons) 
Dyscrasia (abnormal blending of 

the four qualities), 189 
Dysentery, 205 
Dyspepsia (o. Indigettion) 

Education, 279 

Effect (product, work done), IS 

Emaciation, 161 

Emanations. 77 

Embryo, 229 

Emesis (β. Vomithig) 

Empiricist physicians, 69, 193 

Emulsilication, 239 

Epicurus, 71 

Epigastric muscles, 237 

Epispastic (attractive), 117 

Erasistratus. 95 

Erasistrateans, 105 

Etna, 259 

Eucrasia (proper blending of tl» 
four qualities), 189 

Evaporation, 51, 87. 251 

Experience {v. Empiricist phy- 

Expulsive faculty, 231 

Faculty (potentiality), 13 
Ea!ces (ordure from bowel), 255 
Fermentation. 209 
Fever as a cause of indigestion, 185 
Fibres. 329 

of blood, 215 

circular and longitudinal, 293 

oblique, 281 

Filtration, 91 

Fish, voraciousness of, 269 

Flavour, 5 

Fluxions. 297 

Foetus (unborn child), 233 

death of, 287 

rorced-fee<lins. 247 
Forces, materinl, 127, 301 
Function (activity), cause of, 197 

Gall-bladder. 147. 245 

absence of nerves in, 2S9 

Gardens, irrigation of, 325 



Qenesis (developmeDt of embryo), 19 

Germander (drug), 67 

Gestation (carrying of embryo by 

mother), 229 
Give-and-take between organs. 295 
Gravity (explaininK secretion of 

urine), 107 
Greediness, 271 
Growth, 27, 137 
Gullet, 263 

use of, by Btomach, 271 

function of its two coate, 273 

Gurgling in stomach, 237 

Habit of body, 69 

Haemorrhage, intestinal, 297 

Haemorrhoids (r. Pile*) 

Heartburn, 287 

Heat, innate, 41, 141. 1S5 

Hepatic veins (entering vena cava 

from liver), 147 
Herophilus, 233 
Hippocrates, 9, et passim 
Histogenesis (tissue-production), 21 
History, natural, 269 
HomoEomeries (similar parte), 169 
Homoeopathy, 199, Note 1 
Honey, 179, 191 
Horror vacui (" Nature's abhorrence 

of a vacuum "), 99, 155 
Humours, the four, origin of, 167, 

183, 209 
Hydragogues (drugs that draw 

water out of the system), 65 

Hens volvulus (obstruction of 

bowels), 299, 303 
Illusions, sensory, 7 
Indigestion, 185. 217, 237 
Inductive reasoning, 227 
Inflammation. 85. 233 
Interaction of any two bodies, 261 
Intestine, small. 255 
Intestines, structure of, 283 

movements of, 24S 

Icnia, 29 

Iron. 71 

Irrigation of garden! and tieraes, 


Jaundice, 179, 207 
Jejunum (part of small Inteetlne), 

Kidneys, 49, 80 

Labour (v. ChVdbirth) 

Larjmx (voice-box), involved ia 

swallowing, 265 
Leprosy, 41 
Leucippus, 153 
Lichen (a skin-disease), 253 
Liver, proper tissue of, 311 

transverse fissure of, 147 

induration of, 171 

—— give-and-take between it and 

stomach, 291 
Lodestone, 71 
Love, 47 
Lumen (internal cavity of a vessel), 

Lycus, 100 

3Iagneti3m, 71 

Marrow of bones, 827 

Mastication, 253 

Material forces, 127 

Medicine, taking of, 269 (r. also 

Melancholic (r. Atrabiliary) 

Membranes, foetal, 231, 285 (o. also 

Menander, 105 

Menodotus, 81 

Menstrual blood, 131, 171 

Metabolism, diseases of, 41 

Midwife, 235 

Miscarriage (p. Abortion) 

Molecules (of Asclepiades), 6S 

Morphological hypothesis of bile- 
secretion, 125, 147 

Motion, active and passive, 57 

Mouth, lining of, 261 

digestion in, 253 

Mucus, 203, 215 

Muscles, voluntary, 263 

" Nature," 2 ; its " Art," 67 

Nature-lore (p. Physiology) 

Nausea, 287 

" Nerve," 151, 272 

Nutriment, 41 

Nutrition, 31, 149 

Obstetric chair, 235 
Obstruction of bowels, 299, 303 
(Esophaguf< (r. Gullet) 
Omentum (an at>ron-iike fold of fat, 

overlying the intestine), 143, 255. 




Organism, unity of, 61 
Organs, nutrition of, 307 
Os uteri (moutii of womb), 229 
Ovum, hiuman, 135 
Oxidation, 211 
Oxygen (p. Pneuma) 

Pain, 287 

Parturition, 231 

Patliology, relation to Physiology, 
189, 287 

Peasants. 87 

Perch (i•. Fish) 

Peripatetic (Aristotelian) School, 

Peristalsis (contraction and dilata- 
tion), 97. 243, 263 

Peritoneum, 53 

Phidias, 129 

Philistion, 173 

Philotimus, 183 

Phlegm, 67, 201, 215 

Phlegmatic temperament, 193 

" Physiology," 139 

Piles. 171 

Plant-life, 8 

Plato, 173, 203, 215 

Plethora (congestion), 119 

Pneuma (as a vital principle), 153; 
(as oxygen), 187 

Poisons, action of, 251 

Porch, the (Stoic School), 146 

" Pores " (p. Channels) 

Portal vein, 147 

Potter's earth, 213 

Practitioner, 197 

Praxagoras, 51 

Praxiteles. 129 

" Preformationist " doctrine of 

Presentation (prosthesis) of nutri- 
ment to tissues, 39 

Prevention and Cure, 169 

Principles, tlie four fundamental 
{v. Qualities) 

Prodicus, 201 

Prolapse of uterus, 235 

Propulsive faculty. 231 

Prosphysis (p. Adhesion) 

Prosthesis (p. Presentation) 

Psyche, 3, 153 

Psychology, repudiation of, by 
Atomist School, 45 

Pulmonary artery, 121 

Pylorus (outlet of stomach), 239 

Pylorus, regurgitation through, 280 
Pyrrhonists (typical sceptics), 197 

Qualities, the four fundamental, 0, 

183, 259 
derivative, 21 

Relativity, 17 
Renal veins, 107 
Respiration, 175. 305 
Retentive faculty. 226 
Rhetoric, 97 

Safflower (drug), 67 
Saliva, action of, 253 
Seammony (drug), 67 
Schools.two contrasted, in Medicine, 

Scientist, 197 
Scorpions, 253 
Sculpture, 129 
Sectarianism, 55 
Sects, medical (p. School») 
Self-control. 47 
Self-education, 279 
Semen, 131, 233 
Sensation, 47 

Septum, perforated, between ven- 
tricles of heart, 321 
Serum (watery part of blood or 

milk), 91, 213 
Shaping (development of organs), 19 
Sieves, 91 
Skin-diseases, 253 (v. also Leprotj, 

and Lichens) 
Slaves. 103 
Sociability, 47 
Sophistry, 219, 279 
Sophists, 7 
Soul, 45 
Specific selection of nutriment by 

tissues (p. Attraction, phytic• 

Spermatic ducts, 57 
Spirit (p. Pneuma) 
Spleen, function and diseasesof, 205 

" uselessness " of, 143 

as an emunctory of the liver, 

Statues, 129 

Sting-ray (fish), bite of, 85 
Stoics, 15, 145 
Stomach, function of, 197, 237, 2M, 

coats of, 261 


Stonucfa, Independent habits of, 271 
give-and-take between it and 

liver, 291 
Stone in bladder, 51 
Strength, relative, of different 

organs, 293 
Substance, 9 
Superfluities (waste-substances), 35, 

Swallowing (». DegbUition) 
Symptoms, 13 
Synapse, 147 

Teeth, 253 

Temperament (crasis, mixture of 

elementary principles), 15, 139, 

Temperance, 47 
Theophrastus, 139 
Thorns, drugs for extracting, 83 
Tissues, development of, 21 
their action in producing 

humours, 179. 195 
Trachea (windpipe), 305 
Transference (passive motion), 7 
TraaspLration, 153 
Treatment, principles of, 199 
Tricuspid orifice of heart. 321 
Tubes, rigid, 119, 317, ΰ25 

Unity of organism, 61 

Ureters, 23, 51 

Urine, 51 

" Useless " organs (Erasietrstoe), 

Uterus (womb), 227 

Vacuum, tendency to refill (•. 

HorroT vacui) 
Valves of heart, 121, 315 
Vaporisation (c. Evaporation) 
Vegetable diet, 35, 179 
Vegetative life, 3 
Vein», structure of. 293 
" arterial " (r. Puimonarj/ 


coronary, 323 

hepatic, 147 

mesenteric. 293, 305 

portal, 147 

renal, 107, 143 

vena cava (cliief vein of body), 


collapse of, 1 19 

Ventricles of heart, commnnication 

between, 321 
Vipers. 85 

Vitalist School in Medicine, 45 
Vivisection, 59. 241, 273 
Voluntary motion, 3 
Volvulus (intestinal obstructton) 

299 303 
Vomiting, 241. 247, 267 
iacal, 299 

Waste-products (v. Superfluitiu) 

Whey (p. Serum) 

Wine, 209, 329 

Womb (r. Uterus) 

Wounds, 185 

WrestUng. 125 

Zeno, of Citiam, 








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Cicero : De Oratohe. E. W. Sutton and H. Rackham. 

2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 

Cicero : De Republica and De Leoibus. Clinton W. Keyes. 

(3rd Imp.) 
Cicero : De Senectute, De Amicitia, De Divinatione. 

W. A. Falconer. (Uh Imp.) 
Cicero : In Catilinam, Pro Murena, Pro Sulla, Pro 

Flacco. Louis E. Lord. (2nd Imp. revised.) 
Cicero : Letters to Atticus. E. O. Winstedt. 3 Vols. 

(Vol. I Gth Imp., Vols. II and III 3rd Imp.) 
Cicero : Letters to his Friends. W. Glynn Williams. 

3 Vols. (Vols. I and II 3rd Imp., Vol. Ill 2«d Imp. 
revised and enlarged.) 

Cicero : Philippics. W. C. A. Ker. (3rd Imp.) 

Cicero : Pro Ahchia, Post Reditum, De Domo, De Harus- 

picuM Responsis, Pro Plancio. N. H. Watts. (2nd Imp.) 
Cicero : Pro Caecina, Pro Lege Manilia, Pro Cluentio, 

Pro Rabirio. H. Grose Hodge. (3rd Imp.) 
Cicero : Pro Milone, In Pisonem, Pro Scauho, Pro 

Fonteio, Pro Rabirio Postumo, Pro Marcello, Pro 

LiGARio, Pro Rege Deiotaho. N. H. Watts. (2ftd 

Cicero : Pro Quinctio, Pro Roscio Amerino, Pro Roscio 

CoMOEDO, Contra J. H. Freese. (2wd Imp.) 
Cicero : Tusculan Disputations. J. E. King. (4iA Imp.) 
Cicero : Verrine Orations. L. H. G. Greenwood. 2 Vols. 

(Vol. I 2nd Imp.) 
Claudian. M. Piatnauer. 2 Vols. 
Columella : De Re Rustica. H. B. Ash. 2 Vols. Vol. I. 

Books I-IV. (2nd Imp.) 
CuRTius, Q. : History OF Alexander. J. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. 
Flohus. E. S. Forster ; and Cornelius Nepos. J. C. Rolfe. 

(2nd Imp.) 
Fhontinus : Stratagems and Aqueducts. C. E. Bennett 

and M. B. McElwain. (2nd Imp.) 
Fronto : Correspondence. C. R. Haines. 2 Vols. 
Gellius. 4. C. Rolfe. 3 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 


Horace: 0->r3 and Epooes. C. E. Bennett {ISth Imp. 

Horace : Satires, Epistles, Ahs Poetica. H, R. Fairclough. 

{Sth Imp. revised.) 
Jerome : Select Letters. F. A. Wright. 
JuvEKAL AND Persius. G. G. Ramiay. (7th Imp.) 
LivY. B. O. Foster, F. G. Moore, Evan T. Sage and A. C. 

Schlesinger. 13 Vols. Vols. Ι-ΧΠ. (Vol. Γ 3rd Imp., 

Vols. n-VH, ΙΧ-ΧΠ 2nd Imp. revised.) 
LucAN. J. D. DufF. (3rd Imp.) 
Lucretius. W. H. D. Rouse. (6th Imp. revised.) 
Martial. W. C. A. Ker. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 5/A /wjp.. Vol. Π 

4th Imp. revised.) 
Minor Latin Poets : from Puhlilius Sybus to Rutilius 

Namatianus, including Ghattius, Calpurnius Siculusu 

Nemesianus, Avianls, with " Aetna," " Phoenix " and 

other poems. J. Wight DufF and Arnold NL Duff. (2nd 

0\ΊΏ : The Art of Love and otheb Poems. J. H. Mozley. 

(3rd Imp.) 
Ovid : Fasti. Sir James G. Frazer. (2nd Imp.) 
Ovid: Hehoides AND Amohes. Grant Showerman. (ith Imp.) 
Ovid: Metamorphoses. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 

lOth Imp., Vol. Π Sth Imp.) 
Ovid : Tristia and Ex Povto. A. L. Wheeler. (2nd Imp.) 
Petronius. M. Heseltine ; Seneca : Apocoloctntosis. 

W. Η. D. Rouse. (8<A Imp. revised.) 
Plautus. Paul Nixon. 5 Vols. (Vols. I and Π Sth Imp., 

Vol. HI 4th Imp., Vols. I\' and V 2nd Imp.) 
Pliny : Letters. Melmoth's translation revised by 

W. M. L. Hutchinson. 2 Vols. (Vol. I Sth Imp., Vol. II 

4<A Imp.) 
Pliny : Natural History. H. Rackham and W. H. S. 

Jones. 10 Vols. Vols. I-V. (Vols. I-IV 2nd Imp.) 
Propertius. H. E. Butler. (Sth Imp.) 
Prudentius. H. J. Thomson. 2 Vols. Vol. I. 
Quintilian. H. E. Butler. 4 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Remain? of Old Latin. E. H. Warmington. 4 Vols. 

Vol. I (Ennius and Caecilius). Vol. II (Livius, Naevius, 

Pacuvius. Accius). Vol. Ill (Lucilius, Laws of the XII 

Tables). Vol. IV (Archaic Inscriptions). (Vol.IV2nd /twp.) 
Sallusi. J. C. RoHe. (3rd Imp. revised.) 


ScRiPTOBES HisTOHiAE AuGusTAE. D. Magie. 3 Vols. 

(Vol. I 2nd Imp. revised.) 
Seveca ; Apocolocyntosis. C/. Pethovius. 
Seneca : Epistulae Morales. R, M. Gummere. 3 Vols. 

(Vol. I 3rd Imp., Vols. II and III 2nd Imp. revised.) 
Seneca: Moral Essays. J. VV. Basore. 3 Vols. (Vol. II 

3rd Imp. revised. Vol. Ill 2nd Imp. revised.) 
Seneca: Tragedies. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 2rd 

Imp., Vol. II 2nd Imp. revised.) 
SiDONius : Poems and Letters. W. B. Anderson. 2 Vols. 

Vol. I. 
SiLius Italicus. J. D. Duff. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 2nd Imp., 

Vol. II 3rd Imp.) 
Statius. J. H. Mozlev. 2 Vols. 
Suetonius. J. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 7th Imp., Vol. II 

6th Imp.) 
Tacitus : Dialogus. Sir Wm. Peterson ; and Agbicola 

AND Gehmania. Maurice Mutton. {6th Imp.) 
Tacitus : Histories and Annals. C. H. Moore and J. 

Jackson. 4 Vols. (Vols. I and II 3rd Imp., \ ols. Ill and 

\\ 2nd Imp.) 
Terence. John Sargeaunt. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 6th Imp., Vol. 

II 5th Imp.) 
Tertullian : Apologia and De Spectaculis. T. R. Glover; 

MiNucius Felix. G. H. Rendall. 
Valerius Flaccus. J. H. Mozley. {2nd Imp. revised.) 
Varho : De Lingua Latina. li. G. Kent. 2 Vols. {2nd 

Imp. revised.) 
Velleius Paterculus AND Res Gestae Divi Acgusti. 

F. W. Shipley. 
Virgil. H. R. Fairclough. 2 Vols. (Vol. I Itth Imp., Vol. 

II \3th Imp. revised.) 
ViTRuvius : De Architectuba. F. Granger. 2 Vols. 

(Vol. 1 2nd Imp.) 


Achilles Tatius. S. Gaselee. {2nd Imp.) 
Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus and Onasandeb. Th« 
Illinois Greek Club. {2nd Imp.) 


Aeschikes. C. D. Adams. i2nd Imp.) 

Aeschylus. H. Weir Smyth. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 5(h Imp., 

Vol. II 4th Imp.) 
Alciphron, Aeliav and Philostratus : Lettehs. A. R. 

Banner and F. H. Fobes. 
Apollodobus. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vok. (2nd Imp.) 
Apollonius Rhodfus. R. C. Seaton. (4/A Imp.) 
The AporroLic Fathers. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. {7th Imp.) 
Apptax's ΙΙοΛίΑΚ History. Horace White. 4 Vols. (Vol. I 

3rd Imp., Vols. II, III and IV 2nd Imp.) 
Ahatus. C/. Callimachus. 
Abistophakes. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. (Vols. 

I and II 5th Imp., Vol. Ill 4th Imp.) Verse trans. 
Aristotle: Art of Rhetoric. J. H. Freese. (3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle : Athenian Constitution, Eudemian Ethics, 

Virtues and Vices. H. Rackham. (3rci Imp.) 
Ahistotlk: Generation of Animals. A. L. Peck. (2nd 

Aristotle : Metaphysics. H. Tredennick. 2 Vols. (3rd 

Aristotle : Minor Works. W. S. Hett. " On Colours," 

" On Things Heard," " Phj'siognomics," " On Plants," 

" On Marvellous Things Heard," " Mechan'cal Problems," 

" On Indivisible Lines," " Situations and Names of 

Winds," " On Melissus, Xenophanes, and Gorgias." 
Aristotle : Nicomachean Ethics. H. Rackham. (5th 

Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle : Oeconomica and Magna Moralia. G. C. 

Armstrong. (With Metaphysics, Vol. II.) (3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle : On the Heavens. W. K. C. Guthrie. (2nd 

Aristotle: On the Socl, Pahva Natuhalia, On Breath. 

W. S. Hett. (2nd Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle: Ohganon. H. P. Cooke and H. Tredennick. 

3 Vols. Vol. I. {2nd Imp.) 
Aristotle : Parts of Animals. A. L. Peck ; Motion Ajre 

Progression of .\nijial3. E. S. Forster. (2nd Imp.) 
Aristotle : Physics. Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. Corn- 
ford. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Aristotle; Poetics and Longinus. W. Hamilton Fyfe; 

Demetrius on Style. W. Rhys Roberts. (4th Imp. 



Aristotle : Politics. H. Rackham. (3rd Imp.) 
Aristotle : Problems. W. S. Hett. 2 Vols. (Vol. I Snd 

Imp. revised.) 
Aristotle : Rhetorica ad At-EXANDSUM. H. Rackham. 

(With Problems, Vol. II.) 
Arrian : History of Alexander and Indica. Rev. El. 

liiflFe Robson. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Athenaeus ; Deipnosophistae. C. B. Gulick. 7 Vols. 

(Vols. I, V and VI 2nd Imp.) 
St. Basil: Letters. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Callimachus and Lycophhon. a. W. Mair ; Ahatus. 

G. R. Mair. 
Clement of Alexandria. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. (2nd 



Daphnis and Chloe. C/. Longus. 

Demosthenes I : Olynthiacs, Philippics awd Minoh 

Orations : I-XVII and XX. J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes II : De Corona and De Falsa Leoatione. 

C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. (2nd Imp. revised.) 
Demosthenes III : Meidias, Androtion, Ahistocrates, 

Timocrates, Aristogeiton. J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes IV-VI : Private Orations and In Neaeram. 

A. T. Murray. (Vol. IV 2nd Imp.) 
Demosthenes VII : Funeral Speech, Erotic Essay, 

Exordia and Letters. N. VV. and N. J. DeWitt. 
Dio Cassius : Roman History. E. Cary. 9 Vols. (Vols. 

I and II 2nd Imp.) 
Dio Chrysostom. 5 Vols. Vols I and II. J. W. Cohoon. 

Vol. III. J. W. Cohoon and H. Lamar Crosby. Vols. IV 

and W H. Lamar Crosby. (Vols. I-III 2nd Imp.) 
DioDOHUs SicuLus. 12 Vols. \Ols. I-V. C. H. Oidfather. 

Vol. IX. Russel M. Geer. (Vols. I-III 2nd Imp.) 
Diogenes Laertius. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 4th 

Imp., Vol. 11 3rd Imp.) 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus : Roman Antiquities. Spel- 

man's translation revised by Ε, Cary. 7 Vols. (Vols. 

I-IV 2nd Imp.) 
Epictetus. VV. A. Oidfather. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 2nd Imp.) 
Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. (VoL I 7th Imp., Vols. 

I I-IV 6th Imp.) Verse trans. 
El'sebius : Ecclesiastical History. Kirsopp Lake and 


J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 2nd Imp., Vol. II 3rd 

Galzx: Om the Natchal Facultixs. A.J. Brock. (3rd Imp.) 
The Greek AKTHOLOor. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. (Vols. I 

and II 4<Λ Imp., VoLs. Ill and IV 3rd Imp.) 
The Greek Bucolic Poet3 (Theocritus, Bion, Moschus). 

J. M. Edmonds, {7th Imp. revised.) 
Greek Elegy and Iambus with the Akacbeoxtea. J. M. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 2nd Imp.) 
Greek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. 

(2nd Imp.) 
Herodes. C/. Theophrastus : Characters. 
Herodotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. (Vols. I-III 4<A7>n»., 

Vol. IV 3rd Imp.) 
Hesiod and the Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 

(Ith Imp. revised and enlarged.) 
Hippocrates and the Fragments of Hee itleitus. W. H. S. 

Jones and E, T. Withington. 4 Vols. (Vol. I 3rd Imp., 

Vols. II-IV 2nd Imp.) 
Homer : I mad. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. {6th Imp.) 
Homer : Odyssey. A. T. Murray. 2 Vok. {7th Imp.) 
IsAEus. E, S. Forster. (2«d Imp.) 

IsocRATEs. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 
St. John Damascene : Bahlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. G. R. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. (2nd Imp. revised.) 
JosEPHus. H. St. J. Thackerav and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 

Vols. I-VII. (Vols. I, V and VI 2nd Imp.) 
Julian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. (Vol. I 2nd Imp., 

Vol. II 3rd Imp.) 
LoNGus : Daphnis and Chloe. Thornley's translation 

revised by J. M. Edmonds ; and Fabthenius. S. Gaselee. 

(3rd Imp.) 
LuciAN. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. I-V. (Vols. I. II 

and IV 2nd Imp., Vol. Ill 3rd Imp.) 
Lycophhon. C/. Calijmachus. 
Lyra Gbaeca. J. M. ELdmonds. 3 Vols. (Vol. I 3rd Imp., 

Vol. II 2nd Ed. revised and enlarged. Vol. Ill 3rd Imp. 

Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. {2nd Imp.) 
Manetho. W. G. Waddell ; Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. F. E. 

Robbins. (2nd Imp.) 
Marcus Aubelius. C. R. Haines. (3rd Imp. revised.) 


Memandeb. F. G. Allinson. (2nd Imp. revised.) 

Minor Attic Obatous. 2 Vols. Vol. I (Antiphon, Ando- 

cides). K. J. Maidment. 
NoNNos : DioNYsiACA. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. (VoL 

III 2nd Imp.) 
Oppian, Colluthus, Tbyphiodobus. A. W. Mair. 
Papvri. Non-Litebaby Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. {Vol. I 2nd Imp.) Litera by Selections. 

Vol. I (Poetry). D. L. Page. (3rd Imp.) 


Pausanias : Descbiption op Gbeece. W. H. S. Jones. 5 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 

(Vols. I and III 2nd Imp.) 
Philo. 11 Vols. Vols, I-V. F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker ; Vols. VI-IX. F. H. Colson. (Vols. I, II, V, 

VI and VII 2nd Imp., Vol. IV Srd Imp. revised.) 
Philostratus : The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. {3rd Imp.) 
Philostratus : Imagines ; Callistbatus : Descbiptions. 

A. Fairbanks. 
Philostratus and Eunapius : Lives op the Sophists. 

Wilmer Cave Wright. {2nd Imp.) 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. (Tlh Imp. revised.) 
Plato I : Euthyphro, Apology, Cbito, Phaedo, Phaedbus. 

H. N. Fowler. (9/^ Imp.) 
Plato II: Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. {4th 

Plato III : Statesman, Philebus. H. N. Fowler ; Ion. 

W. R. M. Lamb. (4/A Imp.) 
Plato IV ! Laches, 1'rotagoras, Meno, Euthydebius. 

W. R. M. Lamb. {3rd Imp. revised.) 
Plato V : Lvsis, Symposium, Gobgias. W. R. M. Lamb. 

(4iA Imp. revised.) 
Plato \I: Cratylus, Parmenides, Gheateb Hippias, 

Lesser Hippias. H. N. Fow'er. {3rd Imp.) 
Plato VII : Timaeus, CRrriAS. Clitopho, iMenexenus, Epi- 

stulae. Rev. R. G. Bury. (Srd Imp.) 
Plato VIII: Charmides, Alciriades, Hippabchus, The 

Lovers, Theages, Minos and F.pinomis. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato : Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. i2nd Imp.) 
Plato ! Rfpublic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. (Voi. ί 4,th Imp., 

Vol. II 3rd Imp.) 



Plutarch: Mobalia. 14 Vols. Vols. I- V. F.C. Babbitt; 

Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold ; Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. (Vols. 

I, III and X 2nd Imp.) 
Plutarch: The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 

(Vols. I, II and λΙΙ iird Imp., Vols. III. IV, VI, VIII-XI 

2nd Imp.) 
PoLYBius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 
Phocopius : History of the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

(Vol. I 2nd Imp.) 
Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. C/. Manetho. 
QuiNTUS Smyrnaeus. a. S. Way. {2nd Imp.) \^erse trans. 
Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4• Vols. (Vols. I and 

III 2nd Imp.) 
Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 9th Imp., Vol. II 6th 

Imp.) Verse trans. 
Stbabo : Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. (Vols. I 

and VIII 3rd Imp., Vols. II, V and VI Ind Imp.) 
Theophrastus : Characters. J. M. Edmonds ; Hehodes, 

etc. A. D. Knox. (2nd Imp.) 
Theophrastus : Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort. 

2 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. (Vol. I 3rd Imp., Vols. 

II-IV 2nd Imp. revised.) 
Thyphiodorus. C/. Oppian. 
Xenophon : Cyropaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 

2nd Imp., Vol. II 3rd Imp.) 
Xenophon : Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Sympo- 
sium. C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. (Vols. I 

and III 3rd Imp., Vol. II 4<A Imp.) 
Xenophon : Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Mar- 
chant. (2nd Imp.) 
Xenophon : Schipta Minora. E. C. Marchant. {2nd Imp.) 



Aristotle : De Mundo, etc. D. Furley and E. S. Forster. 
Aristotle: History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 


Ahistotle : Meteorologica. H, D. P. Lee. 
Plotinus. a. H. Armstrong. 


St. Augustine : City of God. 

[Cicero :] Ad Herennium. H. Caplan. 

Cicero : Pro Sestio, In Vatinium, Pro Caelio, De Pbo- 

viNciis CoNSULARiBL's, Pho Balbo. J. H. Ffcese and R. 

Phaedkus and other Fabulists. B. E. Perry, 




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